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Encyclopedia > Graphical user interface

A graphical user interface or GUI (IPA: /ˈɡuːiː/) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices. It presents graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called "widgets". Often the icons are used in conjunction with text, labels or text navigation to fully represent the information and actions available to a user. But instead of offering only text menus, or requiring typed commands, the actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. Gui can refer to the following: Gui is short for Guilherme or Guilhermo; in English, this name translations to William. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... // Human–computer interaction (HCI), alternatively man–machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI) is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. ... Various widgets. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Direct manipulation is a human-computer interaction style that was defined by Ben Shneiderman and which involves continuous representation of objects of interest, and rapid, reversible, incremental actions and feedback. ...


The term GUI is historically restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens with display resolutions capable of describing generic information, in the tradition of the computer science research at Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) (formerly Xerox PARC and still a subsidiary of Xerox). The term GUI does not apply to other high-resolution types of interfaces that are non-generic, such as videogames, or not restricted to flat screens, like volumetric displays. Display standards comparison The display resolution of a digital television or computer display typically refers to the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) was a flagship research division of the Xerox Corporation, based in Palo Alto, California, USA. It was founded in 1970 and spun out as a separate company in 2002. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) is the worlds largest supplier of toner-based (dry ink) photocopier machines and associated supplies. ... Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is a term that refers to the layer that separates a human that is operating a machine from the machine itself. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... A volumetric display device is a graphical display device that forms a visual representation of an object in three physical dimensions, as opposed to the planar image of traditional screens that simulate depth through a number of different visual effects. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the graphical user interface

The graphical user interface, or GUI (IPA: ), is a computer interface that uses graphic icons and controls in addition to text. ...

Precursors

The precursor to GUIs was invented by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute, led by Douglas Engelbart. They developed the use of text-based hyperlinks manipulated with a mouse for the On-Line System. The concept of hyperlinks was further refined and extended to graphics by researchers at Xerox PARC, who went beyond text-based hyperlinks and used a GUI as the primary interface for the Xerox Alto computer. Most modern general-purpose GUIs are derived from this system. As a result, some people call this class of interface a PARC User Interface (PUI) (note that PUI is also an acronym for perceptual user interface). SRI International is one of the worlds largest contract research institutions. ... Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of German descent. ... // A hyperlink, is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document or to another document that may be on a (different) website. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... NLS, or the oNLine System, was the revolutionary computer collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and the researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during the 1960s. ... Bold text // Headline text Link title This article is about the computer research center. ... The Xerox Alto monitor has a portrait orientation. ... This article is about the machine. ...


Ivan Sutherland developed a pointer-based system called Sketchpad in 1963. It used a light-pen to guide the creation and manipulation of objects in engineering drawings. Ivan Sutherland Ivan Sutherland, working at MIT (1963) Ivan Edward Sutherland (born 1938 in Hastings, Nebraska) is a computer programmer and Internet pioneer. ... Sketchpad was a revolutionary computer program written by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 in the course of his PhD thesis. ...


PARC User Interface

The PARC User Interface consists of graphical widgets (often provided by widget toolkit libraries) such as windows, menus, radio buttons, check boxes and icons. The PARC User Interface employs a pointing device in addition to a keyboard. These aspects can be emphasized by using the alternative acronym WIMP, which stands for Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointing device. In computer programming, widget toolkits (or GUI toolkits) are sets of basic building units for graphical user interfaces. ... An example of a graphical user interface in Windows XP, with the My Music window displayed In computing, a window is a visual area, usually rectangular in shape, containing some kind of user interface, displaying the output of and allowing input for one of a number of simultaneously running computer... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For information on radios, see Radio. ... Checkboxes in Mac OS X. In computing, a check box is a graphical user interface element (widget) that indicates a two-way choice or state (true/false) which can be edited by the user. ... Nuvola icons for KDE are available as PNG images, which come in six sizes, and SVG images, which are scalable On computer displays, a computer icon is a small pictogram. ... An Apple pro mouse A pointing device is any computer hardware component (specifically human interface device) that allows a user to input spatial (ie, continuous and multi-dimensional) data to a computer. ... In human–computer interaction, WIMP stands for window, icon, menu, pointing device, denoting a style of interaction using these elements. ... An Apple pro mouse A pointing device is any computer hardware component (specifically human interface device) that allows a user to input spatial (ie, continuous and multi-dimensional) data to a computer. ...

