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Encyclopedia > Grave accent
Diacritical marks

accent
A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation (ie. ...

acute accent ( ˊ )
double acute accent ( ˝ )
grave accent ( ˋ )

breve ( ˘ )
caron / háček ( ˇ )
cedilla ( ¸ )
circumflex ( ˆ )
diaeresis / umlaut ( ¨ )
dot ( · )
The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... This article is about the breve breve in music, see double whole note. ... č ď Ä› Ǩ Ľ Å™ Å¡ ž A caron ( ˇ ), also known as wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat or by the Czech name háček (pronounced ), is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it... č ď Ä› Ǩ Ľ Å™ Å¡ ž A caron ( ˇ ), also known as wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat or by the Czech name háček (pronounced ), is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (more commonly known as an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans, and other languages. ... Ä ä Ö ö Ãœ ü The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the middle dot (·), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ...

anunaasika ( ˙ )
anusvaara (  ̣ )

hook / dấu hỏi (  ̉ )
macron ( ˉ )
ogonek ( ˛ )
ring / kroužek ( ˚ )
rough breathing / spiritus asper (  ῾ )
smooth breathing / spiritus lenis (  ᾿ )
Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( मँ ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... A macron (from Gr. ... Ogonek (Polish for little tail; In Lithuanian it is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian (Ä…, Ä™, į, ų), Navajo and Western Apache (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, , ), Chiricahua and Mescalero (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, ų, ųų) and Tutchone. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ...

Marks sometimes used as diacritics

apostrophe ( )
bar ( | )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
hyphen ( ˗ )
tilde ( ˜ )
titlo (  ҃ )
An apostrophe An apostrophe (French, from the Greek αποστροφος προσωδια, the accent of elision) ( ’ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... A colon (:) is a punctuation mark, visually consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A hyphen ( -, or ‐ ) is a punctuation mark. ... A tilde. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ...

The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation (ie. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Polytonic orthography for Greek uses a variety of diacritics (πολύ = many + τόνος = accent) to represent aspects of Ancient Greek pronunciation. ... Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


The word grave is derived from the Latin gravis (heavy), itself a translation of the Greek barys (βαρύς). In English the word is normally pronounced "grahv" (IPA [ɡɹɑːv]), not like grave meaning serious or a tomb. It comes from French, where it is pronounced similarly: accent grave ([aksɑ̃ ɡʁav])). Latin is an ancient Indo-European language. ...

à À è È ì Ì ò Ò ù Ù

Contents


Height

The grave accent marks the height or openness of the vowels e and o in several Romance languages. In French, Italian and Catalan, it indicates that these vowels are open. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ...


In Catalan, the grave accent (or accent obert as it's called in this language) is used to mark both the stress and the distinct quality of certain stressed vowels, such as è [ɛ] versus é [e], or such as ò [ɔ] versus ó [o]. The letter a is the only one that takes the grave accent but not the acute, while i and u can only take the acute (accent tancat in Catalan). Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis given to certain syllables in a word. ...


In French, the grave accent has two uses. On the letter e it marks the distinct quality of the vowel: è [ɛ], and e [ə]. On the letters a and u it has no effect on pronunciation and only serves to distinguish homonyms that are otherwise spelled the same. In those French comic books which are hand-lettered all in capitals, the symbol is very short atop the E or U, but slides down on the right of the A, though not descending past the cross-bar.


In Italian, the grave, in addition to being used (see below) to indicate word stress (and this is its only possible function with a, i and u), with the two vowels e and o, that both represent two distinct vowel phonemes, also indicates the open pronunciation: è = [ɛ] (as opposed to é = [e]); ò = [ɔ] (as opposed to ó = [o]). See acute accent for examples and more information. In human language, a phoneme is a set of phones (speech sounds or sign elements) that are cognitively equivalent. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ...


Stress

The grave accent marks the stressed vowel of a word in Italian and Catalan. In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis given to certain syllables in a word. ... Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ...


In Italian, it marks stress, as in città ("city"), morì ("[he/she] died"), virtù ("virtue"), Mosè ("Moses"), portò ("[he/she] brought, carried"). Especially with capital letters, an apostrophe is sometimes used instead: thus E’ instead of È ("[he/she/it] is"); but this is considered (at least) inelegant and inaccurate. In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ... For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ...


