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Encyclopedia > Graphics processing unit
GeForce 6600GT (NV43) GPU
GeForce 6600GT (NV43) GPU

A graphics processing unit or GPU (also occasionally called visual processing unit or VPU) is a dedicated graphics rendering device for a personal computer, workstation, or game console. Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating and displaying computer graphics, and their highly parallel structure makes them more effective than general-purpose CPUs for a range of complex algorithms. A GPU can sit on top of a video card, or it can be integrated directly into the motherboard. More than 90% of new desktop and notebook computers have integrated GPUs, which are usually far less powerful than their add-in counterparts.[1] GPU may stand for: Graphics processing unit, a special stream processor used in computer graphics hardware Gosudarstvennoye Politicheskoye Upravlenie (Главное Политическое Управление, or Main Political Directorate) of the Red Army, responsible for troops morale and propaganda. ... Vilnius Pedagogical University (or Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas in Lithuanian, VPU for short) is a university in Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (978x938, 253 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (978x938, 253 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The GeForce 6 Series (codenamed NV40) is NVIDIAs sixth generation of GeForce graphics chipsets. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... The Nintendo GameCube is an example of a popular video game console. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... CPU redirects here. ... Flowcharts are often used to graphically represent algorithms. ... A video card, also referred to as a graphics accelerator card, display adapter, graphics card, and numerous other terms, is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to generate and output images to a display. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ...

Contents

Graphics accelerators

  • A GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) is a type of CPU attached to a Graphics card dedicated to calculating floating point operations and the like.
  • A graphics accelerator incorporates custom microchips which contain special mathematical operations commonly used in graphics rendering. The efficiency of the microchips therefore determines the effectiveness of the graphics accelerator. They are mainly used for playing 3D games or high-end 3D rendering.
  • A GPU implements a number of graphics primitive operations in a way that makes running them much faster than drawing directly to the screen with the host CPU. The most common operations for early 2D computer graphics include the BitBLT operation (combines several bitmap patterns using a RasterOp), usually in special hardware called a "blitter", and operations for drawing rectangles, triangles, circles, and arcs. Modern GPUs also have support for 3D computer graphics, and typically include digital video-related functions.

In geometry, a primitive is the simplest of default geometrical figures or shapes. ... 2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them. ... Bit blit (bitblt, blitting etc. ... This article is about the storage organization of raster images. ... A Blitter (acronym for BLock Image TransferrER) is a chip that specialises in bitmap data-transfer using bit blit methods. ... In geometry, a rectangle is defined as a quadrilateral where all four of its angles are right angles. ... A triangle. ... Circle illustration This article is about the shape and mathematical concept of circle. ... In Euclidean geometry, an arc is a closed segment of a differentiable curve in the two-dimensional plane; for example, a circular arc is a segment of a circle. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, of the video signal. ...