GUI developed in 1981 for the Star workstation, officially known as the 8010 Star Information System

Xerox_star_desktop http://www2. ... Xerox_star_desktop http://www2. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ...

Evolution

Following PARC the first GUI-centric computer operating model was the Xerox 8010 Star Information System in 1981.[1] The Star workstation, officially known as the 8010 Star Information System, was introduced by Xerox Corporation in 1981. ...


The GUIs familiar to most people today are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and the X Window System interfaces. Apple, IBM and Microsoft used many of Xerox's ideas to develop IBMs Common User Access specifications that formed the basis of the user interface found in Microsoft Windows, IBM OS/2 Presentation Manager, and the Unix Motif toolkit and window manager. These ideas evolved to create the interface found in current versions of the Windows operating system, as well as in Mac OS X and various desktop environments for Unix-like systems. Thus most current GUIs have largely common idioms. Windows redirects here. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... “X11” redirects here. ... Apple Inc. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Common User Access (CUA) is a set of guidelines for the user interface to personal computer operating systems and computer programs, developed by IBM starting in 1987 as part of their Systems Application Architecture. ... Windows redirects here. ... OS/2 is a computer operating system, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later developed by IBM exclusively. ... Presentation Manager (PM) was the name given to the Graphical User Interface (GUI) which IBM introduced in version 1. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Screenshot of an application that uses the Open Motif toolkit Motif is a widget toolkit for building graphical user interfaces under the X Window System on Unix and other POSIX-compliant systems. ... A window manager is computer software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface; they are typically associated with X Window (see X window manager), but alternative shells for Microsoft Windows have also emerged. ... In graphical computing, a desktop environment (DE) offers a complete graphical user interface (GUI) solution to operate a computer. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ...


Components

A GUI uses a combination of technologies and devices to provide a platform the user can interact with, for the tasks of gathering and producing information. Graphical user interfaces, also known as GUIs make it easier for people with little computer skills to work with and use computer software. ...


The most common combination in GUIs is the WIMP paradigm. This style of interaction uses a physical input device to control the position of a cursor and presents information organized in windows and represented with icons. Available commands are compiled together in menus and actioned through the pointing device. In human–computer interaction, WIMP stands for window, icon, menu, pointing device, denoting a style of interaction using these elements. ... An input device is a hardware mechanism that transforms information in the external world for consumption by a computer. ... A blinking text cursor. ...


In personal computers all these elements are modelled through a desktop metaphor, in which the display represents a desktop upon which documents and folders of documents can be placed. Smaller mobile devices such as PDAs and smartphones typically use the WIMP elements with different unifying metaphors, due to constraints in space and available input devices. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Desktop_environment. ... Look up PDA in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Sony Ericsson Smartphone (Model P910i) with touch screen and QWERTY keyboard Look up smartphone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Applications for which WIMP is not well suited may use newer interaction techniques, collectively named as non-WIMP user interfaces.


User Interface and Interaction Design

Main article: User_interface_design

Designing the visual composition and temporal behavior of GUI is an important part of software application programming. Its goal is to enhance the efficiency and ease of use for the underlying logical design of a stored program, a design discipline known as usability. Techniques of user-centered design are used to ensure that the visual language introduced in the design is well tailored to the tasks it must perform. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. ... It has been suggested that User Centered Design be merged into this article or section. ...


Typically, the user interacts with information by manipulating visual widgets that allow for interactions appropriate to the kind of data they hold. The widgets of a well-designed interface are selected to support the actions necessary to achieve the goals of the user. A Model-view-controller allows for a flexible structure in which the interface is independent from and indirectly linked to application functionality, so the GUI can be easily customized. This allows the user to select or design a different skin at will, and eases the designer's work to change the interface as the user needs evolve. Nevertheless, good user interface design relates to the user, not the system architecture. Various widgets. ... This article or section should include material from Model view controller triad Model-View-Controller (MVC) is a software architecture that separates an applications data model, user interface, and control logic into three distinct components so that modifications to the view component can be made with minimal impact to... In computing, skins and themes are custom graphical appearances (GUIs) that can be applied to certain software and websites in order to suit the different tastes of different users. ...


The visible graphical interface features of an application are sometimes referred to as "chrome".[2] Larger widgets, such as windows, usually provide a frame or container for the main presentation content such as a web page, email message or drawing. Smaller ones usually act as a user-input tool.


