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Encyclopedia > Gratian
A coin of Gratian. The legend shows Gratian's titles, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, Dominus Noster Gratianus Pius Felix Augustus, "Our Lord Gratian, Pious and Serene Augustus
A coin of Gratian. The legend shows Gratian's titles, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, Dominus Noster Gratianus Pius Felix Augustus, "Our Lord Gratian, Pious and Serene Augustus

Flavius Gratianus Augustus (April 18/May 23, 359-August 25, 383), known as Gratian, was a Western Roman Emperor from 375 to 383. Image File history File links 158_Gratianus. ... Image File history File links 158_Gratianus. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... Events Battle of Amida: Shapur II of Persia conquers Amida from the Romans. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ... Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ...


He is important because he clearly favoured Christian religion against Paganism, refusing the traditional Pagan attributes of the emperors and removing the Altar of Victory from the Roman Senate. The Altar of Victory was located in the Roman Senate House (the Curia) bearing a gold statue of the goddess Victory. ... The Roman Senate (Latin, Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 510 BC, and the Roman Empire, which ended in the 6th century AD. The word Senatus is derived from the Latin word senex, meaning old man or elder. ...

Contents

Life

Gratian was the son of Emperor Valentinian I by Marina Severa, and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia. On August 4, 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus. On the death of Valentinian (November 17, 375), the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son (by a second wife Justina) emperor under the title of Valentinian II. Medallion of Valentinian I. Solidus minted by Valens in ca. ... Sremska Mitrovica (Сремска Митровица) is a city located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro at 44. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... Events First Listing of the New Testament by St Athanasius of Alexandria. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ...


Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Mediolanum. The division, however, was merely nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian. Gallic, derived from the name for the ancient Roman province of Gaul, describes the cultural traditions and national characters of the French speaking nations and regions, as Hispanic does for the Hispanophone world, Anglo-Saxon for the Anglophone, and Lusitanic for the Lusophone. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Illyricum was the Roman province established in place of the former kingdom of Illyria. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces ... Arcadius solidus, from Mediolanum mint, 400s. ...


The Eastern Roman Empire was under the rule of his uncle Valens. In May, 378 Gratian completely defeated the Lentienses, the southernmost branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria, near the site of the modern Colmar. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9. Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... Events Mid-February: Lentienses cross frozen Rhine, invading Roman Empire. ... The Lentienses (German Lentienser), were an alamannic Tribe, located in the region between the river Danube in the north, the river Iller in the west and the Lake Constance in the south in today’s south Germany. ... The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were an alliance of warbands formed from Germanic tribes, first mentioned by Dio Cassius when they fought Caracalla in 213. ... The battle of Argentovaria was fought in May 378 between the Roman emperor Gratian and the invading army of the Lentienses, at Argentovaria (near Colmar, France). ... Location within France coat of arms of Colmar Colmar is a town and commune in the Haut-Rhin département of Alsace, France. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Goths Commanders Valens† Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax Strength 15,000 to 30,000 ca. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ...


In the same year, the government of the Eastern Empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he promoted Theodosius I on January 19, 379 to govern that portion of the empire. Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Balkans of barbarians in the Gothic War (377–382). An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Balkan peninsula with northwest border Isonzo-Krka-Sava The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe. ... // The word barbarian generally refers to an uncivilized, uncultured person, either in a general reference to a member of a nation or ethnos perceived as having an inferior level of civilization, or in an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, insensitive person whose behavior is unacceptable in a civilized society. ... The Gothic War of 377-382 is a name given to a series of Gothic battles and plunderings of the eastern Roman Empire in the Balkans in the late 4th century. ...


For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success but gradually sank into indolence, occupying himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose of Milan. For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Merobaudes is the name of two Ancient Roman figures: Merobaudes, 4th century Frankish general and Roman consul Flavius Merobaudes, 5th century poet Category: ... For other people and things named Ambrose, see Ambrose (disambiguation) Saint Ambrose, (Latin: Sanctus Ambrosius; Italian: SantAmbrogio) (c. ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Milan (MI) Mayor Letizia Moratti Elevation 120 m Area 182 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 1,308,311  - Density 6,988/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Milanesi Dialing code 02 Postal code 20100 Patron St. ...