History

Early 1980s

Modern GPUs are descended from the monolithic graphic chips of the early 1980s and 1990s. These chips had limited BitBLT support in the form of sprites (if they had BitBLT support at all), and usually had no shape-drawing support. Some GPUs could run several operations in a display list, and could use DMA to reduce the load on the host processor; an early example was the ANTIC co-processor used in the Atari 800 and Atari 5200. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, high-speed, general-purpose microprocessors became popular for implementing high-end GPUs. Several high-end graphics boards for PCs and computer workstations used TI's TMS340 series (a 32-bit CPU optimized for graphics applications, with a frame buffer controller on-chip) to implement fast drawing functions; these were especially popular for CAD applications. Also, many laser printers from Apple shipped with a PostScript raster image processor (a special case of a GPU) running on a Motorola 68000-series CPU, or a faster RISC CPU like the AMD 29000 or Intel i960. A few very specialised applications used digital signal processors for 3D support, such as Atari Games' Hard Drivin' and Race Drivin' games. Something that is monolithic is something created in one piece, resembling a monolith such as an obelisk. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Bit blit (bitblt, blitting etc. ... In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ... Display list - a group of GL (graphics language, e. ... Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of modern computers that allows certain hardware subsystems within the computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the central processing unit. ... AntiC (or JLint) is a programming tool for finding programming errors in source code. ... Atari built a series of 8-bit home computers based on the MOS Technology 6502 CPU, starting in 1979. ... The Atari 5200 SuperSystem, or simply Atari 5200, is a video game console that was introduced in 1982 by Atari as a replacement for the famous Atari 2600. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... An expansion card (also expansion board, adapter card or accessory card) in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard to add additional functionality to a computer system. ... SGI O2 Workstation A computer workstation, often colloquially referred to as workstation, is a high-end general-purpose microcomputer designed to be used by one person at a time and which offers higher performance than normally found in a personal computer, especially with respect to graphics, processing power and the... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... CAD is a TLA that may stand for: Cadiz Railroad (AAR reporting mark CAD) Canadian dollar – ISO 4217-code Capital Adequacy Directive Card Acceptance Device Children of the Anachronistic Dynasty Computer-aided design Computer-aided detection (medical) Computer-aided diagnosis (medical) Computer-assisted dispatch Computer-assisted drafting Coronary artery disease... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... A raster image processor (RIP) is a component used in a printing system which produces a bitmap. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 16/32-Bit [1] CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... AMD 29000 Microprocessor The AMD 29000, often simply 29k, was a popular family of RISC-based 32-bit microprocessors and microcontrollers from Advanced Micro Devices. ... Intels i960 (or 80960) was a RISC-based microprocessor design that became popular during the early 1990s as an embedded microcontroller, becoming a best-selling CPU in that field, along with the competing AMD 29000. ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ... Atari Games was an American producer of arcade games, and originally part of Atari Inc. ... Hard Drivin is an arcade game that invite players to test drive a high-powered sports car on a stunt course. ... Hard Drivin is an arcade game that invite players to test drive a high-powered sports car on a stunt course. ...


As chip process technology improved, it eventually became possible to move drawing and BitBLT functions onto the same board (and, eventually, into the same chip) as a regular frame buffer controller such as VGA. These cut-down "2D accelerators" were not as flexible as microprocessor-based GPUs, but were much easier to make and sell. The framebuffer is a part of RAM in a computer allocated to hold the graphics information for one frame or picture. ... VGA Port VGA plug Video Graphics Array (VGA) is an analog computer display standard first marketed in 1987 by IBM. It has been technologically outdated in the PC market for some time. ...


1980s

The Commodore Amiga was the first mass-market computer to include a blitter in its video hardware, and IBM's 8514 graphics system was one of the first PC video cards to implement 2D primitives in hardware. Amiga is the name of a range of home/personal computers using the Motorola 68000 processor family, whose development started in 1982. ... A Blitter (acronym for BLock Image TransferrER) is a chip that specialises in bitmap data-transfer using bit blit methods. ... The 8514 is an IBM graphics computer display standard supporting a display resolution of 1024×768 pixels with 256 colours at 43. ...


The Amiga was unique, for the time, in that it featured what would now be recognized as a full graphics accelerator, offloading practically all video generation functions to hardware, including line drawing, area fill, block image transfer, and a graphics coprocessor with its own (though primitive) instruction set. Prior (and quite some time after on most systems) a general purpose CPU had to handle every aspect of drawing the display.