A GUI may be designed for the rigorous requirements of a vertical market. This is known as an "application specific graphical user interface." Examples of an application specific GUI are: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • Touchscreen point of sale software used by waitstaff in a busy restaurant
  • Self-service checkouts used in a retail store
  • Automated teller machines (ATM)
  • Airline self-ticketing and check-in
  • Information kiosks in a public space, like a train station or a museum
  • Monitors or control screens in an embedded industrial application which employ a real time operating system (RTOS).

The latest cell phones and handheld game systems also employ application specific touchscreen GUIs. Newer automobiles use GUIs in their navigation systems and touch screen multimedia centers. A Real Time Operating System or RTOS is an operating system that has been developed for real-time applications. ...


Comparison to previous interfaces

Command line interfaces

GUIs were introduced in reaction to the steep learning curve of command line interfaces (CLI), which require commands to be typed on the keyboard. Since the commands available in command line interfaces can be numerous, complicated operations can be completed using a short sequence of words and symbols. This allows for greater efficiency and productivity once many commands are learned, but reaching this level takes some time because the command words are not easily discoverable. WIMPs ("window, icon, menu, pointing device"), on the other hand, present the user with numerous widgets that represent and can trigger some of the system's available commands. The learning curve refers to a relationship between the duration of learning or experience and the resulting progress. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... In human–computer interaction, WIMP stands for window, icon, menu, pointing device, denoting a style of interaction using these elements. ... Various widgets. ...


WIMPs extensively use modes as the meaning of all keys and clicks on specific positions on the screen are redefined all the time. Command line interfaces use modes only in limited forms, such as the current directory and environment variables. In computer software, a mode is distinct method of operation within a computer program, in which the same user input can produce different results depending of the state of the computer. ...


Most modern operating systems provide both a GUI and some level of a CLI, although the GUIs usually receive more attention. The GUI is usually WIMP-based, although occasionally other metaphors surface, such as those used in Microsoft Bob, 3dwm or File System Visualizer (FSV). An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A picture of the Microsoft Bob start up screen. ...


Applications may also provide both interfaces, and when they do the GUI is usually a WIMP wrapper around the command-line version. This is especially common with applications designed for Unix-like operating systems. The latter used to be implemented first because it allowed the developers to focus exclusively on their product's functionality without bothering about interface details such as designing icons and placing buttons. Designing programs this way also allows users to run the program non-interactively, such as in a shell script. Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... A shell script is a script written for the shell, or command line interpreter, of an operating system. ...


Text user interfaces

Text user interfaces (TUI) share with GUIs their use of the entire screen area and exposure of available commands through widgets like form entry and menus. However, TUIs only use text and symbols available on a typical text terminal, while GUIs typically use high resolution graphics modes. This allows the GUI to present more detailed information and fine-grained direct manipulation. Snapshot of the Phoenix AwardBIOS TUI. TUI short for: Text User Interface or Textual User Interface (and sometimes Terminal User Interface), is a retronym that was coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces, to distinguish them from text based user interfaces. ...


Three-dimensional user interfaces

Screenshot showing the "cube" plugin of Compiz

For typical computer displays, three-dimensional is a misnomer—their displays are two-dimensional. Three-dimensional images are projected on them in two dimensions. Since this technique has been in use for many years, the recent use of the term three-dimensional must be considered a declaration by equipment marketers that the speed of three dimension to two dimension projection is adequate to use in standard GUIs.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x800, 118 KB)[edit] Summary Picture of the cube plugin in Compiz. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x800, 118 KB)[edit] Summary Picture of the cube plugin in Compiz. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Compiz fusion. ...


Motivation

Three-dimensional GUIs are quite common in science fiction literature and movies, such as in Jurassic Park, which features Silicon Graphics' three-dimensional file manager, "File system navigator", an actual file manager that never got much widespread use as the user interface for a Unix computer. In fiction, three-dimensional user interfaces are often immersible environments like William Gibson's Cyberspace or Neal Stephenson's Metaverse. Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ... Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... It has been suggested that Virtual world be merged into this article or section. ... The term metaverse comes from Neal Stephenson’s 1992 novel Snow Crash, and is now widely used to describe the vision behind current work on fully immersive 3D virtual spaces. ...


