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Encyclopedia > Graphics tablet
A Wacom Graphire4 graphics tablet.
A Wacom Graphire4 graphics tablet.
A Gerber graphics tablet
A Gerber graphics tablet

A graphics tablet (or digitizing tablet, graphics pad, drawing tablet[1]) is a computer input device that allows one to hand-draw images and graphics, similar to the way one draws images with a pencil and paper. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixelsFull resolution (1645 × 1206 pixel, file size: 647 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Wacom Graphire4 USB pen tablet. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixelsFull resolution (1645 × 1206 pixel, file size: 647 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Wacom Graphire4 USB pen tablet. ... Wacom Co. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (899x689, 49 KB) Tablet firmy Gerber Source: http://pl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (899x689, 49 KB) Tablet firmy Gerber Source: http://pl. ... A Tablet PC is a notebook- or slate-shaped mobile computer. ... An input device is a hardware mechanism that transforms information in the external world for consumption by a computer. ...


A Graphics tablet consists of a flat surface upon which the user may "draw" an image using an attached stylus, a pen-like drawing apparatus. The image generally does not appear on the tablet itself but, rather, is displayed on the computer monitor. For the online music and film magazine, see Stylus Magazine. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ...


Some tablets are intended as a general replacement for a mouse as the primary pointing and navigation device for desktop computers.

Contents

History and background

Early graphics tablets are most commonly known as spark or acoustic tablets, used a stylus that generated clicks with a spark plug. The clicks were then triangulated by a series of microphones to locate the pen in space. The system was fairly complex and expensive, and the sensors were susceptible to interference by external noise. An acoustic tablet, also known as a spark tablet, is a form of graphics tablet that uses sound to locate the position of the stylus within the drawing area. ... An acoustic tablet, also known as a spark tablet, is a form of graphics tablet that uses sound to locate the position of the stylus within the drawing area. ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ...


The first graphics tablet resembling contemporary tablets was the RAND Tablet,[citation needed] also known as the Grafacon (for Graphic Converter), introduced in 1964. The RAND Tablet employed a grid of wires under the surface of the pad that encoded horizontal and vertical coordinates in a small magnetic signal. The stylus would receive the magnetic signal, which could then be decoded back as coordinate information. Look up grid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... In telecommunication, signalling (or signaling) has the following meanings: The use of signals for controlling communications. ...


Digitizers were popularized in the mid 1970s and early 1980s by the commercial success of the ID (Intelligent Digitizer) and BitPad manufactured by the Summagraphics Corp. These digitizers were used as the input device for many high-end CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems as well as bundled with PC's and PC based CAD software like AutoCAD. CAD is a TLA that may stand for: Cadiz Railroad (AAR reporting mark CAD) Canadian dollar – ISO 4217-code Capital Adequacy Directive Card Acceptance Device Children of the Anachronistic Dynasty Computer-aided design Computer-aided detection (medical) Computer-aided diagnosis (medical) Computer-assisted dispatch Computer-assisted drafting Coronary artery disease... AutoCAD is a CAD software application for 2D and 3D design and drafting, developed and sold by Autodesk, Inc. ...


Summagraphics also made an OEM version of its BitPad which was sold by Apple Computer as an accessory to their Apple II. These tablets used a magneto-strictive technology which used wires made of a special alloy stretched over a solid substrate to accurately locate the tip of a stylus or the center of a digitizer cursor on the surface of the tablet. This technology also allowed Proximity or "Z" axis measurement. Apple Inc. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ...


The first home computer graphics tablet was the KoalaPad. Though originally designed for the Apple II, the Koala eventually broadened its applicability to practically all home computers with graphics support, examples of which include the TRS-80 Color Computer, Commodore 64, and Atari 8-bit family. Competing tablets were eventually produced; the tablets produced by Atari were generally considered to be of high quality. Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... KoalaPad shown with manual, stylus, and software for the C64. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... 4k TRS-80 Color Computer from 1981, 26-3001 The Radio Shack TRS-80 color computer (also called Tandy Color Computer, or CoCo) was a home computer based around the Motorola 6809E processor and part of the TRS-80 line. ... C-64 redirects here. ... An Atari 800XL, one of the most popular machines in the series. ... This article is about the corporate game company. ...