1990s

By the early 1990s, the rise of Microsoft Windows sparked a surge of interest in high-speed, high-resolution 2D bitmapped graphics (which had previously been the domain of Unix workstations and the Apple Macintosh). For the PC market, the dominance of Windows meant PC graphics vendors could now focus development effort on a single programming interface, Graphics Device Interface (GDI). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x507, 146 KB) Summary Diamond Stealth 32 VLB. Scanned card. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x507, 146 KB) Summary Diamond Stealth 32 VLB. Scanned card. ... Tseng Laboratories, Inc. ... The Tseng Labs ET4000 was a popular graphics card during the early 1990s, commonly found in many 486 and compatible systems. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x680, 173 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x680, 173 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... S3 Graphics, Ltd design graphics chipsets for PCs. ... The Virtual Reality Graphics Engine (ViRGE) graphics chipset was one of the first 2D/3D accelerators designed for the mass market. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1033x751, 167 KB) A 3dfx Voodoo3 2000 AGP. Scanned by me. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1033x751, 167 KB) A 3dfx Voodoo3 2000 AGP. Scanned by me. ... 3dfx Interactive was a company which specialized in the manufacturing of cutting-edge 3D graphics processing units and, later, graphics cards. ... 3dfx Voodoo3 box art Voodoo3 was a series of computer gaming video cards manufactured and designed by 3dfx Interactive. ... Windows redirects here. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... The Graphics Device Interface (GDI, sometimes called Graphical Device Interface) is one of the three core components or subsystems, together with the kernel and the Windows API for the user interface (GDI window manager) of Microsoft Windows. ...


In 1991, S3 Graphics introduced the first single-chip 2D accelerator, the S3 86C911 (which its designers named after the Porsche 911 as an indication of the speed increase it promised). The 86C911 spawned a host of imitators: by 1995, all major PC graphics chip makers had added 2D acceleration support to their chips. By this time, fixed-function Windows accelerators had surpassed expensive general-purpose graphics coprocessors in Windows performance, and these coprocessors faded away from the PC market. S3 Graphics, Ltd design graphics chipsets for PCs. ... S3 Graphics, Ltd design graphics chipsets for PCs. ... Porsche 911 in hillclimb The Porsche 911 (pronounced as nine eleven) is a sports car made by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. ...


Throughout the 1990s, 2D GUI acceleration continued to evolve. As manufacturing capabilities improved, so did the level of integration of graphics chips. Additional application programming interfaces (APIs) arrived for a variety of tasks, such as Microsoft's WinG graphics library for Windows 3.x, and their later DirectDraw interface for hardware acceleration of 2D games within Windows 95 and later. API and Api redirect here. ... For other uses, see Wing (disambiguation). ... The Windows 3. ... DirectDraw is part of Microsofts DirectX API. DirectDraw is used to render graphics in applications where top performance is important. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ...


In the early and mid-1990s, CPU-assisted real-time 3D graphics were becoming increasingly common in computer and console games, which lead to an increasing public demand for hardware-accelerated 3D graphics. Early examples of mass-marketed 3D graphics hardware can be found in fifth generation video game consoles such as PlayStation and Nintendo 64. In the PC world, notable failed first-tries for low-cost 3D graphics chips were the S3 ViRGE, ATI Rage, and Matrox Mystique. These chips were essentially previous-generation 2D accelerators with 3D features bolted on. Many were even pin-compatible with the earlier-generation chips for ease of implementation and minimal cost. Initially, performance 3D graphics were possible only with separate add-on boards dedicated to accelerating 3D functions (and lacking 2D GUI acceleration entirely) such as the 3dfx Voodoo. However, as manufacturing technology again progressed, video, 2D GUI acceleration, and 3D functionality were all integrated into one chip. Rendition's Verite chipsets were the first to do this well enough to be worthy of note. CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... The rewrite of this article is being devised at Talk:3D computer graphics/Temp. ... In the history of computer and video games, the 32-bit / 64-bit /3D era was the fifth generation of video game consoles. ... For other uses, see PlayStation (disambiguation). ... The Nintendo 64, often abbreviated as N64, is Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. ... S3 Graphics, Ltd design graphics chipsets for PCs. ... The Virtual Reality Graphics Engine (ViRGE) graphics chipset was one of the first 2D/3D accelerators designed for the mass market. ... ATI redirects here. ... Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd is a Canadian company based in Dorval, Quebec, which produces video card components and equipment for personal computers. ... In electronics, a pin-compatible device, such as a logic chip or microprocessor, is one that has the same functions assigned to the same particular pins. ... 3dfx Interactive was a company which specialized in the manufacturing of cutting-edge 3D graphics processing units and, later, graphics cards. ... Rendition was a maker of 3D graphics chipsets in the mid- to late-90s. ...


