FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Graphics" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Graphics

Graphics (from Greek γραφικός; see -graphy) are visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, computer screen, paper, or stone to brand, inform, illustrate, or entertain. Examples are photographs, drawings, Line Art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics often combine text, illustration, and color. Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flier, poster, web site, or book without any other element. Clarity or effective communication may be the objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or merely, the creation of a distinctive style. The Graphic was first published on 4 December 1869. ... -graphy or -ography or -igraphy (etc. ... Vision can refer to: Visual perception is one of the senses. ... Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Drawing is one way of making an image: it is the process of making marks on a surface by applying pressure from or moving a tool on the surface. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Line Art. ... Sample flowchart diagram A diagram is a simplified and structured visual representation of concepts, ideas, constructions, relations, statistical data, anatomy etc used in all aspects of human activities to visualize and clarify the topic. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... For other uses, see Number (disambiguation). ... Geometry (from the Greek words Ge = earth and metro = measure) is the branch of mathematics first introduced by Theaetetus dealing with spatial relationships. ... See map for the navigational aid The acronym MAPS could refer to: Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies Mail Abuse Prevention System Multi-jurisdictional Automated Preclearance System Mid-Atlantic Percussion Society Medical Advanced Pain Specialists Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Multidisciplinary Academic PerspectiveS Metropolitan Area ProjectS Category: ... An engineering drawing is a type of drawing that is technical in nature, used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items, and is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as typefaces and line styles), size, etc. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme or a grapheme-like unit or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language. ... Illustration by Jessie Willcox Smith. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...


Graphics can be functional or artistic. Graphics can be imaginary or represent something in the real world. The latter can be a recorded version, such as a photograph, or an interpretation by a scientist to highlight essential features, or an artist, in which case the distinction with imaginary graphics may become blurred.

Contents

History

The earliest graphics known to anthropologists studying prehistoric periods are cave paintings and markings on boulders, bone, ivory, and antlers, which were created during the Upper Palaeolithic period from 40,000 - 10,000 B.C. or earlier. Many of these were found to record astronomical, seasonal, and chronological details. Some of the earliest graphics and drawings known to the modern world, from almost 6,000 years ago, are that of engraved stone tablets and ceramic cylinder seals, marking the beginning of the historic periods and the keeping of records for accounting and inventory purposes. Records from Egypt predate these and papyrus was used by the Egyptians as a material on which to plan the building of pyramids; they also used slabs of limestone and wood. From 600-250 BC, the Greeks played a major role in geometry. They used graphics to represent their mathematical theories such as the Circle Theorem and the Pythagorean theorem. {Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... The Upper Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Tablets of Stone or Stone Tablets, also known as the Tablets of Law, (in Hebrew: Luchot HaBrit - the tablets [of] the covenant) refers to the two pieces of special stone inscripted with the Ten Commandments when Moses ascended Mount Sinai as recorded in the Book of Exodus. ... Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal impression from Ur, with oldest type of pictographic cuneiform A cylinder seal was a cylinder engraved with a picture story, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a sheet of wet clay. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... This is about the polyhedron. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem (AmE) or Pythagoras theorem (BrE) is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. ...


Drawing

Main articles: Drawing and Technical drawing

Drawing generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface. Common tools are graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels, and markers. Digital tools which simulate the effects of these are also used. The main techniques used in drawing are line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, blending, and shading. For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... Technical drawing, also known as drafting, is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for technical, architectural and engineering needs. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the handwriting instrument. ... Pen and ink refers to a technique of drawing or writing, in which colored (this includes black) ink is applied to paper using a pen or other stylus. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ... For other uses, see Brush (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that pencil lead be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Crayon (disambiguation). ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. ... A Selection of Felt-Tip-Pens. ... For the crosshatch symbol, see Number sign. ... An example of stippling in a biological illustration. ...

Cleft (graphic by Irina Minaeva)
Cleft (graphic by Irina Minaeva)

Drawing is generally considered distinct from painting, in which colored pigments are suspended in a liquid medium and are usually applied with a brush. Notable great drawers include Sir Michael Ash and Leonardo da Vinci. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Techniques and materials related to art: Traditional techniques: Acrylic paint Charcoal Clay Collage Drawing Fresco Glass Gouache Gum arabic Lithography Oil painting Paint Painting Pen and ink Pencil Pigment Pottery Serigraphy Tempera Watercolor painting Modern techniques: Found objects Video art Photographs Installations and Assemblage Performances Interactive multimedia Land art, shaping... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ...