Operation

Passive tablets 
Passive tablets, most notably those by Wacom, make use of electromagnetic induction technology, where the horizontal and vertical wires of the tablet operate as both transmitting and receiving coils (as opposed to the wires of the RAND Tablet which only transmit). The tablet generates an electromagnetic signal, which is received by the LC circuit in the pen. The wires in the tablet then change to a receiving mode and read the signal generated by the pen. Modern arrangements also provide pressure sensitivity and one or more switches (similar to the buttons on a mouse), with the electronics for this information present in the pen itself, not the tablet. On older tablets, changing the pressure on the pen nub or pressing a switch changed the properties of the LC circuit, affecting the signal generated by the pen, which modern ones often encode a digital data stream onto the signal. By using electromagnetic signals, the tablet is able to sense the stylus position without the stylus having to even touch the surface, and powering the pen with this signal means that devices used with the tablet never need batteries.
Active tablets 
Active tablets differ in that the stylus used contains self-powered electronics that generate and transmit a signal to the tablet. These pens rely on an internal battery rather than the tablet for their power, resulting in a bulkier pen. Eliminating the need to power the pen means that such tablets may listen for pen signals constantly, as they do not have to alternate between transmit and receive modes, which can result in less jitter.

For both technologies, the tablet can use the received signal to also determine the distance of the stylus from the surface of the tablet, the tilt (angle from vertical) of the stylus, and other information in addition to the horizontal and vertical positions. Wacom Co. ... For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ... An LC circuit consists of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C. When connected together, an electrical current can alternate between them at an angular frequency of where L is the inductance in henries, and C is the capacitance in farads. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ...


Compared to a resistive or capacitive touchscreen, a graphics tablet offers much higher precision, the ability to track an object which is not touching the tablet, and can gather much more information about the stylus, but is typically more expensive, and can only be used with the special stylus or other accessories. Touchscreens are display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. ...


Some tablets, especially inexpensive ones aimed at young children, come with a corded stylus, using technology similar to older RAND tablets, although this design is no longer used on any normal tablets.


Accessories

The first accessories were special mouse-like pucks designed for CAD applications, typically with a clear plastic area containing crosshairs for precise tracing of drawings, followed by a basic stylus. Today, a graphics tablet will come with a stylus for all models and a mouse for all but the cheapest or smallest models, and typically have a wide variety of other accessories available too. Many tablets use a digital data stream to encode information on the pen, often also transmitting a unique serial number, allowing the software to recognize if the user has multiple input devices, and assign different properties (brush type, color, etc) to each one. Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ...


Stylus

A modern stylus has a pressure sensitive tip capable of sensing many levels of pressure against the tablet. A very inexpensive tablet might be able to sense 256 levels of pressure, while a normal tablet 512 levels, and a professional tablet a full 1024 levels of pressure. The increase in sensitivity of the tablet tip allows more precise control, especially if software scaling is used to allow a large response to a light increase in pressure. Most styli contain at least one button, with two being the most common number, that are typically assigned to the same functions as mouse buttons would be. High-end tablets will also measure the tilt of the pen, giving the angle from vertical along both the X and Y axis (typically up to 60 degrees), allowing the graphics program to change the shape or other attributes of the brush depending on how the stylus is held. Some manufacturers also sell a stylus that uses a ball-point pen cartridge in the tip, allowing the user to place a sheet of paper onto the tablet, and draw a hard-copy on the paper in addition to the digitized version. The term scaling can have several manings: Scaling can be defined as the determination of the interdependency of variables in a physical system. ... A ballpoint pen A ballpoint pen is a writing instrument, more specifically a pen, similar to a pencil in size and shape. ...


Stylus eraser

Many modern styli have an eraser-shaped tip on the top of the pen, and additional circuitry to allow the pen to be used upside-down with the eraser end against the tablet, often very similar or identical to the circuitry used for the tip. The pressure-sensitive eraser is typically assigned a function similar to a real eraser, removing recent or all layers of coloring from the image, although it can be assigned other functions, such as a differently shaped brush, a selection tool, or other feature of the application. For other uses, see Eraser (disambiguation). ...