OpenGL appeared in the early 90s as a professional graphics API, but became a dominant force on the PC, and a driving force for hardware development. Software implementations of OpenGL were common during this time although the influence of OpenGL eventually lead to widespread hardware support. Over time a parity emerged between features offered in hardware in those offered in OpenGL. DirectX became popular among Windows game developers during the late 90s. Unlike OpenGL, Microsoft insisted on a providing strict one-to-one support of hardware. The approach made DirectX less popular as a stand alone graphics API initially since many GPUs provided their own specific features, which existing OpenGL applications were already able to benefit from, leaving DirectX often one generation behind. (See: Comparison of OpenGL and Direct3D). OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms. ... 1. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Over time Microsoft began to work closer with hardware developers, and started to target the releases of DirectX with those of the supporting graphics hardware. Direct3D 5.0 was the first version of the burgeoning API to gain wide-spread adoption in the gaming market, and it competed directly with many more hardware specific, often proprietary graphics libraries, while OpenGL maintained a strong following. Direct3D 7.0 introduced support for hardware-accelerated transform and lighting (T&L). 3D accelerators moved beyond being just simple rasterizers to add another significant hardware stage to the 3D rendering pipeline. The NVIDIA GeForce 256 (also known as NV10) was the first card on the market with this capability. Hardware transform and lighting, both already existing features of OpenGL, came to hardware in the 90s and set the precedent for later pixel shader and vertex shader units which were far more flexible and programmable. Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms. ... Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... Transform and Lighting is a computing term used in computer graphics, generally used in the context of hardware acceleration (Hardware T&L). Transform refers to the task of converting coordinates in space, which in this case involves moving 3D objects in a virtual world and converting 3D coordinates to a... The American multinational Nvidia Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) specializes in the manufacture of graphics-processor technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handheld devices. ... The GeForce 256 (codenamed NV10), often known simply as the GeForce, was the first of NVIDIAs GeForce product-line. ... OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ...


2000 to present

With the advent of the OpenGL API and similar functionality in DirectX, GPUs added programmable shading to their capabilities. Each pixel could now be processed by a short program that could include additional image textures as inputs, and each geometric vertex could likewise be processed by a short program before it was projected onto the screen. NVIDIA was first to produce a chip capable of programmable shading, the GeForce 3 (core named NV20). By October 2002, with the introduction of the ATI Radeon 9700 (also known as R300), the world's first Direct3D 9.0 accelerator, pixel and vertex shaders could implement looping and lengthy floating point math, and in general were quickly becoming as flexible as CPUs, and orders of magnitude faster for image-array operations. Pixel shading is often used for things like bump mapping, which adds texture, to either make an object look shiny, dull, rough, or even round or extruded. [2] OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a standard specification defining a cross-language cross-platform API for writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. ... Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms. ... Vertex and pixel (or fragment) shaders are computer programs that run on a graphics card, executed once for every vertex or pixel in a specified 3D mesh. ... The GeForce 3 (codenamed NV20) was NVIDIAs third-generation GeForce chip. ... ATI redirects here. ... // Development Radeon 9700 board The first DirectX 9 card released to the market was the ATI Technologies Radeon 9700PRO (a. ... In computer science control flow (or alternatively, flow of control) refers to the order in which the individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative or functional program are executed or evaluated. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... A sphere without bump mapping. ...


As the processing power of GPUs have increased, so has their demand for electrical power. High performance GPUs often consume more energy than current CPUs.[3] See also performance per watt and quiet PC. A quiet PC is a personal computer that makes little noise. ...