By taking into his personal service a body of Alani, and appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, he aroused the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops. A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army. Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the rebel generals, Andragathius, and assassinated on August 25, 383. The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Soldiers of the Roman Army (on manoeuvres in Nashville, Tennessee) Rome was a militarized state whose history was often closely entwined with its military history over the 1228 years that the Roman state is traditionally said to have existed. ... Magnus Maximus. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC For Gaul after the Roman conquest, see Roman Gaul Gaul (Latin Gallia) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the... Part of the Paris skyline with from left to right: Montparnasse Tower, Eiffel Tower, and in the background, towers of neighboring La Défense. ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Arpitan: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Rhône-Alpes Département Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ...


Accomplishments

The reign of Gratian forms an important epoch in ecclesiastical history, since during that period Orthodox Christianity for the first time became dominant throughout the empire. Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ...


Under the influence of Ambrosius, Gratian prohibited Pagan worship at Rome; refused to wear the insignia of the pontifex maximus as unbefitting a Christian; removed the Altar of Victory from the Senate House at Rome, despite protests of the pagan members of the Senate, and confiscated its revenues; forbade legacies of real property to the Vestals; and abolished other privileges belonging to them and to the pontiffs. (Nevertheless he was still deified after his death.) Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning a country dweller or civilian) is a blanket term which has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions, as opposed to the Abrahamic monotheistic religions. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Location within Province of Rome in the Region of Lazio Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 Your Mom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! km²  (496. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... The Altar of Victory was located in the Roman Senate House (the Curia) bearing a gold statue of the goddess Victory. ... The Roman Senate (Latin, Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 510 BC, and the Roman Empire, which ended in the 6th century AD. The word Senatus is derived from the Latin word senex, meaning old man or elder. ... A vestal Virgin, engraving by Sir Frederick Leighton, ca 1890: Leightons artistic sense has won over his passion for historical accuracy in showing the veil over the Vestals head at sacrifices, the suffibulum, as translucent, instead of fine white wool In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins were the... Apotheosis means glorification, usually to a divine level, coming from the Greek word apotheoun, to deify. ...


Gratian also published an edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the bishops of Rome and Alexandria (i.e., the Nicene faith). The move was mainly thrust at the various beliefs that had arisen out of Arianism, but smaller dissident sects, such as the Macedonians, were also prohibited. This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Preceded by:
Valentinian I and Valens
Roman Emperor
375383
with Valens (375-378)
Valentinian II (375-383)
Theodosius I (379-383)
Succeeded by:
Valentinian II and Theodosius I
Preceded by:
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valentinianus Augustus,
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valens Augustus
Consul of the Roman Empire
366
with Dagalaifus
Succeeded by:
Flavius Lupicinus,
Flavius Iovinus
Preceded by:
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valentinianus Augustus III,
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valens Augustus III
Consul of the Roman Empire
371
with Sex. Claudius Petronius Probus
Succeeded by:
Domitius Modestus,
Flavius Arintheus
Preceded by:
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valentinianus Augustus IV,
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valens Augustus IV
Consul of the Roman Empire
374
with Flavius Equitius
Succeeded by:
Post consulatum Gratiani Augusti III et Equiti
Preceded by:
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valens Augustus V,
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valentinianus Augustus
Consul of the Roman Empire
377
with Flavius Merobaudes
Succeeded by:
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valens Augustus VI,
Imp. Caesar Flavius Valentinianus Augustus II
Preceded by:
Decimius Magnus Ausonius,
Q. Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius
Consul of the Roman Empire
380
with Imp. Caesar Flavius Theodosius Augustus
Succeeded by:
Flavius Syagrius,
Flavius Eucherius

 
 

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