Three-dimensional graphics are currently mostly used in computer games, art and computer-aided design (CAD). There have been several attempts at making three-dimensional desktop environments like Sun's Project Looking Glass or SphereXP from Sphere Inc. A three-dimensional computing environment could possibly be used for collaborative work. For example, scientists could study three-dimensional models of molecules in a virtual reality environment, or engineers could work on assembling a three-dimensional model of an airplane. This is a goal of the Croquet project and Project Looking Glass.[3] CADD and CAD redirect here. ... Project Looking Glass is a free software project under the GPL to create an innovative 3D desktop environment for Linux, Solaris, and Windows. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Real time, interactive, 3D map of this very same world. ...


Technologies

The use of three-dimensional graphics has become increasingly common in mainstream operating systems, but mainly been confined to creating attractive interfaces—eye candy—rather than for functional purposes only possible using three dimensions. For example, user switching is represented by rotating a cube whose faces are each user's workspace, and window management is represented in the form of Exposé on Mac OS X, or via a Rolodex-style flipping mechanism in Windows Vista. In both cases, the operating system transforms windows on-the-fly while continuing to update the content of those windows. Eye candy is an expression used to describe something that is most remarkable by its appearance, but that doesnt have anything else so exciting. ... Mac OS X 10. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... A Rolodex file used in the 1970s. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ...


Interfaces for the X Window System have also implemented advanced three-dimensional user interfaces through compositing window managers such as Beryl and Compiz using the AIGLX or XGL architectures, allowing for the usage of OpenGL to animate the user's interactions with the desktop. “X11” redirects here. ... In the X Window System, a compositing window manager is a unified X window manager and compositing manager program. ... Beryl is a compositing window manager for the X Window System. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Compiz fusion. ... Compiz running on Fedora Core 6 with AIGLX. Accelerated Indirect GLX (AIGLX) is an open source project founded by Red Hat and the Fedora Linux community to allow accelerated indirect GLX rendering capabilities to X.org and DRI drivers. ... Cube view on a hardware accelerated Xgl server Xgl is an X server architecture designed to take advantage of modern graphics cards via their OpenGL drivers, layered on top of OpenGL via glitz. ...


Another branch in the three-dimensional desktop environment is the three-dimensional GUIs that take the desktop metaphor a step further, like the BumpTop, where a user can manipulate documents and windows as if they were "real world" documents, with realistic movement and physics. BumpTop is a prototype Graphical User Interface, designed to enhance traditional computer desktop functionality by more closely supporting the normal behavior of a real world desk. ...


The Zooming User Interface (ZUI) is a related technology that promises to deliver the representation benefits of 3D environments without their usability drawbacks of orientation problems and hidden objects. It is a logical advancement on the GUI, blending some three-dimensional movement with two-dimensional or "2.5D" vector objects. Example of a ZUI In computing, a Zooming User Interface or ZUI is a graphic environment that allows users to interact with system objects. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... 2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them. ... 2. ...


See also

AJAX redirects here. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... Ergonomics (or human factors) is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use (definition adopted by the International Ergonomics Association in 2007). ... Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is a term that refers to the layer that separates a human that is operating a machine from the machine itself. ... Example of a LUI A live user interface (LUI, pronounced Loo-ee) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices, utilizing the power of human interaction. ... Look and feel refers to design aspects of a graphical user interface - in terms of both colours, shapes, layout, typefaces, etc (the look); and, the behaviour of dynamic elements such as buttons, boxes, and menus (the feel). It is used in reference to both software and websites. ... This article or section should include material from Model view controller triad Model-View-Controller (MVC) is a software architecture that separates an applications data model, user interface, and control logic into three distinct components so that modifications to the view component can be made with minimal impact to... An object-oriented user interface (OOUI) is a type of user interface. ... Post-WIMP refers to work on user interfaces, mostly graphical user interfaces, which try to go beyond the paradigm of windows, icons, menus and a pointing device, i. ... For the geographical term, see ria. ... In computing, skins and themes are custom graphical appearances (GUIs) that can be applied to certain software and websites in order to suit the different tastes of different users. ... User interface engineering is the engineering of the user interface. ... A vector-based GUI is a mostly conceptual type of graphical user interface where elements are drawn using vector, rather than raster information. ... In human–computer interaction, WIMP stands for window, icon, menu, pointing device, denoting a style of interaction using these elements. ...