Today, parallel GPUs have begun making computational inroads against the CPU, and a subfield of research, dubbed GPGPU for General Purpose Computing on GPU, has found its way into fields as diverse as oil exploration, scientific image processing, and even stock options pricing determination. There is increased pressure on GPU manufacturers from "GPGPU users" to improve hardware design, usually focusing on adding more flexibility to the programming model.[citation needed] Parallel computing is the simultaneous execution of the same task (split up and specially adapted) on multiple processors in order to obtain results faster. ... General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, also referred to as GPGP and to a lesser extent GP²) is a recent trend focused on using GPUs to perform computations rather than the CPU. The addition of programmable stages and higher precision arithmetic to the rendering pipelines allowed software developers... Oil exploration is the search by petroleum geologists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earths surface. ... UPIICSA IPN - Binary image Image processing is any form of information processing for which the input is an image, such as photographs or frames of video; the output is not necessarily an image, but can be for instance a set of features of the image. ... A stock option is a specific type of option with a stock as the underlying instrument (the security that the value of the option is based on). ...


GPU companies

There have been many companies producing GPUs over the years, under numerous brand names. The current dominators of the market are AMD (manufacturers of the ATI Radeon and ATI FireGL graphics chip line) and NVIDIA (manufacturers of the NVIDIA Geforce and NVIDIA Quadro graphics chip line.) Intel is steadily moving into the graphics market as they evolve their integrated graphics products to better compete with the discrete GPUs offered by ATI and NVIDIA. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Radeon is a brand of graphics processing units (GPU) that has been manufactured by ATI Technologies since 2000. ... The American multinational Nvidia Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) specializes in the manufacture of graphics-processor technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handheld devices. ... GeForce is a brand of PC graphics chipsets designed by NVIDIA. The first GeForce products were designed and marketed for the high-margin gamer community of computer users, but later product releases expanded the line to cover all tiers of the graphics market, from low-end to high-end. ... For a definition of the word quadro, see the Wiktionary entry quadro. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


Computational functions

Modern GPUs use most of their transistors to do calculations related to 3D computer graphics. They were initially used to accelerate the memory-intensive work of texture mapping and rendering polygons, later adding units to accelerate geometric calculations such as rotating and translating vertices into different coordinate systems. Recent developments in GPUs include support for programmable shaders which can manipulate vertices and textures with many of the same operations supported by CPUs, oversampling and interpolation techniques to reduce aliasing, and very high-precision color spaces. Because most of these computations involve matrix and vector operations, engineers and scientists have increasingly studied the use of GPUs for non-graphical calculations. Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... Spherical texture mapping Texture mapping is a method, pioneered by Edwin Catmull, of adding detail, surface texture, or colour to a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. ... Rendering has several different usages: Rendering (computer graphics) is the process of producing the pixels of an image from a higher-level description of its components. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... In Euclidean geometry, translation is a transformation of Euclidean space which moves every point by a fixed distance in the same direction. ... In geometry, a vertex (plural vertices) is a special kind of point, usually a corner of a polygon, polyhedron, or higher dimensional polytope. ... In mathematics as applied to geometry, physics or engineering, a coordinate system is a system for assigning a tuple of numbers to each point in an n-dimensional space. ... Refers to the programmable Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). ... CPU redirects here. ... In signal processing, oversampling is the process of sampling a signal with a sampling frequency significantly higher than twice the bandwidth or highest frequency of the signal being sampled. ... In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points from a discrete set of known data points. ... Properly sampled image of brick wall. ... A comparison of different color spaces. ... In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular table of elements (or entries), which may be numbers or, more generally, any abstract quantities that can be added and multiplied. ... Vector calculus (also called vector analysis) is a field of mathematics concerned with multivariate real analysis of vectors in two or more dimensions. ...