Mouse

Unlike a regular computer mouse, a graphics tablet mouse is capable of being used in "absolute mode," where the mouse position on the screen directly corresponds with its physical location on the tablet, or in "relative mode," where it emulates a regular mouse, for high-speed pointing. Graphics tablet mice typically contain several buttons, and often pressure-sensitive thumb wheels or other controls allowing similar capabilities as the pressure-sensitive tip of a stylus. Many tablets can also detect the rotation of the mouse on the tablet, allowing applications to use this data.


Puck

A puck is typically distinguished from a mouse as having crosshairs for accurately tracing diagrams, a large number of buttons (12 buttons laid out similar to a telephone pad is not uncommon), or other features aimed at CAD usage. They are far less common than a regular tablet mouse, and only available for some tablets. A crosshair or reticle is a shape superimposed on an image that is used for precise alignment of a device. ...


Airbrush

Some tablets come with a speciality stylus designed to emulate an airbrush, often with additional finger-operated wheels to mimic the paint flow, nozzle shape, and other adjustments found on the genuine article. These are significantly less common than a regular stylus, and often much more expensive. Paasche F#1 Single Action External Mix Airbrush An airbrush is a small, air-operated tool that sprays various media including ink and dye, but most often paint by a process of atomization. ...


Art pens

Like a regular stylus, they typically resemble a pen with a pressure-sensitive tip, but have additional features, such as allowing the tablet to recognize the rotation of the pen in addition to the standard tilt and pressure, allowing the application to rotate the brush, reshape the brush, or otherwise make use of this additional information, often to generate more realistic brush strokes.


Screen

Main article: Graphics tablet/screen hybrid

A graphics tablet/screen hybrid (or tablet/LCD hybrid, Tablet LCD Monitor [2] ) is a graphics tablet that incorporates an LCD into the tablet itself, allowing the user to draw directly "on" the display surface. It should not be confused with tablet PC hybrids. A graphics tablet/screen hybrid (or tablet/LCD hybrid, Tablet LCD Monitor [1] ) is a graphics tablet that incorporates an LCD into the tablet itself, allowing the user to draw directly on the display surface. ... LCD redirects here. ... A Tablet PC is a notebook- or slate-shaped mobile computer. ...


Uses

General uses

Graphics tablets, because of their stylus-based interface and ability to detect some or all of pressure, tilt, and other attributes of the stylus and its interaction with the tablet, are widely considered to offer a very natural way to create computer graphics, especially two-dimensional computer graphics. Indeed, many graphics packages (e.g. The GIMP, Corel Painter, Inkscape, Photoshop, Pixel image editor, Studio Artist, the Crosfield imaging system, Quantel Paintbox, and others) are able to make use of the pressure (and, in some cases, stylus tilt or rotation) information generated by a tablet, by modifying the brush size, shape, opacity, color, or other attributes based on data received from the graphics tablet. This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... For other uses, see Gimp (disambiguation). ... Painter is the name of a bitmap graphics software package used to create natural-looking artistic images using a computer. ... Inkscape is a vector graphics editor application. ... Adobe Photoshop is a bitmap graphics editor (with some text and vector graphics capabilities) published by Adobe Systems. ... Pixel image editor (formerly known as Pixel32) is an Adobe Photoshop-like image editor written by Pavel Kanzelsberger. ... The Quantel Paintbox is a dedicated computer system for performing real time manipulation of video, and creating graphics. ... Look up opacity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...


In East Asia, graphics tablets, or pen tablets as they are known, are widely used in conjunction with input method editor software (IMEs) to write Chinese, Japanese, Korean characters (CJK). The technology is popular and inexpensive. This technology offeres a methodology for interacting with the computer in a more natural manner than typing on the keyboard. Operation of a typical Japanese romaji based IME. An input method editor (IME) is a program or operating system component that allows computer users to enter characters and symbols not found on their keyboard. ... CJK is a collective term for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, which comprise the main East Asian languages. ...