Painting

Main article: Painting

In the Middle Ages and Post Modern Ages, paintings were very distorted; for example, people on a castle wall appeared disproportionately large because they were the painting's focus. Later, realism and perspective became more important, characterized by the technique of looking through a wire mesh to precisely copy dimensions onto a corresponding grid drawn on canvas. During the Renaissance, artists took a non-mathematical approach to drawing. Giotto di Bondone and Duccio di Buoninsegna made great advancements in perspective drawing, using symmetry, converging lines and foreshortening. Many renaissance painters also used fresco - painting directly onto walls - a technique which finds its prototype in cave and rock art. Graphics of this kind, from 30-40,000 years ago, have survived in Australia and France. A modern day equivalent is the mural. For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ... A cube in two-point perspective. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Giotto di Bondone (c. ... Categories: Art stubs | Italian painters ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... Foreshortening refers to the visual effect or optical illusion that an object or distance is shorter than it actually is because it is angled toward the viewer. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ...


Printmaking

Main article: Printmaking

Printmaking originated in China after paper was invented (about A.D. 105). Relief printing first flourished in Europe in the 15th century, when the process of papermaking was imported from the East. Since that time, relief printing has been augmented by the various techniques described earlier, and printmaking has continued to be practiced as one of the fine arts. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Print. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Line Art

Main article: Line art

Line art is any image that consists of distinct straight and curved lines placed against a (usually plain) background, without gradations in shade (darkness) or hue (color) to represent two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects. Line art is usually monochromatic, although lines may be of different colors. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Line Art. ... Shading refers to depicting depth in 3D models by varying levels of darkness. ... An image with the hues cyclically shifted The hues in the image of this Painted Bunting are cyclically rotated with time. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...


Etching

Main article: Etching
Etching
Etching

Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid. The acid eats the metal, leaving behind roughened areas, or, if the surface exposed to the acid is very thin, burning a line into the plate. The process is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer (circa 1470-1536) of Augsburg, Germany, who decorated armour in this way, and applied the method to printmaking. Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... etching by Wolfram Gothe; 1989 source: http://www. ... etching by Wolfram Gothe; 1989 source: http://www. ... Intaglio is a printmaking technique in which the image is incised into a surface. ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... Daniel Hopfer: Gib Frid - three old women beating a devil on the ground. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ...


Etching is also a preliminary step in lithography. The Dutch artist M.C. Escher mastered the technique to perfection, specialising in etchings of impossible structures and oriental interlocking designs. Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ... Hand with Reflecting Sphere (Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror), 1935. ...


Etching is also used in the manufacturing of printed circuit boards and semiconductor devices.


Illustration

Main article: Illustration
An illustration of a character from a story; also, an illustration of illustrations
An illustration of a character from a story; also, an illustration of illustrations

An illustration is a visualisation such as a drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. The aim of an illustration is to elucidate or decorate a story, poem or piece of textual information (such as a newspaper article), traditionally by providing a visual representation of something described in the text. The editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is an illustration containing a political or social message. Illustration by Jessie Willcox Smith. ... Image File history File links Mad_scientist. ... Image File history File links Mad_scientist. ... Visualization can refer to: Visualization as in any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate any message. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... William Lyon Mackenzie King is freed from his Conscription promise by Johnny Canuck. ...


Illustrations can be used to display a wide range of subject matter and serve a variety of functions, such as:

  • giving faces to characters in a story
  • displaying a number of examples of an item described in an academic textbook (e.g. A Typology)
  • visualising step-wise sets of instructions in a technical manual
  • communicating subtle thematic tone in a narrative
  • linking brands to the ideas of human expression, individuality and creativity
  • making a reader laugh or smile
  • for fun (to make laugh) funny

The word typology literally means the study of types. ...