In addition to the 3D hardware, today's GPUs include basic 2D acceleration and frame buffer capabilities (usually with a VGA compatibility mode). In addition, most GPUs made since 1995 support the YUV color space and hardware overlays (important for digital video playback), and many GPUs made since 2000 support MPEG primitives such as motion compensation and iDCT. Recent graphics cards even decode high-definition video on the card, taking some load off the central processing unit. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A comparison of different color spaces. ... Hardware overlay is a method that uses dedicated video hardware, as an alternate to software rendering, to display a video image, such as a dvd. ... Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, of the video signal. ... The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... iDCT is an acronym for inverse Discrete Cosine Transform, a transformation step commonly used in software that works with different multimedia formats such as MP3, Vorbis, MPEG or JPEG. One-dimensional iDCT can be thought of as moving a digitized signal from the frequency domain into the time domain, but... This article is about high-definition video technology. ...


GPU forms

Dedicated graphics cards

Main article: Video card

The most powerful class of GPUs typically interface with the motherboard by means of an expansion slot such as PCI Express (PCIe) or Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) and can usually be replaced or upgraded with relative ease, assuming the motherboard is capable of supporting the upgrade. A few graphics cards still use Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots, but their bandwidth is so limited that they are generally used only when a PCIe or AGP slot is unavailable. A video card, also referred to as a graphics accelerator card, display adapter, graphics card, and numerous other terms, is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to generate and output images to a display. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ... Fitting an expansion card into a motherboard An expansion card in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard to add additional functionality to a computer system. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... The Accelerated Graphics Port (also called Advanced Graphics Port, often shortened to AGP) is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a graphics card to a computers motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. ... A GeForce 4 4200-based graphics card A graphics card or video card is a component of a computer which is designed to convert a logical representation of an image stored in memory to a signal that can be used as input for a display medium, most often a monitor... This article is about the computer bus type. ...


A dedicated GPU is not necessarily removable, nor does it necessarily interface with the motherboard in a standard fashion. The term "dedicated" refers to the fact that dedicated graphics cards have RAM that is dedicated to the card's use, not to the fact that most dedicated GPUs are removable. Dedicated GPUs for portable computers are most commonly interfaced through a non-standard and often proprietary slot due to size and weight constraints. Such ports may still be considered PCIe or AGP in terms of their logical host interface, even if they are not physically interchangeable with their counterparts. Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Multiple cards can draw together a single image, so that the number of pixels can be doubled and antialiasing can be set to higher quality. If the screen is parted into a left and right, each card can cache the textures and geometry from their side (See Scalable Link Interface (SLI) and ATI CrossFire). In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. ... For other uses, see SLI. NVIDIA SLI Logo Scalable Link Interface (SLI) is a brand name for a multi-GPU solution developed by NVIDIA for linking two (or more) video cards together to produce a single output. ... CrossFire (also CrossFire X after release of the Spider desktop platform on November 19, 2007) is a brand name for ATI Technologies multi-GPU solution, which competes with its rival nVidias Scalable Link Interface (SLI). ...


Integrated graphics solutions

Intel GMA X3000 IGP (under heatsink)

Integrated graphics solutions, or shared graphics solutions are graphics processors that utilize a portion of a computer's system RAM rather than dedicated graphics memory. Such solutions are less expensive to implement than dedicated graphics solutions, but at a trade-off of being less capable. Historically, integrated solutions were often considered unfit to play 3D games or run graphically intensive programs such as Adobe Flash[citation needed]. (Examples of such IGPs would be offerings from SiS and VIA circa 2004.)[4] However, todays integrated solutions such as the Intel's GMA X3000 (Intel G965), AMD's Radeon X1250 (AMD 690G) and NVIDIA's GeForce 7050 PV (NVIDIA nForce 630a) are more than capable of handling 2D graphics from Adobe Flash or low stress 3D graphics[citation needed]. Of course the aforementioned GPUs still struggle with high-end video games. Modern desktop motherboards often include an integrated graphics solution and have expansion slots available to add a dedicated graphics card later. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... GMA X3000 on Intel DG965WHMKR motherboard The Intel Graphics Media Accelerator, or GMA, is Intels current line of graphics processors (GPUs) built into various motherboard chipsets. ... GMA X3000 on Intel DG965WHMKR motherboard The Intel Graphics Media Accelerator, or GMA, is Intels current line of graphics processors (GPUs) built into various motherboard chipsets. ... The AMD 690 chipset series or AMD 690 series chipset by AMD is a chipset family manufactured by AMD subsidiary ATI for the AMD platform, focusing on both desktop and mobile computing markets. ... The nForce 600 chipset was released in the first half of November 2006, coinciding with the GeForce 8 series launch on November 8, 2006. ...


