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Encyclopedia > Graphic design
Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous, as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate.
Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous,[1] as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate.
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Wikibooks' Graphic Design has more about this subject:
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Graphic design practice embraces a range of cognitive skills, aesthetics and crafts, including typography, visual arts and page layout. Like other forms of design, graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication is created and the products (designs) which are generated. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Form follows function is a principle associated with Modern architecture and industrial design in the 20th Century, which states that the shape of a building or object should be predicated on its intended purpose. ... Look up anonymous, anon, anonymity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... As a noun, a graphic usually refers to a computer image or picture, or an infographic, such as a chart. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Desktop publishing, or DTP, is the process of editing and layout of printed material intended for publication, such as books, magazines, brochures, and the like using a personal computer. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ...

Contents

Graphic design history

Early

Page from the Book of Kells: Folio 114v, Decorated text. Tunc dicit illis

Graphic Design spans the history of humankind from the caves of Lascaux to the dazzling neons of Ginza. In both this lengthy history and in the relatively recent explosion of visual communication in the 20th and 21st centuries, there is sometimes a blurring distinction and over-lapping of advertising art, graphic design and fine art. After all, they share many of the same elements, theories, principles, practices and languages, and sometimes the same benefactor or client. In advertising art the ultimate objective is the sale of goods and services. In graphic design, "the essence is to give order to information, form to ideas, expression and feeling to artifacts that document human experience."[2] Download high resolution version (640x1024, 364 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (640x1024, 364 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This page (folio 292r) contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... Cave painting at Lascaux. ... The Ginza area of Tokyo, Japan The Wako department store occupies a busy corner in Ginza Ginza (銀座) is a place in Chūō Ward, Tokyo named after the silver coin foundry or Ginza established here in 1612 (Edo period). ... Visual communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. ... // Advert redirects here. ... Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... // Advert redirects here. ...


The paintings in the caves of Lascaux around 14,000 BC and the birth of written language in the third or fourth millennium BC are both significant milestones in the history of graphic design and other fields which hold roots to graphic design. Cave painting at Lascaux. ...


The Book of Kells is an early example of graphic design. It is a lavishly decorated hand-written copy of the Gospels of the Christian Bible created by Celtic monks around 800AD. This page (folio 292r) contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Christian... This article is about the European people. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ...


From 1892 to 1896 William Morris' Kelmscott Press published books that are some of the most significant of the graphic design products of the Arts and Crafts movement, and made a very lucrative business of creating books of great stylistic refinement and selling them to the wealthy for a premium. Morris proved that a market existed for works of graphic design in their own right and helped pioneer the separation of design from production and from fine art. The work of the Kelmscott Press is characterized by its obsession with historical styles. This historicism was, however, important as it amounted to the first significant reaction to the stale state of nineteenth-century graphic design. Morris' work, along with the rest of the Private Press movement, directly influenced Art Nouveau and is indirectly responsible for developments in early twentieth century graphic design in general. Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ... Private Press is a term used in the field of book collecting to describe a printing press operated as a personal enthusiasm, rather than as a purely commercial venture. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ...


Modern

A Boeing 747 Air Force One aircraft. The cyan blue pattern, the US flag, presidential seal and the lettering were all designed at different times and combined in this one final design. Graphic design is applied in virtually every organization or society. There are virtually no limits to the size and applications of graphic design.
A Boeing 747 Air Force One aircraft. The cyan blue pattern, the US flag, presidential seal and the lettering were all designed at different times and combined in this one final design. Graphic design is applied in virtually every organization or society. There are virtually no limits to the size and applications of graphic design.

The signage in the London Underground is a classic[citation needed] of the modern era and used a font designed by Edward Johnston in 1916. Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 537 KB) MACDILL AIR FORCE BASE, Fla. ... Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 537 KB) MACDILL AIR FORCE BASE, Fla. ... For the current aircraft, see Boeing VC-25. ... Flag ratio: 10:19; nicknames: Stars and Stripes, Old Glory The flag of the United States consists of 13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in... A Secret Service agent placing the seal on the presidents podium. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In the 1920s, Soviet constructivism applied 'intellectual production' in different spheres of production. The movement saw individualistic art as useless in revolutionary Russia and thus moved towards creating objects for utilitarian purposes. They designed buildings, theater sets, posters, fabrics, clothing, furniture, logos, menus, etc.[citation needed] The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Tatlin Tower. ...


