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Encyclopedia > Graphic novel
Trade paperback of Will Eisner's A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel.
Trade paperback of Will Eisner's A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel.

A graphic novel is a type of comic book, usually with a lengthy and complex storyline similar to those of novels, and often aimed at mature audiences. The term also encompasses comic short story anthologies, and in some cases bound collections of previously published comic-book series. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (433x668, 121 KB) Summary New version source: http://ublib. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (433x668, 121 KB) Summary New version source: http://ublib. ... A trade paperback can refer to any book that is bound with a heavy paper cover that is generally cheaper than the hardcover but more expensive than the regular paperback version. ... William Erwin Eisner (March 6, 1917 – January 3, 2005) was an acclaimed American comics writer, artist and entrepreneur. ... Cover A Contract with God is a graphic novel by Will Eisner, its full title being A Contract with God: and Other Tenement Stories. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Graphic novels are typically bound in longer and more durable formats than familiar comic magazines, using the same materials and methods as printed books, and are generally sold in bookstores and specialty comic book shops rather than at newsstands. Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Categories: Bookstores | Stub ...

Contents

Definition

Comic works created and published as a single narrative, without prior appearance in magazines, comic books or newspapers, are called original graphic novels (OGN). See comedian Stand up comedian List of Comedians List of British comedians comics comic book comic strip underground comics alternative comics web comic sprite comics manga graphic novel List of comic characters This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ...


The evolving term "graphic novel" is not strictly defined, and is sometimes used, controversially, to imply subjective distinctions in artistic quality between graphic novels and other kinds of comics. It suggests a story that has a beginning, middle and end, as opposed to an ongoing series with continuing characters; one that is outside the genres commonly associated with comic books, and that deals with more mature themes. It is sometimes applied to works that fit this description even though they are serialized in traditional comic book format. The term is commonly used to disassociate works from the juvenile or humorous connotations of the terms "comics" and "comic book", implying that the work is more serious, mature, or literary than traditional comics. Following this reasoning, the French term "Bande Dessinée" is occasionally applied, by art historians and others schooled in fine arts, to dissociate comic books in the fine-art tradition from those of popular entertainment, even though in the French language the term has no such connotation and applies equally to all kinds of comic strips and books. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics or comic books written in Belgium and France. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ...


In the publishing trade, the term is sometimes extended to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Collections of comic books that do not form a continuous story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces, and even non-fiction are stocked by libraries and bookstores as "graphic novels" (similar to the manner in which dramatic stories are included in "comic" books). This article is concerned with the production of books, magazines, and other literary material (whether in printed or electronic formats). ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... ANThology is the first major label album by Alien Ant Farm. ... Non-fiction is an account or representation of a subject which is presented as fact. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body, institution, or private individual. ... Categories: Bookstores | Stub ...


Whether manga, which has had a much longer history of both novel-like publishing and production of comics for adult audiences, should be included in the term is not always agreed upon. Likewise, in continental Europe, both original book-length stories such as La rivolta dei racchi (1967) by Guido Buzzeli[1], and collections of comic strips have been commonly published in hardcover volumes, often called "albums", since the end of the 19th century (including Franco-Belgian comics series such as "The Adventures of Tintin" and "Lieutenant Blueberry", and Italian series such as "Corto Maltese"). Manga )   (pl. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics written in Belgium and France. ... The main cast of the series. ... Blueberry is a French language comic strip created by Jean-Michel Charlier and Jean MÅ“bius Giraud. ... Corto Maltese (Corto Maltese Venetsiassa is the title of the Finnish translation of Fable of Venice. ...


History

Comics have long been collected into book form, with strips starring the British character Ally Sloper having been collected as early as 1873 in the United Kingdom. The United States has also had a long tradition of collecting comic strips into book form, and of producing "bumper editions". Whilst these collections and longer-form comic books are not considered graphic novels even by modern standards, they show the presence of an audience for such works, and can be thought of as early steps in the development of the graphic novel. Alexander Ally Sloper is one of the earliest fictional comic strip characters. ...


Antecedents: 1920s to 1960s

The digest-sized "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust (1950), one precursor of the graphic novel. Cover art by Matt Baker and Ray Osrin.
The digest-sized "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust (1950), one precursor of the graphic novel. Cover art by Matt Baker and Ray Osrin.