As a GPU is extremely memory intensive, an integrated solution finds itself competing for the already slow system RAM with the CPU as it has no dedicated video memory. System RAM may be 2 GB/s to 12.8 GB/s, yet dedicated GPUs enjoy between 10 GB/s to over 100 GB/s of bandwidth depending on the model.


Older integrated graphics chipsets lacked hardware transform and lighting, but newer ones include it.[5]


Hybrid solutions

This newer class of GPUs competes with integrated graphics in the low-end PC and notebook markets. The most common implementations of this are ATI's HyperMemory and NVIDIA's TurboCache. Hybrid graphics cards are somewhat more expensive than integrated graphics, but much less expensive than dedicated graphics cards. These also share memory with the system memory, but have a smaller amount of memory on-board than discrete graphics cards do to make up for the high latency of the system RAM. Technologies within PCI Express can make this possible. While these solutions are sometimes advertised as having as much as 768MB of RAM, this refers to how much can be shared with the system memory. HyperMemory is ATI Technologies method of using a PCs main system RAM as part of or all of the video cards framebuffer memory on their line of Radeon video cards and motherboard chipsets. ... NVIDIAs TurboCache technology is a method of allowing more framebuffer memory on select graphics cards by using both video memory and system memory by taking advantage of the high bandwidth provided by the PCI-Express bus. ...


Stream processing

Main article: Stream processing

Another new concept application for GPUs is that of stream processing. This concept uses massively parallel floating-point, yet dedicated computational power of a modern graphics accelerator's shader pipeline. In certain applications massive vector operations, this can yield several orders of magnitude higher performance than a conventional CPU. The two largest discrete GPU designers, ATI and NVIDIA, are firmly pursuing this new market. For other uses, see Event Stream Processing. ... For other uses, see Event Stream Processing. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... ATI redirects here. ... The American multinational Nvidia Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) specializes in the manufacture of graphics-processor technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handheld devices. ...


Recently NVidia began releasing cards supporting an API extension to the C programming language called CUDA ("Compute Unified Device Architecture"), which allows specified functions from a normal C program to run on the GPU's stream processors. This makes C programs capable of taking advantage of a GPU's ability to operate on large matrices in parallel, while still making use of the CPU where appropriate. CUDA is also the first API to allow CPU-based applications to access directly the resources of a GPU for more general purpose computing without the limitations of using a graphics API. Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


General Purpose GPUs (GPGPU)

Main articles: GPGPU and Stream processing

A new concept is to use a modified form of a stream processor to allow a general purpose graphics processing unit. This concept turns the massive floating-point computational power of a modern graphics accelerator's shader pipeline into general-purpose computing power, as opposed to being hard wired solely to do graphical operations. In certain applications requiring massive vector operations, this can yield several orders of magnitude higher performance than a conventional CPU. The two largest discrete GPU designers, ATI and NVIDIA, are beginning to pursue this new market with an array of applications. ATI has teamed with Stanford University to create a GPU-based client for its Folding@Home distributed computing project (for protein folding calculations) that in certain circumstances yields results forty times faster than the conventional CPUs traditionally used in such applications.[6][7] General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, also referred to as GPGP and to a lesser extent GP²) is a recent trend focused on using GPUs to perform computations rather than the CPU. The addition of programmable stages and higher precision arithmetic to the rendering pipelines allowed software developers... For other uses, see Event Stream Processing. ... For other uses, see Event Stream Processing. ... General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, also referred to as GPGP and to a lesser extent GP²) is a recent trend focused on using GPUs to perform computations rather than the CPU. The addition of programmable stages and higher precision arithmetic to the rendering pipelines allowed software developers... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... ATI redirects here. ... The American multinational Nvidia Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) specializes in the manufacture of graphics-processor technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handheld devices. ... Stanford redirects here. ... Folding@Home (also known as FAH or F@H) is a distributed computing project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics. ...


