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Encyclopedia > Grape
Grapes, red or green
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 70 kcal   290 kJ
Carbohydrates     18.1 g
- Sugars  15.48 g
- Dietary fiber  0.9 g  
Fat 0.16 g
Protein 0.72 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.069 mg   5%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.07 mg   5%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.188 mg   1%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.05 mg  1%
Vitamin B6  0.086 mg 7%
Folate (Vit. B9)  2 μg  1%
Vitamin C  10.8 mg 18%
Calcium  10 mg 1%
Iron  0.36 mg 3%
Magnesium  7 mg 2% 
Phosphorus  20 mg 3%
Potassium  191 mg   4%
Zinc  0.07 mg 1%
Manganese 0.071 mg 3.5%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

A grape is the non-climacteric fruit that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts and grape seed oil. Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Binomial name Vitis vinifera L. For thousands of years, the fruit and plant of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, have been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For the similarly spelled pyrimidine, see Thymine Thiamin or thiamine, also known as vitamin B1 and aneurine hydrochloride, is one of the B vitamins. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Fe redirects here. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... Concord grapes being cooked down into grape juice for use in making jelly. ... Jam from berries Fruit preserves refers to fruit, or vegetables, that have been prepared and canned for long term storage. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Oligomeric proanthocyanidins or OPCs are a class of flavonoid complexes found in grape seeds and skin, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. ... Grape oil (also grapeseed oil) is a vegetable oil pressed from the seeds of various varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes, an abundant by-product of wine making. ...

Contents

Description

Red Wine grapes
Red Wine grapes

Grapes grow in clusters of 6 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green and pink. However, "white" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the red grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are responsible for the color of red grapes.[1] Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in red grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.[2][3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 260 KB) Close up of grapes File links The following pages link to this file: Grape User:Fir0002/FPCandidates User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/20D/Plants ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 260 KB) Close up of grapes File links The following pages link to this file: Grape User:Fir0002/FPCandidates User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/20D/Plants ... This article is about the beverage. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. ...


Grapevines

Main article: Vitis
Palatina, a Hungarian grape
Palatina, a Hungarian grape[4]
Grapevine from the Village of Aita al-Foukhar in Lebanon
Grapevine from the Village of Aita al-Foukhar in Lebanon

Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 3. ... This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ... Binomial name Vitis vinifera L. For thousands of years, the fruit and plant of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, have been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. ...

The sea grape Coccoloba uvifera is actually a member of the Buckwheat family Polygonaceae and is native to the islands of the Caribbean Sea. Binomial name Vitis labrusca L. Vitis labrusca (Fox grape) is a species of grape native to the northeastern United States. ... Concord grapes Closeup. ... Red shows states east of the Mississippi River, pink shows states not fully eastern or western The U.S. Eastern states are the states east of the Mississippi River. ... Binomial name Vitis riparia Vitis riparia Michx, also commonly known as River Bank Grape or Frost Grape, is a native American climbing or trailing vine, widely distributed from Quebec to Texas, and Montana to New England. ... North American redirects here. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Binomial name Vitis rotundifolia Some muscadines in a bowl; the green ones are scuppernongs Muscadines (Vitis rotundifolia) are a grapevine species native to the present-day southeastern United States that has been extensively cultivated since the 16th Century. ... Categories: Stub | Fruit | Grape varieties ... The US Southeast is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, but the Census Bureau does not provide a standard definition of a Southeast region of the United States, and organizations that need to subdivide the US are free to define a Southeast region to fit their needs. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... This article is about the state. ... Binomial name The amur grape (Vitis amurensis), is a species of grape native to the Asian continent. ... Binomial name Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. The Seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera) is a sprawling bush or small tree that is found near sea beaches throughout tropical America and the Caribbean, including southern Florida. ... Genera See text The Polygonaceae, or the Knotweed Family, are a group of dicots including buckwheat, sorrel (but not wood sorrel), rhubarb, and knotgrass. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ...


Distribution and production

Grapevines
Grapevines
Grape production in 2005
Grape production in 2005

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 75,866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3248x1796, 1393 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Grape Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3248x1796, 1393 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Grape Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of grape output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Italy - 8,553,580 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of grape output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Italy - 8,553,580 tonnes). ... FAO redirects here. ... Dried fruit is fruit that has been dried, either naturally or through use of a machine, such as a dehydrator. ...


The following table of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making:

Country Area Dedicated
Spain 11,750 km²
France 8,640 km²
Italy 8,270 km²
Turkey 8,120 km²
United States 4,150 km²
Iran 2,860 km²
Romania 2,480 km²
Portugal 2,160 km²
Argentina 2,080 km²
Australia 1,642 km²

Seedless grapes

Seedlessness is a highly desirable subjective quality in table grape selection, and seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is, however, an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, Kalanchoë pinnata. ... Plant tissue culture, also called micropropagation, is a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions, often to produce clones of a plant. ...


