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Encyclopedia > Granuloma
H&E section of non-caseasting granuloma seen in the colon of a patient with Crohn's disease
H&E section of non-caseasting granuloma seen in the colon of a patient with Crohn's disease

In medicine (anatomical pathology), a granuloma is a group of epithelioid macrophages surrounded by a lymphocyte cuff. Granulomas are small nodules that are seen in a variety of diseases such as Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, berylliosis and syphilis. It is also a feature of Wegener's granulomatosis and Churg-Strauss syndrome, two related autoimmune disorders. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (549x636, 131 KB) Summary H&E stain of non-caseating granuloma in a patient with Crohns disease. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (549x636, 131 KB) Summary H&E stain of non-caseating granuloma in a patient with Crohns disease. ... In the anatomy of the digestive system, the colon (> Greek ) is the part of the intestine from the caecum to the rectum. ... H&E section of non-caseating granuloma seen in the colon of someone affected by Crohns disease. ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment and possible prevention of disease and injury. ... Anatomical pathology is the branch of pathology that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross and microscopic examination of cells and tissues. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, makros = long, phagein = eat) are white blood cells, more specifically phagocytes, acting in the nonspecific defense as well as the specific defense system of vertebrate animals. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... H&E section of non-caseating granuloma seen in the colon of someone affected by Crohns disease. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Berylliosis is a chronic lung disease caused by prolonged exposure to beryllium, a chemical irritant to the lungs. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ... In medicine (rheumatology), Wegeners granulomatosis is a form of vasculitis that affects the lungs, kidneys and other organs. ... Churg-Strauss syndrome is a necrotizing vasculitis characterized by eosinophilia. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ...


An important aspect of granulomas is whether they are caseating or not. Caseation (literally: turning to cheese) is a form of necrosis at the centre of a granuloma and is a feature of the granulomas of tuberculosis. Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells and living tissue. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...

Contents

Tuberculous granuloma

The tuberculous granuloma (caseating tubercule): central caseous necrosis bordered by giant multinucleated cells (Langhans cells), and surrounded by epithelioid cells aggregates, lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Granulomatous tubercules tend to confluence. Multinucleated giant cell (mature - Langhans type): 50-100 micrometres, numerous small nuclei (over 20) disposed at the periphery of the cell (crown or horseshoe), abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. It results when activated macrophages merge. Epithelioid cells are activated macrophages resembling epithelial cells: elongated, with finely granular, pale eosinophilic (pink) cytoplasm and central, ovoid nucleus. They have indistinct shape contour and form aggregates. At the periphery are the lymphocytes (T cells) and rare plasma cells and fibroblasts. Caseous necrosis is a central area, amorphous, finely granular, eosinophilic (pink). If recent, it may contain nuclear fragments. The caseum is the result of the accumulated destruction of giant cells and epithelioid cells. Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells/living tissue (compare with apoptosis - programmed cell death). ... Eosinophilic is a technical term used by histologists. ... A fibroblast is a cell that makes the structural fibers and ground substance of connective tissue. ...


Chronic granulomatous disease

In the rare condition chronic granulomatous disease, neutrophil granulocyte function is impaired and granulomas form in various organs in response to infection, as the infection is not being contained through normal means. A rare disease has such a cow prevalence in a population that a doctor in a busy general practice would not expect to see more than one case a year. ... In medicine (genetics and pediatrics) chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a hereditary disease where neutrophil granulocytes are unable to destroy ingested pathogens. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of normal circulating human blood. ...


Sarcoidose granulomas

Sarcoidose granulomas are nodal aggregates of epitheloid cells, similar to epitheolid tubercules of tuberculosis. However, the quantity of necrosis is low and it is noncaseating. Multinucleated giant cells of Langerhans cell type and foreign-body type giant cells are present, however they are less numerous and can be star-shaped (asteroid bodies) or lamellar (Schaumann bodies). These inclusions are not sarcoidose-specific. Some fibrous tissue and lymphocytes are present on the periphery. These granulomas can resorb or heal with a scar. In the lungs this can cause disseminated pulmonary fibrosis; in cardiac tissue they may cause impaired heart function and possibly death by heart failure. Langerhans cells are immature dendritic cells containing large granules called Birbeck granules. ... Lamellar armour is a kind of personal armour consisting of small rectangular plates (lames) which are laced together in parallel rows. ... Diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), also known as interstitial lung disease, refers to a group of lung diseases, affecting the alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. ...


Rheumatic myocarditis

Rheumatic fever affects all the heart tissue (rheumatic pancarditis). From all the pathological changes, only the granulomas, called Aschoff granulomas, are pathognomonic. In the centre, the fibrinoid necrosis is visible. It is encompassed by lymphocytes, plasma cells, fibroblasts and individual neutrophils. Also mononuclear Anitschkow's cells (histiocytes) and the characteristic Aschoff cells are present. Anitschkow's cells appear like an owl's eye and have a pale eosinophilic cytoplasm with a characteristic "caterpillar" nucleole in the bright blistered nucleus. They are arranged in a palisade around the centre. Aschoff cells have a single or multiple bean-shaped nuclei. Peripherally, fibroblasts and sclerotic fibrous tissue can be seen. The granuloma sometimes borders immediately on partially fragmented muscle fibers. Pathognomonic is a word, often used in medicine, which means characteristic or diagnostic for a particular disease. ...


Gumma hepatis

The less common form of the third stadium of syphilis. Gummas are of different sizes: smaller ones are milliary and more numerous, while the larger ones that are more common, are solitary and elastic. Gumma can develop in different tissues and organs, especially in bones, brain, liver, skin, testis and elsewhere. Contrary to the tuberculous granuloma, in the elastic coagulative central necrosis of the gumma, which is eosinophilic and of grey yellowish colour, there is still some silhouette of the previous tissue visible. The granuloma is encompassed by the grey whitish fibrous envelope, that sometimes sends radial ribbons in the surrounding area. In between, there are lymphocytes, plasma cells and giant cells from capillaries and rare epitheloid cells, and on the periphery lymphocytes and plasma cells are present. By healing, gumma transforms in a large scar that can for example disfigure liver with deep furrows (hepar lobar syphiliticum). Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ...


See also

Peripheral giant cell granuloma Peripheral giant cell granuloma is an oral pathologic condition that appears in the mouth as an overgrowth of tissue due to irritation or trauma. ...


External links

  • Pathology Images of Granulomatous Diseases Yale Rosen, M.D.
  • Microscopy of caseating granuloma

  Results from FactBites:
 
Granuloma Inguinale (319 words)
Granuloma inguinale is a chronic bacterial infection of the genital region, generally regarded to be sexually transmitted.
Granuloma inguinale is a relatively rare disease occurring in people living in tropical and subtropical areas.
Granuloma inguinale is communicable as long as the infected person remains untreated and bacteria from lesions are present.
Granuloma: What is it? - MayoClinic.com (0 words)
A granuloma is a small area of inflammation in the body due to tissue injury, such as from an infection.
The most common cause of granuloma is histoplasmosis, a fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs.
Granulomas due to histoplasmosis are usually visible on X-rays because they become calcified and have the same density as bone.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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