The 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel often cited as "the undisputed King" (Sabin, 291) of this revival. Among Masereel's works were Passionate Journey (1926, reissued 1985 as Passionate Journey: A Novel in 165 Woodcuts ISBN 0-87286-174-0). American Lynd Ward also worked in this tradition during the 1930s. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (503x694, 129 KB) Summary Cover, It Rhymes with Lust -- 1950 picture novel (proto-grahic novel) Image courtesy of Comicartville. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (503x694, 129 KB) Summary Cover, It Rhymes with Lust -- 1950 picture novel (proto-grahic novel) Image courtesy of Comicartville. ... Phantom Lady #17 (April 1948). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Frans Masereel (1889-1972) was a Belgian painter, one of the greatest woodcut artist of our time. ... Lynd Kendall Ward (26 June 1905 – 28 June 1985) was an American artist and storyteller, and son of Methodist minister and prominent political organizer Harry F. Ward. ...


Other prototypical examples from this period include American Milt Gross' He Done Her Wrong (1930), a wordless comic published as a hardcover book. That same year, the first European comic-strip collections, called "albums", debuted with The Adventures of Tintin in the Land of the Soviets by the Belgian Hergé. Milt Gross (1895-1953), was an American comic book illustrator, and animator. ... English-language edition Tintin in the Land of the Soviets (originally known as Les Aventures de Tintin, reporter du Petit Vingtième, au pays des Soviets) is one of a series of classic comic-strip albums written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé. The series features young reporter... Georges Remi (May 22, 1907 – March 3, 1983), better known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian comics writer and artist. ...


The 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that primarily adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers. The 1950s saw this format broadened, with popular movies being similarly adapted. By the 1960s, British publisher IPC had started to produce a pocket-sized comic book line, the "Super Library", that featured war and spy stories told over roughly 130 pages. Classics Illustrated were comic book adaptations from classic literature, a series that Russian-born Albert Lewis Kanter (1897-1973) began in 1941 for Elliot Publishing. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... IPC may refer to: Indian Penal Code Institute for printed circuits - an Association laying standards for every aspect of PCB design, manufacturing, and testing. ... The genre of spy fiction — sometimes called political thriller or spy thriller — arose before World War I, and at about the same time that the first modern intelligence agencies were formed. ...


In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a film noir-influenced slice of steeltown life starring a scheming, manipulative redhead named Rust. Touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, the 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller" (Arnold Drake and Leslie Waller), penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin proved successful enough to lead to an unrelated second picture novel, The Case of the Winking Buddha by pulp novelist Manning Lee Stokes and illustrator Charles Raab. St. ... Original cover to It Rhymes with Lust, one precursor of the graphic novel. ... This still from The Big Combo (1955) demonstrates the visual style of film noir at its most extreme. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pseudonym. ... Arnold Drake was an American writer of comic books notable for his work on Deadman, for which he was given the Bill Finger Award, and on Doom Patrol. ... Leslie Elson Waller (1923—), author, the son of Ukranian immigrants, was born in Chicago, Illinois, April 1, 1923. ... Phantom Lady #17 (April 1948). ... Flynns Detective Fiction from 1941. ...


By the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, His Name is... Savage (Adventure House Press) in 1968 — the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Columnist Steven Grant also argues that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #130-146, although published serially from 1965-1966, is "the first American graphic novel".[2] Showcase #22 (Oct. ... Archie Goodwin (September 8, 1937 – March 1, 1998) was an American comic book writer, editor, and artist. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Marvel Comics (Stan Lee is behind many of the superheros) is an American comic book line published by Marvel Publishing, Inc. ... The Spectacular Spider-Man is the name of several comic book and one magazine series starring Marvel Comics Spider-Man. ... Steven Grant is a writer of comics who has worked for both Marvel and DC, as well as various independent companies. ... For the fictional character of this name, see Stan Lee (Judge Dredd character) Stan The Man Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber on December 28, 1922[1] New York, New York) is an American writer, editor, Chairman Emeritus of Marvel Comics, and memoirist, who — with several artist co-creators, most notably... The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #1 (1964): Cover art by Ditko. ... Doctor Strange is a fictional character, a comic book sorcerer and superhero in the Marvel Comics Marvel universe. ... Strange Tales was the name of several comic book anthology series that have been published by Marvel Comics. ...

Detail from Blackmark (1971) by scripter Archie Goodwin and artist-plotter Gil Kane.
Detail from Blackmark (1971) by scripter Archie Goodwin and artist-plotter Gil Kane.

Meanwhile, in continental Europe, the tradition of collecting serials of popular strips such as The Adventures of Tintin or Asterix had allowed a system to develop which saw works developed as long form narratives but pre-published as serials; in the 1970s this move in turn allowed creators to become marketable in their own right, auteurs capable of sustaining sales on the strength of their name. Image File history File links Blackmark. ... Image File history File links Blackmark. ... Archie Goodwin (September 8, 1937 – March 1, 1998) was an American comic book writer, editor, and artist. ... Look up artist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Showcase #22 (Oct. ... The main cast of the series. ... For other uses, see Asterix (disambiguation). ... The term auteur (French for author) is used to describe film directors (or, more rarely, producers) who are considered to have a distinctive, recognisable vision, either because they repeatedly return to the same subject matter, or use a recurring style, or both. ...