In Norwegian (both bokmål and Nynorsk), the grave accent is used to indicate stress on a syllable that would otherwise be unstressed. This also differentiates between certain words, e.g. og ("and") and òg ("also"). Popular usage, possibly because Norwegian rarely uses diacritics, does not respect these rules much, and there is a certain interchangeability with the acute accent. BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (Neonorwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned written standards of the Norwegian language. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ...


Disambiguation

The grave accent is used to distinguish homophones in French, Italian and Catalan. Homonyms (in Greek homoios = identical and onoma = name) are words which have the same form (orthographic/phonetic) but unrelated meaning. ... Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ...


In Italian, for example, it distinguishes the conjunction e "and" from the verb è "(it) is".


In French, the grave accent on the letters a and u it has no effect on pronunciation and only serves to distinguish homonyms that are otherwise spelled the same. It distinguishes the preposition à ("to") and the verb a (present tense of avoir), as well as the adverb ("there") and the feminine definite article la; it is also used in the word déjà and the phrase çà et là ("hither and thither"; without the accent, it would literally mean "that and the"). It is used on the letter u only to distinguish ("where") and ou ("or"). Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ...


In Catalan, it is also used sometimes to distinguish words with different meanings but the same pronunciation (homophones): compare ma (my) and (hand). Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... Homonyms (in Greek homoios = identical and onoma = name) are words which have the same form (orthographic/phonetic) but unrelated meaning. ...


Length

In Welsh, the accent is used to denote a short vowel sound in a word which would otherwise be pronounced with a long vowel sound, for example mẁg ("a mug") versus mwg ("smoke"). Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ...


In Scottish Gaelic, it denotes a long vowel. Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


Tone

In some tonal languages such as Vietnamese and Mandarin Chinese, the grave accent is used to indicate a falling tone. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tone (linguistics). ... Mandarin, or Beifanghua (Chinese: 北方話; Pinyin: Běifānghuà; literally Northern Dialect(s)), or Guanhua (Traditional Chinese: 官話; Simplified Chinese: 官话; Pinyin: Guānhuà; literally official speech) is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ...


In African languages, the grave accent is often used to indicate a low tone, e.g. Nobiin jàkkàr 'fish-hook', Yoruba àgbọ̀n 'chin', Hausa màcè 'woman'. Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... Nobiin is a Northern Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan phylum. ... Yoruba (native name Yorùbá) is a dialect continuum of sub-Saharan Africa. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ...


Other uses

In Greek the grave accent occurs only on the last syllable of a word, in cases where the normal high pitch (indicated by an acute accent) was lowered in Ancient Greek because of a following word in the same sentence. It is used in the traditional polytonic orthography, but the monotonic orthography used for Modern Greek has replaced it with an acute accent. Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... Polytonic orthography for Greek uses a variety of diacritics (πολύ = many + τόνος = accent) to represent aspects of Ancient Greek pronunciation. ... Monotonic orthography is the simplified way for spelling modern Greek introduced in the 1980s. ...


In Portuguese, the grave accent indicates the contraction of two consecutive vowels in adjacent words (crasis). For example, instead of a aquela hora, one says and writes àquela hora "at that hour". Crasis is the contraction of a vowel or diphthong at the end of a word with a vowel or diphthong beginning the following word. ...


Use in English

The grave accent is used in English only in poetry and song lyrics. It indicates that a vowel usually silent is to be pronounced, in order to fit the rhythm or meter. Most often, it is applied to a word ending with -ed. For instance, the word looked is usually pronounced /lʊkt/ as a single syllable, with the e silent; when written as lookèd, the e is pronounced /ˈlʊkɪd/ (look-ed). It can also be used in this capacity to distinguish certain pairs of identically spelled words like the past tense of learn, learned /lɜː(r)nd/, from the adjective learnèd /ˈlɜː(r)nɪd/. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually describing it or making its meaning more specific. ...


Italics, with appropriate accents, are generally applied to foreign terms that are uncommonly used in or have not been assimilated into English: for example, vis-à-vis, pièce de résistance, crème brûlée. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up Vis-à-vis on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Vis-à-vis from the French language, literally face to face, is a type of carriage where the occupants face each other. ... Pièce de résistance is a French term (circa 1839), translated into English literally as piece of resistance, referring to the best part or feature of something (as in a meal), a showpiece, or highlight. ... Crème brûlée (French, burnt cream, pronounced (IPA) in English; in French) is a dessert consisting of a custard-like base whose sugar topping has been burnt into a delicate, glass-like caramelized layer. ...