See also

Larrabee is the code name for a Graphics Processing Unit that is being developed by Intel as a revolutionary successor to Intels current line of graphics accelerators. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... Game console redirects here. ... Ray tracing hardware is a special purpose computer hardware design for accelerating real-time ray tracing. ... This page contains general information about ATIs GPUs and video cards based on official ATI specifications in table form. ... This table contains general information about NVIDIAs GPUs and videocards based on official NVIDIA specifications. ... GMA X3000 on Intel DG965WHMKR motherboard The Intel Graphics Media Accelerator, or GMA, is Intels current line of graphics processors (GPUs) built into various motherboard chipsets. ... Processor can mean: Central processing unit, the part of a computer that interprets instructions Microprocessor, a part of a microcomputer Graphics processing unit, a dedicated graphics rendering device for a personal computer or game console Digital signal processor, a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing Audio processor, used... The word monitor, depending on context, may have one of the following meanings: A computer display A speaker used on stage or in a studio to enable musicians to hear what is being recorded or broadcasted A concurrent programming language construct which encapsulates variables, access procedures and initialisation code within... A Physics Processing Unit (PPU) is a dedicated microprocessor designed to handle the calculations of physics, especially in the physics engine of video games. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A graphics/video/display card/board/adapter is a computer component designed to convert the logical representation of visual information into a signal that can be used as input for a display medium. ...

References

  1. ^ Denny Atkin. Computer Shopper: The Right GPU for You. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  2. ^ Søren Dreijer. Bump Mapping Using CG (3rd Edition). Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  3. ^ http://www.xbitlabs.com/articles/video/display/power-noise.html X-bit labs: Faster, Quieter, Lower: Power Consumption and Noise Level of Contemporary Graphics Cards
  4. ^ Tim Tscheblockov. Xbit Labs: Roundup of 7 Contemporary Integrated Graphics Chipsets for Socket 478 and Socket A Platforms. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  5. ^ Bradley Sanford. Integrated Graphics Solutions for Graphics-Intensive Applications. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  6. ^ Darren Murph. Stanford University tailors Folding@home to GPUs. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  7. ^ Mike Houston. Folding@Home - GPGPU. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

HowStuffWorks is a website created by Marshall Brain but now owned by the Convex Group. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... CPU redirects here. ... Network Processing Unit or NPU is a CPU whose instructions are specialized to handle networking-related functions. ... A sound card (also known as an audio card) is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. ... A Physics Processing Unit (PPU) is a dedicated microprocessor designed to handle the calculations of physics, especially in the physics engine of video games. ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Graphics processing unit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1950 words)
Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating and displaying computer graphics, and their highly parallel structure makes them more effective than typical CPUs for a range of complex algorithms.
Modern GPUs are descended from the monolithic graphic chips of the late 1970s and 1980s.
A new concept application for GPU's is that of Stream processing and the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit.
graphics pipeline: Information from Answers.com (1233 words)
Rasterization is the process by which the 2D image-space representation of the scene is converted into raster format and the correct resulting pixel values are determined.
The graphics pipeline is well suited to the rendering process because it allows the GPU to function as a stream processor since all vertices and fragments can be thought of as independent.
In addition to pipelining vertices and fragments, their independence allows graphics processors to use parallel processing units to process multiple vertices or fragments in a single stage of the pipeline at the same time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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