Jan Tschichold codified the principles of modern typography in his 1928 book, New Typography. He later repudiated the philosophy he espoused in this book as being fascistic, but it remained very influential.[citation needed] Tschichold, Bauhaus typographers such as Herbert Bayer and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, and El Lissitzky are the fathers of graphic design[citation needed] as we know it today. They pioneered production techniques and stylistic devices used throughout the twentieth century. The following years saw graphic design in the modern style gain widespread acceptance and application.[citation needed] A booming post-World War II American economy established a greater need for graphic design, mainly advertising and packaging. The emigration of the German Bauhaus school of design to Chicago in 1937 brought a "mass-produced" minimalism to America; sparking a wild fire of "modern" architecture and design. Notable names in mid-century modern design include Adrian Frutiger, designer of the typefaces Univers and Frutiger; Paul Rand, who, from the late 1930s until his death in 1996, took the principles of the Bauhaus and applied them to popular advertising and logo design, helping to create a uniquely American approach to European minimalism while becoming one of the principal pioneers of the subset of graphic design known as corporate identity; and Josef Müller-Brockmann, who designed posters in a severe yet accessible manner typical of the 1950s and 1960s. Titlepage for Typographische Gestaltung written and designed by Jan Tschichold using City Medium and Bodoni. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For information about British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Herbert Bayers 1925 experimental universal typeface combined upper and lowercase characters into a single character set. ... László Moholy-Nagy (probably July 28, 1895 – November 24, 1946) was a Hungarian painter and photographer as well as professor in the Bauhaus school. ...   (Лазарь Маркович Лисицкий, November 23, 1890 – December 30, 1941), better known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лисицкий), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, teacher, typographer, and architect. ... For information about British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Adrian Frutiger (born March 24, 1928) is the designer of some of the best known typefaces of the 20th century. ... “Font” redirects here. ... This article is about a typeface; for information about similarly spelled topics, see Universe (disambiguation). ... New Swiss road signs use the typeface Frutiger. ... Paul Rand (born Peretz Rosenbaum, August 15, 1914 – November 26, 1996) was a well-known American graphic designer, best known for his corporate logo designs. ... It has been suggested that Corporate Visual Identity Management be merged into this article or section. ... A poster designed by Müller-Brockmann done in the so-called Swiss Style of graphic design Josef Müller-Brockmann, (May 9, 1914 – August 30, 1996), was a Swiss graphic designer and teacher. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1958 to the end of 1974. ...


Uses

Graphic design is used whenever visual clarity and creativity are applied to the presentation of text and imagery. Contemporary design practice has been extended to the modern computer, for example in the use of WYSIWYG user interfaces, often referred to as interactive design, or multimedia design. For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ... Write redirects here. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Chumbawamba album, see WYSIWYG (album). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Anywhere there is a need to communicate visually, there is potential enhancement of communications through graphic design. Below are a few examples. For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ...


Administration

From road signs to technical schematics, from interoffice memorandums to reference manuals, graphic design enhances transfer of knowledge. Readability is enhanced by improving the visual presentation of text. Intricate and clever pictures are used when words cannot suffice. Unused traffic signs in Austria Most countries post signage, known as traffic signs or road signs, at the side of roads to impart information to road users. ... A memorandum or memo is a written form of communication most often employed in business environments. ... A user guide, also commonly known as a manual, is a technical communication document intended to give assistance to people using a particular system. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... Look up readability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Advertising

Graphic designs have a unique ability to sell a product or idea through effective visual communications. It is applied to products as well as elements of company identity like logos, colors, and text, together defined as branding. See advertising. Branding has increasingly become important in the range of services offered by many graphic designers, alongside corporate identity and the terms are often used interchangeably. IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... // Advert redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Corporate Visual Identity Management be merged into this article or section. ...


Education

Graphics are used in textbooks for subjects such as geography, science, and math to illustrate theories and diagrams. A common example of graphics in use to educate is diagrams of human anatomy. Graphic design is also applied to layout and formatting of educational material to make the information more accessible and more readily understandable. The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... Sample flowchart diagram A diagram is a 2D symbolic representation of information according to some visualization technique. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ...


Entertainment

From decoration, to scenery, to visual story telling, graphic design is applied to entertainment. From cover to cover in novels and comic books, from opening credits to closing credits in film, from programs to props on stage, graphic design helps set the theme and the intended mood. A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... Opening credits, in a television program, motion picture or videogame, are shown at the beginning of a show and list the most important members of the production. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Journalism

From scientific journals to news reporting, the presentation of opinion and facts is often improved with graphics and thoughtful compositions of visual information - known as information design. Newspapers, magazines, blogs, television and film documentaries may use graphic design to inform and entertain. With the advent of the web, information designers with experience in interactive tools such as Adobe Flash are increasingly being used to illustrate the background to news stories. Information design has been defined as the art and science of preparing information so that it can be used by human beings with efficiency and effectiveness (Jacobson 2000). ... Information design has been defined as the art and science of preparing information so that it can be used by human beings with efficiency and effectiveness (Jacobson 2000). ... Adobe Flash - previously called Shockwave Flash and Macromedia Flash - is a set of multimedia technologies developed and distributed by Adobe Systems and earlier by Macromedia. ...