Graphs

Main article: Graphs

A graph or chart is a type of information graphic that represents tabular, numeric data. Charts are often used to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationships between different parts of the data. An Information graphic or infographic is a visual representation of information, data or knowledge. ... A table is a mode of visual communication that maps the logical structure of a set of data into a hierarchical matrix. ... For other uses, see Number (disambiguation). ...


Diagrams

Main article: Diagrams

A diagram is a simplified and structured visual representation of concepts, ideas, constructions, relations, statistical data, etc, used to visualize and clarify the topic. Sample flowchart diagram A diagram is a simplified and structured visual representation of concepts, ideas, constructions, relations, statistical data, anatomy etc used in all aspects of human activities to visualize and clarify the topic. ...


Symbols

Main article: Symbols

A symbol, in its basic sense, is a conventional representation of a concept or quantity; i.e., an idea, object, concept, quality, etc. In more psychological and philosophical terms, all concepts are symbolic in nature, and representations for these concepts are simply token artifacts that are allegorical to (but do not directly codify) a symbolic meaning, or symbolism. For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Geometric design

Maps

Main article: Maps

A map is a simplified depiction of a space, a navigational aid which highlights relations between objects within that space. Usually, a map is a two-dimensional, geometrically accurate representation of a three-dimensional space. See map for the navigational aid The acronym MAPS could refer to: Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies Mail Abuse Prevention System Multi-jurisdictional Automated Preclearance System Mid-Atlantic Percussion Society Medical Advanced Pain Specialists Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Multidisciplinary Academic PerspectiveS Metropolitan Area ProjectS Category: ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... A 2D geometric model is a geometric model of an object as two-dimensional figure, usually on the Euclidean or Cartesian plane. ...


One of the first 'modern' maps was made by Waldseemüller. Martin Waldseemüller (19th century painting) Martin Waldseemüller (Latin name Martinus Ilacomilus, ca. ...


Photography

Main article: Photography

One difference between photography and other forms of graphics is that a photographer, in principle, just records a single moment in reality, with seemingly no interpretation. However, a photographer can choose the field of view and angle, and may also use other techniques, such as various lenses to distort the view or filters to change the colours. In recent times, digital photography has opened the way to an infinite number of fast, but strong, manipulations. Even in the early days of photography, there was controversy over photographs of enacted scenes that were presented as 'real life' (especially in war photography, where it can be very difficult to record the original events). Shifting the viewer's eyes ever so slightly with simple pinpricks in the negative could have a dramatic effect. Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... The field of view is the part of the observable world that is seen at any given moment. ... Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images... In photography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted in the optical path. ... 10 MP Nikon D200 and a Nikon film scanner The Canon EOS 350D The Canon PowerShot A95 Digital photography, as opposed to film photography, uses electronic devices to record and capture the image as binary data. ... Stereoview of the field at Antietam, American Civil War. ...


The choice of the field of view can have a strong effect, effectively 'censoring out' other parts of the scene, accomplished by cropping them out or simply not including them in the photograph. This even touches on the philosophical question of what reality is. The human brain processes information based on previous experience, making us see what we want to see or what we were taught to see. Photography does the same, although the photographer interprets the scene for their viewer.


Engineering drawings

Main article: Engineering drawings

An engineering drawing is a type of drawing that is technical in nature, used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items. It is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as typefaces and line styles), size, etc. An engineering drawing is a type of drawing that is technical in nature, used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items, and is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as typefaces and line styles), size, etc. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... “Font” redirects here. ...


Computer graphics

A graphic from the video game OpenArena.
A graphic from the video game OpenArena.
Main article: Computer graphics

There are two types of computer graphics: raster graphics, where each pixel is separately defined (as in a digital photograph), and vector graphics, where mathematical formulas are used to draw lines and shapes, which are then interpreted at the viewer's end to produce the graphic. Using vectors results in infinitely sharp graphics and often smaller files, but, when complex, vectors take time to render and may have larger filesizes than a raster equivalent. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 293 KB)This is a rocket in the video game OpenArena. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 293 KB)This is a rocket in the video game OpenArena. ... OpenArena is a free and open source 3D computer game that belongs to the first-person shooter genre. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... This article is about vectors that have a particular relation to the spatial coordinates. ... A file in a computer system is a stream (sequence) of bits stored as a single unit, typically in a file system on disk or magnetic tape. ...