Computer related

The ISO-8859-1 character encoding includes the letters à, è, ì, ò, ù, and their respective capital forms. Dozens more letters with the grave accent are available in Unicode. Unicode also provides the grave accent as a combining character. ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ...


In the ASCII character set the grave accent is encoded as character 96, hex 60. Outside the U.S. character 96 is often replaced by the local currency symbol. Many much older UK computers have the £ symbol as character 96. For other uses, see ASCII (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom Inflation rate 2. ...


On many computer keyboards, the grave accent occupies a key by itself, and is meant to be combined with vowels as a multi-key combination. However, programmers have used the key by itself for a number of tasks.


In many PC based computer games, the grave accent key is often used to open the console window, allowing the user to execute commands via a CLI. Screenshot of a sample Bash session, taken on Gentoo Linux. ...


When using TeX to typeset text, the grave accent on its own is used in lieu of a dedicated open-quote key. For example, ` becomes a single opening quote (‘) and `` becomes a double opening quote (“). Compared to algorithmic ‘quote education’ available in modern word processors, this method has the advantage of it becoming completely unambiguous (consider ‘the ’60s’ or the archaic ‘’twas’ – most modern word processors would incorrectly render these as ‘the ‘60s’ and ‘‘twas’, respectively). The primary disadvantage is that it requires the user to adjust to this style. , (IPA: ) written as TeX in plain text, is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ...


Many of the UNIX shells and the programming language Perl use pairs of this character—known as backquote or backtick—to indicate substitution of the standard output from one command into a line of text defining another command. A Unix shell, also called the command line, provides the traditional user interface for the Unix operating system. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine (often a computer). ... Perl, also Practical Extraction and Report Language (a backronym, see below) is a dynamic procedural programming language designed by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... The standard streams are a set of input and output channels featured in Unix and Unix-like operating systems, and provided by the standard I/O library (stdio. ...


In Lisp macro systems, the backquote character (called quasiquote in Scheme) introduces a quoted expression in which comma-substitution may occur. It is identical to the plain quote, except that symbols prefixed with a comma will be replaced with those symbols' values as variables. This is roughly analogous to the Unix shell's variable interpolation with $ inside double quotes. Lisp is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive fully-parenthesized syntax. ... ... Scheme is a multi-paradigm programming language and a dialect of Lisp which supports functional and procedural programming. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ...


In MySQL, it is used in queries as a table and database classifier. MySQL is a multithreaded, multi-user, SQL Database Management System (DBMS) with more than six million installations. ...


In the Python programming language, "backticks" are used as a synonym for the repr() function, which converts its argument to a string suitable for a programmer to view. However, this feature has been removed in the upcoming Python 3000. Backticks are also used extensively in the reStructuredText plain text markup language (implemented in the Python docutils package). Python is an interpreted programming language created by Guido van Rossum in 1990. ... Python 3, an interpreted programming language, is currently being developed by Guido van Rossum. ... reStructuredText is a lightweight markup language intended to be highly readable in source format. ...


In Pico, the backquote is used to indicate comments in the programming language. Pico is a programming language developed at the PROG lab at the Dutch-speaking Free University of Brussels (Vrije Universiteit Brussel, VUB). ...


In Verilog the grave accent is used to help define a size constant (for example, 2`b01). Accidental use of an apostrophe instead of a grave accent is one of the top five beginner mistakes in the language. Verilog is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems. ...


In Unlambda, the backquote character denotes function application. Unlambda is a minimal functional programming language based on combinatory logic, a version of the lambda calculus that omits the lambda operator. ...


External links

  • Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents
  • ASCII and Unicode quotation marks — "Please do not use the ASCII grave accent as a left quotation mark"
  • Keyboard Help - Learn how to create world language accent marks and other diacriticals on a computer

  Results from FactBites:
 
accent. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (319 words)
In writing, accent is also used to show syllable stress as in Spanish María (acute accent) and Italian pietà (grave accent).
Such written symbols, misleadingly termed accents, are often used only to signal specific pronunciation rather than stress, as in French élève.
The word accent in English is also understood to mean the pronunciation and speech patterns that are typical of a speech community; it also denotes the particular manner of uttered expression that lends a special shade of meaning, as when one speaks in harsh or gentle accents.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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