Web

Graphic designers are often involved in web design. Combining visual communication skills with the interactive communication skills of user interaction and online branding, graphic designers often work with web developers to create both the look and feel of a web site and enhance the online experience of web site visitors. Web design is a process of conceptualization, planning, modeling, and execution of electronic media content delivery via Internet in the form of Markup language suitable for interpretation by Web browser and display as Graphical user interface (GUI). ... Look and feel refers to design aspects of a graphical user interface - in terms of both colours, shapes, layout, typefaces, etc (the look); and, the behaviour of dynamic elements such as buttons, boxes, and menus (the feel). It is used in reference to both software and websites. ...


In the job field, many companies look for someone who can do both graphic design and the web application development involved in web design, including programming. There is a great deal of debate in the professional design community about whether this trend is positive, or if graphic designers are being over-tasked with unrelated skills and disciplines. A collaborative web-design team may split the tasks between graphic designers and software engineers. In software engineering, a web application is an application delivered to users from a web server over a network such as the World Wide Web or an intranet. ... Web development is a broad term for any activities related to developing a web site for the World Wide Web or an intranet. ... Computer programming (often simply programming) is the craft of implementing one or more interrelated abstract algorithms using a particular programming language to produce a concrete computer program. ... Software engineering (SE) is the profession concerned with specifying, designing, developing and maintaining software applications by applying technologies and practices from computer science, project management, and other fields. ...


Tools

The primary tool for graphic design is the creative mind. Critical, observational, quantitative and analytic thinking are required for designing page layout and rendering. If the executor is merely following a sketch, script or instructions (as may be supplied by an art director) they are not usually considered the author. The eye and the hand are often augmented with the use of external traditional or digital image editing tools. The selection of the appropriate one to the communication problem at hand is also a key skill in graphic design work, and a defining factor of the rendering style. Rendering in visual art and technical drawing means the process of creating, shading and texturing of an image, especially a photorealistic one. ... The term art director, is an overall title for a variety of similar job functions in advertising, publishing, film and television, the Internet, and video games. ... For other meanings of the word, see Media. ... Digital image editing is the process of altering digital images, whether they be digital photographs or other types of digitally represented images. ... Look up style in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the mid 1980s, the arrival of desktop publishing and the introduction of graphic art software applications introduced a generation of designers to computer image manipulation and image creation that had previously been laborious. Computer graphic design enabled designers to instantly see the effects of layout or typographic changes without using any ink in the process, and to simulate the effects of traditional media without requiring a lot of space. Traditional tools such as pencils or markers are often used to develop graphic design ideas, even when computers are used for finalization. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... A screenshot of Karbon14 vector graphic software running on an AegeanLinux desktop. ... This article is about the handwriting instrument. ... A Selection of Felt-Tip-Pens. ...


Computers are generally considered to be an indispensable tool used in the graphic design industry. Computers and software applications are generally seen, by creative professionals, as more effective production tools than traditional methods. However, some designers continue to use manual and traditional tools for production, such as Milton Glaser. This article is about the machine. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... Although creative professionals--people who work full-time in creative endeavors--have been a part of the workforce for more than 500 years, several events during the past decade have altered industry and public perception of these workers. ... This article is about the instrument. ... Milton Glaser, 2003 I Love New York campaign by Milton Glaser. ...


There is some debate whether computers enhance the creative process of graphic design.[3] Rapid production from the computer allows many designers to explore multiple ideas quickly with more detail than what could be achieved by traditional hand-rendering or paste-up on paper, moving the designer through the creative process more quickly.[4] However, being faced with limitless choices does not help isolate the best design solution and can lead to designers endlessly iterating without a clear design outcome. Paste up refers to a method of laying out newspaper pages without using computerized page design programs. ...


New ideas can come by way of experimenting with tools and methods, be they traditional or digital. Some designers explore ideas using pencil and paper to avoid creating within the limits of whatever computer fonts, clipart, stock photos, or rendering filters (e.g. Kai's Power Tools) are available on any particular configuration. Others use many different mark-making tools and resources from computers to sticks and mud as a means of inspiring creativity. One of the key features of graphic design is that it makes a tool out of appropriate image selection in order to convey meaning.[5] Some graphic design ideas are created entirely in the mind, before approaching any external media. Thinking outside the box is a cliché or catchphrase used to refer to looking at a problem from a new perspective without preconceptions, sometimes called a process of lateral thought. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... Categories: Stub ... Stock photography is photography or other imagery of common landmarks, concepts, and events that can be used and reused for commercial design purposes. ... Kais Power Tools are a set of API plugins created by Kai Krause that were designed for use with Adobe Photoshop and Corel Photopaint. ...