In 1950, the first computer-driven display was attached to MIT's Whirlwind I computer to generate simple pictures. This was followed by MIT's TX-0 and TX-2, interactive computing which increased interest in computer graphics during the late 1950s. In 1962, Ivan Sutherland invented Sketchpad, an innovative program that influenced alternative forms of interaction with computers. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... The TX-0, for Transistorized Experimental computer zero but affectionately referred to as the tixo, was the first fully transistorized computer to enter service and contained a then-huge 64K of 18-bit words of core memory. ... The MIT Lincoln Laboratory TX-2 computer was the successor to the Lincoln TX-0 and was known for its role in advancing both artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ivan Sutherland Ivan Sutherland, working at MIT (1963) Ivan Edward Sutherland (born 1938 in Hastings, Nebraska) is a computer programmer and Internet pioneer. ... Sketchpad was a revolutionary computer program written by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 in the course of his PhD thesis. ...


In the mid-1960s, large computer graphics research projects were begun at MIT, General Motors, Bell Labs, and Lockheed Corporation. D. T. Ross of MIT developed an advanced compiler language for graphics programming. S.A.Coons, also at MIT, and J. C. Ferguson at Boeing, began work in sculptured surfaces. GM developed their DAC-1 system, and other companies, such as Douglas, Lockheed, and McDonnell, also made significant developments. In 1968, ray tracing was invented by Appel. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Douglas (not to be confused with Douglass), or its shortened form Doug, may refer to: // Douglas (surname), people so named Clan Douglas, a Scottish family Earl of Douglas, or any holder of the title Marquess of Douglas, or any holder of the title Duke of Douglas, or any holder of... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... The McDonnell Aircraft Corporation was an American aerospace manufacturer, based near St. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A ray traced scene. ...


During the late 1970s, personal computers became more powerful, capable of drawing both basic and complex shapes and designs. In the 1980s, artists and graphic designers began to see the personal computer, particularly the Commodore Amiga and Macintosh, as a serious design tool, one that could save time and draw more accurately than other methods. 3D computer graphics became possible in the late 1980s with the powerful SGI computers, which were later used to create some of the first fully computer-generated short films at Pixar. The Macintosh remains one of the most popular tools for computer graphics in graphic design studios and businesses. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Amiga is the name of a range of home/personal computers using the Motorola 68000 processor family, whose development started in 1982. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... 3D computer graphics (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that utilize a three-dimensional representation of geometric data that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Short subject is an American film industry term that historically has referred to any film in the format of two reels, or approximately 20 minutes running time, or less. ... Pixars studio lot in Emeryville Pixar Animation Studios is an American computer animation studio based in Emeryville, California (USA) notable for its seven Academy Awards. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ...


Modern computer systems, dating from the 1980s and onwards, often use a graphical user interface (GUI) to present data and information with symbols, icons and pictures, rather than text. Graphics are one of the five key elements of multimedia technology. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... GUI redirects here. ... Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


3D graphics became more popular in the 1990s in gaming, multimedia and animation. In 1996, Quake, one of the first fully 3D games, was released. In 1995, Toy Story, the first full-length computer-generated animation film, was released in cinemas worldwide. Since then, computer graphics have become more accurate and detailed, due to more advanced computers and better 3D modelling software applications, such as Cinema 4D. The rewrite of this article is being devised at Talk:3D computer graphics/Temp. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Zombies attacking the player at the starting of Episode 1, Mission 3: The Necropolis. ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Toy Story is an Academy-award-winning CGI animated feature film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution in the United States on November 22, 1995, and Australia on December 7, 1995, as well as in the United Kingdom on 22 March... CINEMA 4D is a commercial cross platform high-end 3D graphics application produced by MAXON Computer GmbH of Friedrichsdorf near Frankfurt, Germany. ...


Another use of computer graphics is screensavers, originally intended to preventing the layout of much-used GUIs from 'burning into' the computer screen. They have since evolved into true pieces of art, their practical purpose obsolete; modern screens are not susceptible to such A screensaver is a computer program originally designed to conserve the image quality of computer displays by blanking the screen or filling them with moving images or patterns when the computers are not in use. ...