By 1969, the author John Updike, who had entertained ideas of becoming a cartoonist in his youth, addressed the Bristol Literary Society, on "the death of the novel". Updike offered examples of new areas of exploration for novelists, declaring "I see no intrinsic reason why a doubly talented artist might not arise and create a comic strip novel masterpiece".[3] John Updike John Hoyer Updike (born March 18, 1932) is an American writer born in Shillington, Pennsylvania, where he lived until he was 13. ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ...


Modern form and term

Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin's Blackmark (1971), a science fiction/sword-and-sorcery paperback published by Bantam, did not use the term originally; the back-cover blurb of the 30th-anniversary edition (ISBN 1-56097-456-7) calls it, retroactively, "the very first American graphic novel," although in theme and style it differs little from traditional comic books. The Academy of Comic Book Arts presented Kane with a special 1971 Shazam Award for what it called "his paperback comics novel". Whatever the nomenclature, Blackmark is a 119-page story of comic-book art, with captions and word balloons, published in a traditional book format. (It is also the first with an original heroic-adventure character conceived expressly for this form.) Blackmark is a 1971 Bantam Books paperback that is arguably the first graphic novel. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ... The Academy of Comic Book Arts is an American professional organization of the 1970s that was designed to be the comic book industry analog of such groups as the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. ... The Academy of Comic Book Arts is an American professional organization of the 1970s that was designed to be the comic book industry analog of such groups as the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. ... Four different shapes of speech or thought balloons Speech balloons (also speech bubbles or word balloons) are a graphic convention used in comic books, strips, and cartoons to allow words (and much less often, pictures) to be understood as representing the speech or thoughts of a given character in the...


DC Comics' The Sinister House of Secret Love (retitled Secrets of Sinister House with issue #5) used the phrase "a graphic novel of gothic terror" on the cover of issue #2 (Jan. 1972). The series was part of DC's line of "52-Page Giants". The first six issues of writer-artist Jack Katz' 1974 Comics and Comix Co. series The First Kingdom was collected as a trade paperback published by Pocket Books in March 1978 (ISBN 0-671-79016-1),[4] which described it as "the first graphic novel"; issues of the comic itself had described it as "graphic prose", or simply as a novel. Hyperbolic descriptions of "book-length stories" and "novel-length epics" appear on comic-book covers as early as the 1960s. DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... A trade paperback can refer to any book that is bound with a heavy paper cover that is generally cheaper than the hardcover but more expensive than the regular paperback version. ... Pocket Books is the name of a subdivision of Simon & Schuster publishers. ...


European creators were also experimenting with the longer narrative in comics form; in the United Kingdom, Raymond Briggs was producing works such as Father Christmas (1972) and The Snowman (1978), which he himself described as being from the "bottomless abyss of strip cartooning", although they, along with such other Briggs works as the more mature When The Wind Blows (1982), have been re-marketed as graphic novels in the wake of the term's popularity. Briggs notes, however, "I don't know if I like that term too much".[5] Raymond Briggs in his studio Raymond Briggs (born January 18, 1934) is a British illustrator, cartoonist, and author who has achieved critical and popular success among adults and children. ... For the 1973 childrens picture book by Raymond Briggs, see Raymond Briggs. ... The Snowman is a childrens book by British author Raymond Briggs, published in 1978. ... When the Wind Blows For the novel by James Patterson, see When the Wind Blows (James Patterson) When the Wind Blows (1982) is a graphic novel, by British artist Raymond Briggs, that shows a nuclear attack on Britain by the Soviet Union from the viewpoint of a retired couple, Jim...


Regardless, the term in 1975 appeared in connection with three separate works. Bloodstar by Richard Corben (adapted from a story by Robert E. Howard) used the term on its cover. George Metzger's Beyond Time and Again, serialized in underground comics from 1967-72, was subtitled "A Graphic Novel" on the inside title page when collected as a 48-page, black-and-white, hardcover book published by Kyle & Wheary Comics historian R.C. Harvey noted this fact in a letter to Andrew Arnold, Time columnist, in response to Arnold's column celebrating the 25th anniversary of the term.[6] And the digest-sized Chandler: Red Tide (1976) by Jim Steranko, designed to be sold on newsstands, used the term "graphic novel" in its introduction and "a visual novel" on its cover, although Chandler is more commonly considered an illustrated novel than a work of comics. Possibly the first Graphic Novel to call itself a “graphic novel” in print (in its introduction and dust jacket). ... Heavy Metal Magazine cover by Corben featuring three of his Neverwhere characters: The Queen, Den and Catherine Wells Richard Corben (born November 1, 1940) is an American comic book artist best known for his illustrated fantasy stories in Heavy Metal (HM) magazine. ... Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936)[1] was a classic American pulp writer of fantasy, horror, historical adventure, boxing, western, and detective fiction. ... George Metzger was an underground comics (comix) artist in the early 70s in California. ... The term underground comics or comix describes the self-published or small press comic books that sprang up in the US in the late 1960s. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... Digest size is a standard magazine size, smaller than a conventional bedsheet size magazine but larger than a standard paperback book, approximately 5 1/2 x 8 1/4 inches. ... Captain America #111 (March 1969): Sterankos signature surrealism. ... A newsstand, known as a newsagents in countries using British English, is a small business that sells newspapers, magazines, snacks and often items of local interest such as postcards and clothing emblazoned with sports team mascots. ... Illustrated fiction is a hybrid narrative medium in which images and text work together to tell a story. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ...