A graphic designer may also use sketches to explore multiple or complex ideas quickly[6] without the potential distractions of technical difficulties from software malfunctions or software learning.[citation needed] Hand rendered comps are often used to get approval of a graphic design idea before investing time to produce finished visuals on a computer or in paste-up if rejected. The same thumbnail sketches or rough drafts on paper may be used to rapidly refine and produce the idea on the computer in a hybrid process. This hybrid process is especially useful in logo design[7] where a software learning curve may detract from a creative thought process. The traditional-design/computer-production hybrid process may be used for freeing ones creativity in page layout or image development as well.[citation needed] Traditional graphic designers may employ computer-savvy production artists to produce their ideas from sketches, without needing to learn the computer skills themselves. However, this practice is less utilized since the advent of desktop publishing and its integration with most graphic design courses. A sketch is a drawing or other composition that is not intended as a finished work. ... In advertising, a comprehensive, usually shortened to comp, is the layout of a proposed advertisement as initially presented by an advertising agency to a client, showing the relative positions of text and illustrations before the specific content of those elements has been decided on. ... The ThumbsPlus image file manager showing folder tree in the upper left and 12 thumbnail-size images to the right. ... For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ... The learning curve refers to a relationship between the duration of learning or experience and the resulting progress. ... Desktop publishing, or DTP, is the process of editing and layout of printed material intended for publication, such as books, magazines, brochures, and the like using a personal computer. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A production artist is an entry level job position in a creative profession. ...


See also

Related disciplines

Marketing communications (or marcom) are messages and related media used to communicate with a market. ... Communication design is a sub-discipline of design (sometimes referred to as Graphic Design) which is concerned with how media intermission such as, print and digital pieces of work communicate with people in a visual way. ... A creative director is a position usually found within the advertising, media or entertainment industries, but may be useful in other creative organizations such as web development and software development firms as well. ... The term art director, is an overall title for a variety of similar job functions in advertising, publishing, film and television, the Internet, and video games. ... Copywriting is the process of writing the words that promote a person, business, opinion, or idea. ... Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. ... Technical writing, a subset of technical communication, is used in fields as diverse as computer hardware and software, chemistry, the aerospace industry, robotics, finance, consumer electronics, and biotechnology. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... Information design has been defined as the art and science of preparing information so that it can be used by human beings with efficiency and effectiveness (Jacobson 2000). ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... User interface design is the overall process of designing the interaction between a human (user) and a machine (computer). ... Web design is the design of web pages, websites and web applications using HTML, CSS, images, and other media. ... New Media is the marriage of mediated communications technologies with digital computers. ...

Related topics

This is a list of notable graphic designers. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... In the arts of painting, graphic design, and photography, color theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual impact of specific color combinations. ... Composition is the plan, placement or arrangement of the elements of art in a work. ... Design principles and elements Design principles and elements are the basic design tactics in every design discipline. ... ED-Awards emblem European Design Awards (Also ED-Awards) is a Paneuropean institution consisting of an awards scheme, a conference and an annual catalogue for the European communication design industry. ... A number of occupations are commonly classified under the broad term of graphic designer. ... Graphic redirects here. ... The Washington Metro subway map Information graphics or infographics are visual representations of information, data or knowledge. ... This article or section should include material from logo design, discuss it at Talk:Logo design A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface/font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. ... An Identity Standards Manual page—for the graphic design branch of corporate identity design and branding. ... Value is how dark or how light something looks. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pen (disambiguation). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Currie, Nick. Design Rockism.
  2. ^ Meggs, Philip B., 'A history of graphic design'. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983
  3. ^ www.designtalkboard.com [1] [2] retrieved 3-18-2007
  4. ^ Jann Lawrence Pollard and Jerry James Little, Creative Computer Tools for Artists: Using Software to Develop Drawings and Paintings, Nov 2001 Introduction
  5. ^ Mike Rohde, [3] [4] Wall Street Journal Mention in Jeremy Wagstaff's Loose Wire, Retrieved 3-19-2007
  6. ^ Jacci Howard Bear, desktoppub.about.com Retrieved 3-19-2008
  7. ^ Gregory Thomas, How to Design Logos, Symbols and Icons: 24 Internationally Renowned Studios Reveal How They Develop Trademarks for Print and New Media, April 2003, pp:48

External links and articles


  Results from FactBites:
 
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