Web graphics

Signature art used on web forums
Signature art used on web forums

In the 1990s, Internet speeds increased, and Internet browsers capable of viewing images were released, the first being Mosaic. Websites began to use the GIF format to display small graphics, such as banners, advertisements and navigation buttons, on web pages. Modern web browsers can now display JPEG, PNG and increasingly, SVG images in addition to GIFs on web pages. VML/SVG support in some modern web browsers have made it display vector graphics that are clear at any size. Plugins expand the web browser functions to display animated, interactive and 3-D graphics contained within file formats such as SWF and X3D. Image File history File links Orangesig. ... Image File history File links Orangesig. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Mosaic was the first popular World Wide Web browser and Gopher client. ... GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is a bitmap image format that is widely used on the World Wide Web, both for still images and for animations. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... JPG redirects here. ... PNG (Portable Network Graphics), sometimes pronounced as ping, is a relatively new bitmap image format that is becoming popular on the World Wide Web and elsewhere. ... SVG redirects here. ... Vector Markup Language (VML) is an XML language used to produce vector graphics. ... SVG redirects here. ... A web browser is a software package that enables a user to display and interact with documents hosted by web servers. ... Example showing effect of vector graphics versus raster graphics. ... For other uses, see Plug in. ... This article is about the proprietary file format . ... X3D is the ISO standard for real-time 3D computer graphics, the successor to Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). ...


Most modern web graphics are made with either Adobe Photoshop, the GIMP, or Corel Paint Shop Pro. However, users of Microsoft Windows mostly have MS Paint, which many find to be lacking in features. Photoshop redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gimp (disambiguation). ... Paint Shop Pro (PSP) is a bitmap graphics editor and vector graphics editor for computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system that was originally published by Minneapolis-based Jasc Software. ... “Windows” redirects here. ...


Numerous platforms and websites have been created to cater to web graphics artists and to host their communities. A growing number of people use Photoshop, GIMP and Paint Shop Pro to create internet forum signatures - generally appearing after a user's post - and other digital artwork, such as photo manipulations and large graphics.


Use

Graphics are visual elements often used to point readers and viewers to particular information. They are also used to supplement text in an effort to aid readers in their understanding of a particular concept or make the concept more clear or interesting. Popular magazines, such as TIME, Wired and Newsweek, usually contain graphic material in abundance to attract readers, unlike the majority of scholarly journals. In computing, they are used to create a graphical interface for the user; and graphics are one of the five key elements of multimedia technology. Graphics are among the primary ways of advertising the sale of goods or services. Vision can refer to: Visual perception is one of the senses. ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Business

Graphics are commonly used in business and economics to create financial charts and tables. The term Business Graphics came into use in the late 1970s, when personal computers became capable of drawing graphs and charts instead of using a tabular format. Business Graphics can be used to highlight changes over a period of time. In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


Advertising

Advertising is one of the most profitable uses of graphics; artists often do advertising work or take advertising potential into account when creating art, to increase the chances of selling the artwork.


Political

The use of graphics for overtly political purposes - cartoons, graffiti, poster art, flag design, etc - is a centuries old practice which thrives today in every part of the world. The Northern Irish murals are one such example. Northern Irish murals have become symbols of Northern Ireland, depicting the countys past and present divisions. ...


Education

Graphics are heavily used in textbooks, especially those concerning subjects such as geography, science and mathematics, in order to illustrate theories and concepts, such as the human anatomy. Diagrams are also used to label photographs and pictures. Two textbooks A textbook is a book that strives to teach a student about a particular discipline, usually academic, and they are usually divided into chapters based on subject area. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ...


Educational animation is an important emerging field of graphics. Animated graphics have obvious advantages over static graphics when explaining subject matter that changes over time. Educational animations are animations produced for the specific purpose of fostering learning. ...


The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary uses graphics and technical illustrations to make reading material more interesting and easier to understand. In an encyclopedia, graphics are used to illustrate concepts and show examples of the particular topic being discussed. Cyclopedia redirects here. ...