The following year, Terry Nantier, who had spent his teenage years living in Paris, returned to the United States and formed Flying Buttress Publications, later to incorporate as NBM Publishing (Nantier, Beall, Minoustchine), and published Racket Rumba, a 50-page spoof of the noir-detective genre, written and drawn by the single-name French artist Loro. Nantier followed this with Enki Bilal's The Call of the Stars. The company marketed these works as "graphic albums" [7] A publisher of graphic novels located in the State of New York in the United States. ... Noir could refer to: Noir is the French language word for black. Film noir is a genre of movie. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Enki Bilal filming Immortel (Ad Vitam) Enki Bilal (born Enes Bilalović on October 7, 1951) is a Bosnian-French cartoonist and film director. ...


Similarly, Sabre: Slow Fade of an Endangered Species by writer Don McGregor and artist Paul Gulacy (Eclipse Books, Aug. 1978) — the first graphic novel sold in the newly created "direct market" of United States comic-book shops — was called a "graphic album" by the author in interviews, though the publisher dubbed it a "comic novel" on its credits page. "Graphic album" was also the term used the following year by Gene Day for his hardcover short-story collection Future Day (Flying Buttress Press). One of the first graphic novels, Sabre (subtitled Slow Fade of an Endangered Species), was written by Don McGregor and illustrated by Paul Gulacy, and published in October 1978 by the company that would become known as Eclipse Comics. ... Donald F. McGregor (born June 15, 1945, Rhode Island, United States) is an American comic book writer, and the author of one of the first graphic novels. ... Paul Gulacy is an American Comic Book Artist. ... Eclipse Comics was an American comic book publisher, one of several influential indendent publishers during the 1980s. ... Direct market in the comic book industry is the dominant distribution and retail network in North America and elsewhere in the market for English-language comics. ... Howard Eugene Day (born 1951; died 23 September 1982) was a Canadian comic book artist best known for Marvel Comics Master of Kung Fu and its Star Wars licensed series. ... A publisher of graphic novels located in the State of New York in the United States. ...


Another early graphic novel, though it carried no self-description, was The Silver Surfer (Simon & Schuster/Fireside Books, August 1978), by Marvel Comics' Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. Significantly, this was published by a traditional book publisher and distributed through bookstores. Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... For the fictional character of this name, see Stan Lee (Judge Dredd character) Stan The Man Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber on December 28, 1922[1] New York, New York) is an American writer, editor, Chairman Emeritus of Marvel Comics, and memoirist, who — with several artist co-creators, most notably... Jack Kirby (August 28, 1917 – February 6, 1994) was one of the most influential, recognizable, and prolific artists in American comic books. ...


In order to graduate from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, cadets from the class of 2006 must study Marjane Satrapi's graphic novel Persepolis, a coming-of-age tale set during the Iranian revolution.[8] The Chapel at West Point The United States Military Academy, also known as West Point and USMA, is a U.S. military academy and former Army fort. ... Persepolis aerial view. ...


The March/April 2006 issue of Defense AT&L contains a two-page "graphic article" titled "FIST: Fast, Inexpensive, Simple & Tiny".[9] It used superhero archetypes and comic-book conventions to illustrate technology-development principles, based in large part on previous articles by the authors.


Adoption of the term

Sabre (1978), one of the first graphic novels. Art by Paul Gulacy.
Sabre (1978), one of the first graphic novels. Art by Paul Gulacy.