There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. Numerous seedless cultivars, such as Einset Seedless, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of north-eastern United States and southern Ontario.[5] Bright green and elongated or round, the popular Sugraone grape offers a light, sweet flavor and distinctive crunch. Binomial name Vitis vinifera L. For thousands of years, the fruit and plant of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, have been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Contrary to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds (see Health claims).[6][7] Phytochemicals are plant or fruit derived chemical compounds. ...


Raisins, currants, and sultanas

See also: Dried vine fruit
Raisins
Raisins

In most of Europe, dried grapes are universally referred to as 'raisins' or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents. Dried vine fruit is a term given to all the varieties of dried grape produced. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3223x2025, 3512 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Raisin ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3223x2025, 3512 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Raisin ... Dried vine fruit is a term given to all the varieties of dried grape produced. ...


A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (whence the English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins). Raisins Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


A currant is a dried Zante grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Note also that currant has come to refer also to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries completely unrelated to grapes. A Zante currant is a variety of small, sweet, seedless grape named for the Ionian island Zakynthos. ... “Zante” redirects here. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Binomial name L. The Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) is a species of Ribes berry native to central and northern Europe and northern Asia. ... Binomial name L. The Redcurrant (Ribes rubrum) is a member of the genus Ribes in the gooseberry family Grossulariaceae, native to parts of western Europe (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, and northern Italy). ...


A sultana was originally a raisin made from a specific type of grape of Turkish origin, but the word is now applied to raisins made from common grapes and chemically treated to resemble the traditional sultana. The sultana is a type of white, seedless grape of Turkish or Persian origin, as well as a type of raisin made from it; such sultana raisins are often called simply sultanas or They are commonly used in South Asian cooking, where they are called These are typically larger than...


Health claims

Ripe table grapes ready to be eaten
Ripe table grapes ready to be eaten
Main articles: French Paradox and Resveratrol

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x897, 123 KB) Sweet, juicy grapes, picked at the peak of ripeness, are one of natures best-tasting treats. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x897, 123 KB) Sweet, juicy grapes, picked at the peak of ripeness, are one of natures best-tasting treats. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The cis-isomer of resveratrol Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ...

French Paradox

Comparing diets among western countries, researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, surprisingly the incidence of heart disease remains low in France, a phenomenon named the French Paradox thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself, including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation[8], polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits, such as:[9] Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. ... The cis-isomer of resveratrol Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ...

  • alteration of molecular mechanisms in blood vessels, reducing susceptibility to vascular damage
  • decreased activity of angiotensin, a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure
  • increased production of the vasodilator hormone, nitric oxide (endothelium-derived relaxing factor)

Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities,[10] a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption, such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men, may confer health benefits.[11][12][13] Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol[14] provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.[15][16] Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... A vasodilator is a drug or chemical that relaxes the smooth muscle in blood vessels, which causes them to dilate. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) was the tentative name of what was later discovered to be nitric oxide (NO). ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. ... The cis-isomer of resveratrol Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ...


Resveratrol

Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol, a polyphenol antioxidant, have been positively linked to inhibiting cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease, viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease.[17][18] Phytochemicals are plant or fruit derived chemical compounds. ... The cis-isomer of resveratrol Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ... Molecular structure of apigenin, a polyphenol antioxidant A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... vaghhyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy viral vaghela (shrewsbury, massachusetts) also know as vagh is the hot sexy lover of kinjal shah (houston, texas) ...


Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol.[19] In laboratory studies, resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging, and prevent age-related heart failure.[20] Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... See also Negative calorie diet, very low calorie diet CRON redirects here. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ...


Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials,[21] among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.[22] This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ...


Synthesized by many plants, resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets.[23] An antifungal drug is medication used to treat fungal infections such as athletes foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. ... Some common lipids. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...


Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds which, in muscadine grapes, have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp.[24] Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.[25] Categories: Stub | Fruit | Grape varieties ...


Anthocyanins and other phenolics

Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in red grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (e.g., catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties.[26] Total phenolic content, an index of dietary antioxidant strength, is higher in red varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in red grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin.[26] It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health.[27] Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar, soil composition, climate, geographic origin, and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases, such as fungal infections. Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. ... Epicatechin (EC) Epigallocatechin (EGC) Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites, specifically flavonoids called flavan-3-ols. ... Catechin is a bioflavonoid and a powerful anti-oxidant. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


Red wine offers health benefits more so than white because many beneficial compounds are present in grape skin, and only red wine is fermented with skins. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content.[20] Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/L [28], depending on the grape variety, because it is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol. By contrast, a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins. For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub | Fruit | Grape varieties ... This article is about the beverage. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article is about the beverage. ...


Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L, an exceptional phenolic content.[29][24] In muscadine skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics.[30] Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes. Categories: Stub | Fruit | Grape varieties ... Ellagic acid C14 H6 O8 CAS No. ... Myricetin is a naturally-occurring flavonoid found in many grapes, berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, as well as other plants. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ... Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid which has been isolated from Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit, and other plant sources. ...


Seed constituents

Since the 1980s, biochemical and medical studies have demonstrated significant antioxidant properties of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins[31]. Together with tannins, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, these seed constituents display inhibitory activities against several experimental disease models, including cancer, heart failure and other disorders of oxidative stress.[32][33] Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Proanthocyanidin. ... Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ... Polyphenols are a group of vegetable chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenolic group. ... A polyunsaturated organic compound is one in which more than one double bond exists within the representative molecule. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological systems ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage. ...


Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for many perceived health benefits. Grape seed oil is notable for its high contents of tocopherols (vitamin E), phytosterols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.[34][35][36] Grape oil (also grapeseed oil) is a vegetable oil pressed from the seeds of various varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes, an abundant by-product of wine making. ... Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products that are claimed, primarily by those within the cosmetic industry, to have drug-like benefits. ... Pages in category Skin care There are 49 pages in this section of this category. ... Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... The α-tocopherol form of vitamin E. Main articles: tocopherol and tocotrienol Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of 8 related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties. ... β-sitosterol Ergosterol. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. ...


Concord grape juice

Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies, showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer[37], platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis[38], loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging[39] and hypertension in humans[40]. Interpretation of these results has implicated the exceptional content of Concord grape anthocyanins -- as many as 31 different pigment chemicals in this one species[41] -- for contributing to these and other potential benefits of having Concord grape products in the diet[42]. Concord grapes are a variety of grape used as both a table grapes and wine grapes. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant...


See also

This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ...

Sources

Footnotes
  1. ^ Walker AR, Lee E, Bogs J, McDavid DA, Thomas MR, Robinson SP (2007). "White grapes arose through the mutation of two similar and adjacent regulatory genes". Plant J 49 (5): 772–85. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02997.x. PMID 17316172. 
  2. ^ Waterhouse AL. Wine phenolics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;957:21-36.[1]
  3. ^ Brouillard R, Chassaing S, Fougerousse A. Why are grape/fresh wine anthocyanins so simple and why is it that red wine color lasts so long? Phytochemistry. 2003 Dec;64(7):1179-86.[2]
  4. ^ Pernesz, G.. New Resistant Table Grape Cultivars Bred in Hungary. International Society for Horticultural Science. 
  5. ^ Reisch BI, Peterson DV, Martens M-H. Table Grape Varieties for Cool Climates, Information Bulletin 234, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station[3]
  6. ^ Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly JE, Kakuda Y. (2003 Winter). "Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality.". J Med Food. 2003 Winter;6(4):291-9.. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up grape in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Grapes
  • Taxonomic listings for Vitis genus, US Department of Agriculture, Germplasm Resources Information Network
  • Wild Grapes
  • Major wine varieties
  • SAFECROP - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Grapevine Downy and Powdery Mildew
  • World's Healthiest Foods, in-depth nutrient profile for grapes
  • Information on virus diseases of wine grapes
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Grape Radio (4008 words)
In my mind, what sets them apart from other wine related radio broadcast, be they originating on the Internet or via broadcast, is their willingness to treat their listeners with the respect they deserve, not talking down to them and not assuming they all need remedial education.
The Tablas Creek blog not only does this but is able to do so by also imparting the excitement they possess for being in the business, the seriousness with which they take their efforts and with the occasional self deprecating approach.
Grape Radio "The Worlds Top Wine Podcast and Wine Blog" is powered by WordPress 2.1.2 and K2 Beta One r60 by Michael and Chris using the Reel Reviews style.
Grape (2994 words)
Grapes are adapted to a wide variety of soil conditions, from high pH and slightly saline, to acidic and clayey.
Vinifera grapes have low chilling requirements, 100-500 hr, and tend to break bud early and are frost prone in many regions.
The grape phylloxera (Dactylosphaera vitifolii, Homoptera), also called the grape root louse (actually an aphid), was introduced to Europe from eastern North America in the 1860s, where it caused the most significant pest-related disaster in all of fruit culture.
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