In order for a graphic to function effectively as an educational aid, the learner must be able to interpret it successfully. This interpretative capacity is one aspect of graphicacy. Graphicacy is concerned with the capacities people require in order to interpret and generate information in the form of graphics. ...


Film and animation

Computer graphics are often used in the majority of new feature films, especially those with a large budget. Films that heavily use computer graphics include the Harry Potter films, Spider-Man and War of the Worlds. This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Tobey Maguire in Spider-Man Spider-Man is the name of an extremely successful movie (released on May 3, 2002) which stars Tobey Maguire, Kirsten Dunst and Willem Dafoe and was directed by Sam Raimi. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Graphics education

The majority of schools, colleges and universities around the world educate students on the subject of graphics and art.


The subject is taught in a broad variety of ways, each course teaching its own distinctive balance of craft skills and intellectual response to the client's needs.


Some graphics courses prioritize traditional craft skills - drawing, printmaking and typography - over modern craft skills. Other courses may place an emphasis on teaching digital craft skills. Stilllother courses may downplay the crafts entirely, concentrating on training students to generate novel intellectual responses that engage with the brief. Despite these apparent differences in training and curriculum, the staff and students on any of these courses will generally consider themselves to be graphic designers.


The typical pedagogy of a graphic design (or graphic communication, visual communication, graphic arts or any number of synonymous course titles) will be broadly based on the teaching models developed in the Bauhaus school in Germany or VKhUTEMAS in Soviet Russia. The teaching model will tend to expose students to a variety of craft skills (currently everything from drawing to motion capture), combined with an effort to engage the student with the world of visual culture. Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the... Synonyms (in ancient Greek syn συν = plus and onoma όνομα = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... For the British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... VKhUTEMAS (Russian acronym for Higher State Art and Technical Workshops) was the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow, and dissolved in 1930. ...


Famous graphic designers

Aldus Manutius designed the first Italic type style which is often used in desktop publishing and graphic design. April Greiman is known for her influential poster design. Paul Rand is well known as a design pioneer for designing many popular corporate logos, including the logo for IBM, NeXT and UPS. William Caslon, during the mid-18th century, designed many typefaces, including ITC Founder's Caslon, ITC Founder's Caslon Ornaments, Caslon Graphique, ITC Caslon No. 224, Caslon Old Face and Big Caslon. Aldus Manutius (1449/50 - February 6, 1515), the Latin form of Aldo Manuzio (born Teobaldo Mannucci) was the founder of the Aldine Press. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous,[1] as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate. ... April Greiman (born 1948) is a highly influential contemporary designer. ... Placard redirects here: this should not be confused with Plaque or Plack Poster from the Spanish Revolution A poster is any large piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. ... Paul Rand (born Peretz Rosenbaum, August 15, 1914 – November 26, 1996) was a well-known American graphic designer, best known for his corporate logo designs. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... For other meanings, see Next. ... United Parcel Service, Inc. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


Examples

See also

Look up graphics in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The Center for the Study of Political Graphics (CSPG) is a non-profit, educational and research archive that collects, preserves, documents, and circulates domestic and international political posters relating to historical and contemporary movements for social change. ... William Lyon Mackenzie King is freed from his Conscription promise by Johnny Canuck. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Graphics
  • Timeline Computer Graphics An Historical Timeline of Computer Graphics and Animation

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Graphics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2375 words)
Some of the earliest graphics and drawings known to the modern world, from almost 6,000 years ago, are that of engraved stone tablets and ceramic cylinder seals, marking the beginning of the historic periods and the keeping of records for accounting and inventory purposes.
In computer graphics there are two types of graphics: Raster, where each pixel is separately defined, and vector, where mathematical formula are used to draw lines (eg 'take two points and draw a parabole between them'), which are then interpreted at the 'receiving end' to produce the graphic.
Graphics are heavily used in education in textbooks for subjects such as geography, science and math to illustrate theories and concepts.
Graphics (Java 2 Platform SE v1.4.2) (5765 words)
Sets the paint mode of this graphics context to alternate between this graphics context's current color and the new specified color.
This constructor is the default contructor for a graphics context.
All subsequent graphics operations using this graphics context use this specified color.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m