The term "graphic novel" began to be popularized two months later after it appeared on the cover of the trade paperback edition (though not the hardcover edition) of Will Eisner's groundbreaking A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories (Oct. 1978). This collection of short stories was a mature, complex work focusing on the lives of ordinary people in the real world, and the term "graphic novel" was intended to distinguish it from traditional comic books, with which it shared a storytelling medium. This established both a new book-publishing term and a category distinct from paperback, although Eisner cited Lynd Ward's 1930s woodcuts (see above) as an inspiration. Image File history File links Sabre1. ... Image File history File links Sabre1. ... Paul Gulacy is an American Comic Book Artist. ... In comics, a trade paperback (TPB) specifically refers to the periodic collections, published in book format, of stories published in comic books, usually capturing one story arc in the series. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... William Erwin Eisner (March 6, 1917 – January 3, 2005) was an acclaimed American comics writer, artist and entrepreneur. ... Cover A Contract with God is a graphic novel by Will Eisner, its full title being A Contract with God: and Other Tenement Stories. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...


The critical and commercial success of A Contract with God helped to establish the term "graphic novel" in common usage, and many sources have incorrectly credited Eisner with being the first to use it. In fact, it was used as early as November 1964 by Richard Kyle in CAPA-ALPHA #2, a newsletter published by the Comic Amateur Press Alliance, and again in Kyle's Fantasy Illustrated #5 (Spring 1966).


One of the earliest contemporaneous applications of the term post-Eisner came in 1979, when Blackmark's sequel — published a year after A Contract with God though written and drawn in the early 1970s — was labeled a "graphic novel" on the cover of Marvel Comics' black-and-white comics magazine Marvel Preview #17 (Winter 1979), where Blackmark: The Mind Demons premiered — its 117-page contents intact, but its panel-layout reconfigured to fit 62 pages.


Dave Sim's comic book Cerebus had been launched as a funny-animal Conan parody in 1977, but in 1979 Sim announced it was to be a 300-issue novel telling the hero's complete life story. Over in England, creator Bryan Talbot was working on The Adventures of Luther Arkwright, described by Warren Ellis as "probably the single most influential graphic novel to have come out of Britain to date"[10]. Like Sim, Talbot also began by serialising the story; originally in Near Myths (1978) before it was published as a three-volume graphic-novel series from 1982-87. David Victor Sim (born May 17, 1956 in Hamilton, Ontario) is a Canadian comic book writer and artist, best known as the creator of the 6,000 page graphic novel Cerebus the Aardvark. ... Cerebus the Aardvark (or simply Cerebus) was an ambitious monthly independent comic book begun by Canadian artist Dave Sim in 1977, and running for 300 issues and 6,000 pages, through March 2004. ... Bugs Bunny, a typical funny animal character Funny animal is a cartooning term for the genre of comics and animated cartoons in which the main characters are humanoid or talking animals. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ... Bryan Talbot (born February 24, 1952) is a British comic book artist and writer. ... The Adventures of Luther Arkwright is a graphic novel written and drawn by Bryan Talbot. ...


Following this, Marvel from 1982-88 published the Marvel Graphic Novel line of 10"x7" trade paperbacks — although numbering them like comic books, from #1 (Jim Starlin's The Death of Captain Marvel) to #35 (Denny O'Neil, Mike Kaluta, and Russ Heath's Hitler's Astrologer, starring the radio and pulp fiction character the Shadow, and, uniquely for this line, released in hardcover). Marvel commissioned original graphic novels from such creators as John Byrne, J. M. DeMatteis, Steve Gerber, graphic-novel pioneer McGregor, Frank Miller, Bill Sienkiewicz, Walt Simonson, Charles Vess, and Bernie Wrightson. While most of these starred Marvel superheroes, others, such as Rick Veitch's Heartburst featured original SF/fantasy characters; others still, such as John J. Muth's Dracula, featured adaptations of literary stories or characters; and one, Sam Glanzman's A Sailor's Story, was a true-life, World War II naval tale. Jim Starlin, 2006 James P. Jim Starlin (b. ... Captain Mar-Vell (or Captain Marvel) is a fictional character, an alien superhero in the Marvel Comics universe. ... Dennis ONeil (A.K.A. Denny ONeil) is a comic book writer and editor, principally for Marvel Comics and DC Comics in the 1970s. ... Mike Kaluta is an American comic book artist. ... Russ Heath is an artist who has worked in the comics industry. ... Flynns Detective Fiction from 1941. ... Shadows on pavement A shadow is a region of darkness where light is blocked. ... John Lindley Byrne (born July 6, 1950) is a British-born naturalised American author and artist of comic books. ... John Marc DeMatteis (born December 15, 1953) is an American writer of comic books. ... Steve Gerber (born 20 September 1947) is an American writer of comic books. ... Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... Bill Sienkiewicz in Gijón, Spain. ... Star Slammers graphic novel (1983) Walter or, usually, Walt Simonson (born September 2, 1946) is a comic book writer and artist. ... Charles Vess (born 1951) is an American illustrator. ... Swamp Thing, created by Bernie Wrightson. ... For the Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode, see Super Hero (Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode). ... Rick Veitch is an American comic book artist and writer who has worked in mainstream, underground, and alternative comics. ... Jon J. Muth is a comic artist. ... Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary character the vampire Count Dracula. ... Sam J. Glanzman (born 1924) is an American comic-book artist, best known for his Charlton Comics series Hercules, about the mythological Greek demigod, and the Fightin Army feature The Lonely War of Willy Schultz, a Vietnam-era serial about a German-American U.S. Army captain during World War... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