Tablets are also popular for technical drawings and CAD, as one can put a piece of paper on them without interfering with their function. Technical drawing, also known as drafting, is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for technical, architectural and engineering needs. ... CAD is a TLA that may stand for: Cadiz Railroad (AAR reporting mark CAD) Canadian dollar – ISO 4217-code Capital Adequacy Directive Card Acceptance Device Children of the Anachronistic Dynasty Computer-aided design Computer-aided detection (medical) Computer-aided diagnosis (medical) Computer-assisted dispatch Computer-assisted drafting Coronary artery disease...


Many of the most successful webcomic artists use tablets, including Hawk of AppleGeeks, Jorge Cham of Piled Higher and Deeper, Tim of Ctrl+Alt+Del and Gabe of Penny Arcade, who uses a graphics tablet to color directly into the computer. Webcomics, also known as online comics and internet comics, are comics that are available to read on the Internet. ... Applegeeks is a webcomic illustrated by Mohammad Hawk Haque, and written by Ananth Panagariya. ... Piled Higher and Deeper is a webcomic written and drawn by Jorge Cham, now a mechanical engineering instructor at Caltech, which follows the lives of several grad students. ... This article is about Ctrl+Alt+Del, the webcomic. ... Penny Arcade is a webcomic and blog written by Jerry Holkins and illustrated by Mike Krahulik. ...


Finally, tablets are gaining popularity as a replacement for the computer mouse as a pointing device. They can be more intuitive to some users than the mouse, as the position of the pen on the tablet typically corresponds to the location of the pointer on the GUI shown on the computer screen. Those artists using the pen for graphics work will as a matter of convenience use the tablet and pen for standard computer operations rather than put down the pen and find the mouse. Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ...


Graphics tablets are available in various sizes and price ranges; A6-sized tablets being relatively inexpensive and A3-sized tablets being far more expensive. Modern tablets usually connect to the computer via a USB interface. ISO 216 specifies international standard (ISO) paper sizes, used in most countries in the world today. ... ISO 216 specifies international standard (ISO) paper sizes, used in most countries in the world today. ... USB redirects here. ...


A Solution for Injuries

Advocates of tablets and pens cite relief from occupational overuse syndrome varieties such as repetitive strain injury [1]. Sufferers of carpal tunnel syndrome also report good results. This is because the use of computer mice tends to be very repetitive on the wrist, whereas operating a pen is more natural and tends to involve the movement of the entire arm [2]. Numerous human body disorders are now classed as occupational overuse syndrome. ... A repetitive strain injury (RSI), also called cumulative trauma disorder, occupational overuse syndrome, or work related upper limb disorder (WRULD), is any of a loose group of conditions resulting from overuse of a tool, eg. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...


Similar devices

Some Interactive Whiteboards operate on the induction principle, with some brands offering high resolution wall size graphic tablets up to 95" along with options for pressure and multiple input based on different resonance patterns from tuned pens. Interactive Whiteboards are proving to be immensely popular in schools in the UK, US and Mexico. An Interactive Whiteboard is a device that interprets a projected two-dimensional surface that interacts with a computers desktop. ...


Touch screens like those found on some Tablet PCs and the Nintendo DS are operated in similar ways, but they usually use either optical grids or a pressure sensitive film instead, and therefore they do not need a special pointing device. Nintendo DS Touch screen A touch screen is an input/output device that allows the user to interact with the computer by touching the display screen. ... A Tablet PC is a notebook- or slate-shaped mobile computer. ... NDS redirects here. ...


The graphics tablet are also used for Audio Haptic products where blind or visually impaired people touch swelled graphics on a graphic tablet and get audio feedback from that.[3] The product that is using this technology is called Tactile Talking Tablet or T3. A talking tactile tablet or T3 is a graphic tablet with a touch surface that can be used as an input device that uses swell paper to create 3D overlays and connects audio-files to parts of the overlays. ...


References

  1. ^ About.com - Before You Buy a Graphics Tablet
  2. ^ USync's 17" Tablet LCD Monitor
  3. ^ Aaron Marks. "Audio Haptics for Visually Impaired Information Technology", Axistive, 2006-11-17. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Touchscreens are display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. ... A Tablet PC is a notebook- or slate-shaped mobile computer. ... Leaked prototype photos of Origami Project. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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