References

External links

Ars Technica is a technology-related website catering to PC enthusiasts. ... Graphical user interfaces, also known as GUIs make it easier for people with little computer skills to work with and use computer software. ... An about box or about dialog is a dialog box that displays the credits of a computer software. ... An accordion is a graphical user interface widget in which several sections of a document can be expanded or collapsed, displaying one at a time. ... System 7 Balloon Help in Eudora Balloon help was a tooltips-type help system introduced by Apple Computer in their System 7 operating system release. ... Breadcrumbs or breadcrumb trails is a navigation technique used in user interfaces. ... In computing, a button (sometimes known as a command button or push button) is a widget that provides the user a simple way to trigger an event, like searching for a query at a search engine, or to interact with dialog boxes, like confirming his actions. ... Checkboxes in Mac OS X. In computing, a check box is a graphical user interface element (widget) that indicates a two-way choice or state (true/false) which can be edited by the user. ... A combo box in the Macintosh Finder A combo box is a user interface control GUI element. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An example of a context menu taken from the word processor Microsoft Word. ... Example of dialog box from Microsoft Windows Dialog boxes are special windows which are used by computer programs or by the operating system to display information to the user, or to get a response if needed. ... Disclosure widget in the GNOME file dialog. ... A drop-down list, in the normal inactive state The same drop-down list when activated A drop-down list is a user interface control GUI element similar to a list box which allows the user to choose one value from a list. ... In computing, a File dialog (Also called File Selector/Chooser, or open and save dialog) is a dialog box that allows users to choose a file from the file system. ... NSTableView is the Mac OS X version of grid view A grid view or a datagrid is a graphical user interface element (widget) that presents a tabular view of data. ... Like its equivalents in aircraft and video gaming, heads-up displays are elements of the graphical user interface in personal computing systems. ... Nuvola icons for KDE are available as PNG images, which come in six sizes, and SVG images, which are scalable On computer displays, a computer icon is a small pictogram. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A label is a user interface control which displays text on a form. ... A listbox on the Mac OS X operating system A list box is a GUI widget that allows the user to select one or more items from a list contained within a static, multiple line text box. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A pie menu. ... The default Windows XP (Luna theme) display of a determinate progress bar Example of indeterminate progress bar when searching in Windows XP (Energy blue theme) Image:Progbarr. ... A group of radio buttons, with one choice selected, in Windows XP A pair of radio buttons in Apples Mac OS X A radio button is a type of graphical user interface widget that allows the user to choose one of a predefined set of options. ... The ribbon is a graphical user interface widget composed of a strip across the top of the window that exposes all functions the program can perform in a single place, with additional ribbons appearing based on the context of the data. ... A scrollbar, or slider, is a graphical widget in a GUI with which continuous text, pictures or anything else can be scrolled including time in video applications, i. ... The sidebar is a term that is used for a GUI element that displays various forms of information to the side of an application or desktop user interface. ... A slider is a graphical widget in a GUI with which a user may set a value by moving an indicator, usually in a horizontal fashion. ... A spinner is a graphical widget in a GUI,typically oriented vertically, with which a user may adjust a value in an adjoining text box by either clicking on a up or down arrow, or by holding the arrow down, causing the value in the text box to increase (if... An example of a status bar A status bar is a component (widget) often found at the bottom of windows in a graphical user interface. ... A tab in graphical user interfaces is a typically rectangular small box (usually containing a text label and/or an icon) associated graphically with a view pane. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A throbber from the Netscape web browser A throbber is a graphic usually found in the top-right corner of the graphical user interface of a computer program (especially a web browser) that animates to show the user that the program is performing an action (such as downloading a web... An early toolbar on a Xerox Alto Computer. ... The tooltip is a common graphical user interface element. ... A tree view or an outline view is a graphical user interface element (widget) that presents a hierarchial view of information. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Graphical user interface - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1186 words)
A graphical user interface (or GUI, sometimes pronounced "gooey") is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulation of graphical images and widgets in addition to text.
The PUI consists of graphical widgets (often provided by widget toolkit libraries) such as windows, menus, radio buttons, check boxes and icons, and employs a pointing device (such as a mouse, trackball or touchscreen) in addition to a keyboard.
Chrome is the set of user interface elements of the application window that are outside of a window's content area.
History of the graphical user interface - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2692 words)
This is considerably different from the command line interface in which the user types a series of text commands to the computer.
Windows 1.0 was a GUI (graphic user interface) for the MS-DOS operating system that had been the OS of choice for IBM PC and compatible computers since 1981.
Some interface features of Mac OS X are inherited from NeXTStep (such as the Dock, the automatic wait cursor, or double-buffered windows giving a solid appearance and flicker-free window redraws), while others are inherited from the old Mac OS operating system (the single system-wide menu-bar).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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