In England, Titan Books held the license to reprint strips from 2000 AD, including Judge Dredd, beginning in 1981, and Robo-Hunter, 1982. The company also published British collections of American graphic novels — including Swamp Thing, notable for being printed in black and white rather than in color as originally — and of British newspaper strips, including Modesty Blaise and Garth. Titan Books is a UK publisher of graphic novels. ... Cover of the first issue of 2000 AD, 26 February 1977. ... For the 1995 film, see Judge Dredd (film). ... Robo-Hunter was a reccurring strip in the British Comic 2000 AD, written by John Wagner and illustrated by Ian Gibson. ... The Swamp Thing is a fictional character created by Len Wein and Bernie Wrightson for DC Comics, and featured in a long-running horror-fantasy comic book series of the same name. ... Cover of the first Modesty Blaise novel. ... Garth was a comic strip in the Daily Mirror newspaper from July 24, 1943, to December 14, 1993. ...

Cover art for the 1987 U.S. (left) and U.K. (right) collected editions of Watchmen, published by DC Comics and Titan Books

DC Comics likewise began collecting series and published them in book format. Two such collections garnered considerable media attention, and they, along with Art Spiegelman's Pulitzer Prize-winning Maus (1986), helped establish both the term and the concept of graphic novels in the minds of the mainstream public. These were Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (1986), a collection of Frank Miller's four-part comic-book series featuring an older Batman faced with the problems of a dystopian future; and Watchmen (1987), a collection of Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' 12-issue limited series in which Moore notes he "set out to explore, amongst other things, the dynamics of power in a post-Hiroshima world." [11]. Equally praised was Moore's V for Vendetta, drawn by David Lloyd. Both UK and US Watchmen covers in one image I created this image from Image:Watchmen. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto  2(French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen 3 United Kingdom() – on the European continent() – in the European Union()  —  [] Capital London Largest conurbation (population) Greater London Urban Area Official languages English4 Government  -  Monarch Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair Formation  -  24 March 1603   -  Acts of Union... Watchmen is a twelve-issue graphic novel written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Dave Gibbons. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... Titan Books is a UK publisher of graphic novels. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ... Art Spiegelman (born February 15, 1948) is an American comics artist, editor, and advocate for the medium of comics, best known for his Pulitzer Prize-winning comic memoir, Maus. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... Maus: A Survivors Tale is a memoir presented as a graphic novel by Art Spiegelman. ... The premiere issue of the series Spoiler warning: The Dark Knight Returns (known as DKR by fans) is a superhero comic book story published by DC Comics between 1985 and 1986, starring Batman. ... Watchmen is a twelve-issue graphic novel written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Dave Gibbons. ... Alan Moore (born November 18, 1953, in Northampton) is an English writer most famous for his influential work in comics, including the acclaimed graphic novels Watchmen, V for Vendetta and From Hell. ... Dave Gibbons (born April 14, 1949) is a British writer and artist of comics. ... The limited series is a term referring to a comic book series with a set finite number of issues. ... This article is about the comic book series. ... Cover art for the collected edition of V for Vendetta by David Lloyd David Lloyd (born 1950) is a British comics artist best known as the illustrator of the graphic novel V for Vendetta, written by Alan Moore. ...


These four works were reviewed in newspapers and magazines and led to such increased coverage that the headline "Comics aren't just for kids anymore" became widely regarded by fans as a mainstream-press cliché.[12] Variations on the term can be seen in the Harvard Independent[13] and at Poynter Online.[14] Regardless, the mainstream coverage led to increased sales, with Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, for example, lasting 40 weeks on a UK best-seller lists.[15]


Criticism

Some in the comics community have objected to the term "graphic novel" on the grounds that it is unnecessary, or that its usage has been corrupted by commercial interests. Writer Alan Moore believes: Alan Moore (born November 18, 1953, in Northampton) is an English writer most famous for his influential work in comics, including the acclaimed graphic novels Watchmen, V for Vendetta and From Hell. ...

It's a marketing term. I mean, it was one that I never had any sympathy with. The term 'comic' does just as well for me. ... The problem is that 'graphic novel' just came to mean 'expensive comic book' and so what you'd get is people like DC Comics or Marvel comics — because 'graphic novels' were getting some attention, they'd stick six issues of whatever worthless piece of crap they happened to be publishing lately under a glossy cover and call it The She-Hulk Graphic Novel, you know?" [16]

Author Daniel Raeburn wrote "I snicker at the neologism first for its insecure pretension - the literary equivalent of calling a garbage man a 'sanitation engineer' - and second because a 'graphic novel' is in fact the very thing it is ashamed to admit: a comic book, rather than a comic pamphlet or comic magazine."[17] Others, including Stuart Moore, author of the serialized comics study A Thousand Flowers, note a distinction between graphic novels and trade paperback collections, writing about them separately ("Of course, graphic novels — like trade paperbacks, which we'll get into next time...").[18] She-Hulk (Jennifer Walters-Jameson) is a Marvel Comics superheroine. ... J. Stuart Moore is the Co-Chairman and Co-Chief Executive Officer of Sapient, a business consulting and technology services firm headquartered at Cambridge, MA. Moore has a degree in Computer Science from the University of California, Berkeley. ... In comics, a trade paperback (TPB) specifically refers to the periodic collections, published in book format, of stories published in comic books, usually capturing one story arc in the series. ...


As a result of this dissatisfaction, some alternative cartoonists have coined their own terms to describe extended comics narratives. For example, the cover of Daniel Clowes' book Ice Haven describes the book as "a comic-strip novel", with Clowes having noted that he "never saw anything wrong with the comic book".[19] When The Comics Journal asked the cartoonist Seth why he added the subtitle "A Picture Novella" to his comic It's a Good Life, If You Don't Weaken, he responded, "I could have just put 'a comic book'... It goes without saying that I didn't want to use the term graphic novel. I just don't like that term".[20] Daniel Clowes The image above is believed to be a replaceable fair use image. ... The Comics Journal is an American magazine of news and criticism pertaining to comic books and strips. ... The first volume of The Complete Peanuts from Fantagraphics Books with cover design by Seth. ... Its a Good Life, If You Dont Weaken is the title of a 1996 graphic novel (or picture novella) by Seth, published by Drawn and Quarterly. ...


Quotes

Charles McGrath (former editor, The New York Times Book Review) in The New York Times: "Some of the better-known graphic novels are published not by comics companies at all but by mainstream publishing houses — by Pantheon, in particular — and have put up mainstream sales numbers. Persepolis, for example, Marjane Satrapi's charming, poignant story, drawn in small black-and-white panels that evoke Persian miniatures, about a young girl growing up in Iran and her family's suffering following the 1979 Islamic revolution, has sold 450,000 copies worldwide so far; Jimmy Corrigan sold 100,000 in hardback...."[21] The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Pantheon Books was an American publishing company that was acquired by Random House in 1961. ... Persepolis is a French-language autobiographical graphic novel by Marjane Satrapi that describes her childhood in Iran during the overthrow of the Shah. ... Marjane Satrapi self portrait Marjane Satrapi (Persian: مرجانه ساتراپی) (born November 22, 1969 in Rasht, Iran) is a contemporary graphic novelist and illustrator. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Jimmy Corrigan, the Smartest Kid on Earth a graphic novel by Chris Ware, published in 2000. ...


Eddie Campbell issued a 2004 manifesto to the effect that the term "[g]raphic novel signifies a movement rather than a form." Members of the movement are known as "Graphic Novelists". Campbell defines the major goal of the movement as being "to take the form of the comic book, which has become an embarrassment, and raise it to a more ambitious and meaningful level." Campbell sees the movement as drawing on many antecedents such as woodcut novels, but does not wish the term applied to such antecedents. He believes the term cannot be applied to the form with any objective meaning beyond what is necessary for marketing. [22] Alec: The King Canute Crowd by Eddie Campbell Eddie Campbell (born August 10, 1955) is a Scottish-born comics artist and cartoonist who now lives in Australia. ... Alec: The King Canute Crowd by Eddie Campbell Eddie Campbell (born August 10, 1955) is a Scottish-born comics artist and cartoonist who now lives in Australia. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ...


See also

An artists book is an art object in the form of a book. ... A form of artists book approaching very closely to (but preceding) the Graphic novel. ... Manga )   (pl. ... A Tankōbon compilation book is a set of manga issues which have been collected into a volume for a given author. ... In comics, a trade paperback (TPB) specifically refers to the periodic collections, published in book format, of stories published in comic books, usually capturing one story arc in the series. ...

References

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ Buzzeli's work was presented at the International Comics Festival of Lucca in 1967, with a complete edition published in 1970 before being serialised in French magazine Charlie Mensuel. Dino Buzzati 1965-1975 (http (Italian)). Associazione Guido Buzzelli (2004). Retrieved on June 21, 2006., Domingos Isabelinho (2004). The Ghost of a Character: The Cage by Martin Vaughn-James (http). Indy Magazine. Retrieved on April 6, 2006.
  2. ^ Grant, Steven (December 28, 2005). The First Graphic Novel. Comicbookresources.com. Retrieved on March 20, 2007.
  3. ^ Gravett, Paul (2005). Graphic Novels: Stories To Change Your Life, 1st ed., Aurum Press Limited. ISBN 1-84513-068-5. 
  4. ^ Grand Comics Database: The First Kingdom
  5. ^ Nicholas, Wroe. "Bloomin' Christmas", The Guardian, December 18, 2004.
  6. ^ Andrew Arnold (2003). A Graphic Literature Library. 'Time'. Retrieved on June 21, 2006.
  7. ^ America's First Graphic Novel Publisher. NBM Publishing official home page. Retrieved on June 21, 2006.
  8. ^ Rana Foroohar (August 22, 2005). Literature: Graphic Novels as Serious Art. MSNBC. Newsweek. Retrieved on March 20, 2007.
  9. ^ FIST: Fast, Inexpensive, Simple & Tiny (PDF). Defense Acquisition University (2006). Retrieved on March 1, 2006.
  10. ^ Warren Ellis. Book Review: The Adventures of Luther Arkwright (html). artbomb.net. Retrieved on June 21, 2006.
  11. ^ Moore makes this point in a letter published in the back of Dave Sim's Cerebus, issue 217.Sim, Dave, Gerhard (w,p,i).  Cerebus #217 April 1997  Aardvark Vanaheim.
  12. ^ Writer J.M. DeMatteis noted the term's status as a cliché in an interview with The Nexus in 2005. Maillaro, Michael (February 19, 2005). Caught in The Nexus: J.M. DeMatteis. The Nexus. Retrieved on March 20, 2007.
  13. ^ Wilson, Shane (March 18, 2004). Holy Pretension, Batman!. Harvard Independent. Retrieved on March 20, 2007.
  14. ^ Hammond, Margot (September 2, 2004). Comic Books for Big People. Poynter Online. Retrieved on March 20, 2007.
  15. ^ Campbell, Eddie (2001). Alec:How to be an Artist, 1st ed., Eddie Campbell Comics, 96. ISBN 0-9577896-3-7. 
  16. ^ Kavanagh, Barry (October 17, 2000). The Alan Moore Interview. Blather.net. Retrieved on March 20, 2007.
  17. ^ Chris Ware (Monographics Series) (2004), p. 110
  18. ^ Moore, Stuart (November 4, 2003). The Books of Heaven, the Comics of Hell: The Graphic Novel in America. Stuart Moore: A Thousand Flowers - Newsarama Column. Retrieved on March 20, 2007.
  19. ^ Bushell, Laura (July 21, 2005). The Ghost World creator does it again. BBC - Collective. Retrieved on June 21, 2006.
  20. ^ ""Seth", by Gary Groth", The Comics Journal #193, February, 1997, pp. 58-93.
  21. ^ McGrath, Charles. "Not Funnies", The New York Times, July 11, 2004, pp. 24. Retrieved on March 20, 2007.
  22. ^ Graphic Novel Review (Sept. 2004): "The Eddie Campbell Interview" sidebar: "Eddie Campbell's (Revised) Graphic Novel Manifesto"
    URL accessed on May 1, 2005. Note: This is a dead link; the interview is available through the internet archive.

Charlie Mensuel (or simply Charlie) was a French monthly magazine of comic strips in the Bande Dessinée tradition. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... Paul Gravett founded Escape magazine. ... In the Gregorian Calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), at which point there will be 13 days remaining to the end of the year. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... David Victor Sim (born May 17, 1956 in Hamilton, Ontario) is a Canadian comic book writer and artist, best known as the creator of the 6,000 page graphic novel Cerebus the Aardvark. ... Gerhard is the professional name of a Canadian comics artist known for the elaborately detailed background drawings in Dave Sims series Cerebus the Aardvark, on which he has worked since that comics 65th issue. ... John Marc DeMatteis is an American writer of comic books. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... Alec: The King Canute Crowd by Eddie Campbell Eddie Campbell (born August 10, 1955) is a Scottish-born comics artist and cartoonist who now lives in Australia. ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Comics Journal is an American magazine of news and criticism pertaining to comic books and strips. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Graphic novel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2099 words)
The evolving term "graphic novel" is not strictly defined, and is sometimes used, controversially, to imply subjective distinctions in artistic quality between graphic novels and other kinds of comics.
The term "graphic novel" began to be popularized two months later after it appeared on the cover of trade paperback edition (though not the hardcover edition) of Will Eisner's groundbreaking A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories (Oct. 1978).
Eddie Campbell has issued a manifesto (2004) to the effect that the "graphic novel" is more the product of an artist, and that it follows that the term is therefore better used as a description of an artistic movement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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