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Encyclopedia > Granite
Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River
Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River
Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. The ground is strewn with boulders and detached masses of granite, which have fallen from the walls of Little Cottonwood Canyon. The quarrying consists of splitting up the blocks
Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. The ground is strewn with boulders and detached masses of granite, which have fallen from the walls of Little Cottonwood Canyon. The quarrying consists of splitting up the blocks

Granite (pronounced /ˈɡrænɪt/) is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock. Granite has a medium to coarse texture, occasionally with some individual crystals larger than the groundmass forming a rock known as porphyry. Granites can be pink to dark gray or even black, depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors, and rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Look up granite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Yosemite redirects here. ... The Merced River is in California. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1128x1357, 363 KB)Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1128x1357, 363 KB)Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... The quality of this article or section may be compromised by peacock terms. You can help Wikipedia by removing peacock terms. ... Pluton redirects here. ... Felsic is a term used in geology to refer to silicate minerals, magmas, and rocks which are enriched in the lighter elements such as silica, oxygen, aluminium, sodium, and potassium. ... Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... A piece of porphyry Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. ... Outcrop is a geological term referring to the appearance of bedrock exposed at the surface of the Earth. ... Hawks Tor, on Bodmin Moor Tor redirects here. ... In geology, a massif is a section of a planets crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i. ... Hornfels (German, meaning hornstone) is the group designation for a series of contact metamorphic rocks that have been baked and indurated by the heat of intrusive granitic masses and have been rendered massive, hard, splintery, and in some cases exceedingly tough and durable. ...


Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures), hard and tough, and therefore it has gained widespread use as a construction stone. The average density of granite is 2.75 g/cm3. The word granite comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Mineralogy

Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks (granitoids) and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar (orthoclase, sanidine, or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. Granite-like rocks which are silica-undersaturated may have a feldspathoid such as nepheline, and are classified on the A-F-P half of the diagram. A QAPF diagram is a double triangle diagram which is used to classify igneous rocks based on mineralogic composition. ... Pluton redirects here. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8) is an important tectosilicate mineral, which forms igneous rock. ... Sanidine is the high temperature form of potassium feldspar ((K,Na)(Si,Al)4O8) which occurs in felsic volcanic rocks such as rhyolite and trachyte. ... Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock forming tectosilicate mineral. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Normative mineralogy is a geochemical calculation of the whole rock geochemistry of a rock sample which estimates the idealised mineralogy of a rock according to the principles of geochemistry. ... The feldspathoids are a group of tectosilicate minerals which resemble feldspars but have a different structure and much lower silica content. ... A big crystal of Nepheline from Canaã Massif, Brazil Nepheline, also called nephelite (from Greek: nephos, cloud), is a feldspathoid: a silica-undersaturated aluminosilicate, Na3KAl4Si4O16, that occurs in intrusive and volcanic rocks with low silica, and in their associated pegmatites. ...


True granite according to modern petrologic convention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase the rock is referred to as alkali granite. When a granitoid contains <10% orthoclase it is called tonalite; pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase, and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. Petrology is a field of geology which focuses on the study of rocks and the conditions by which they form. ... Tonalite is an igneous, plutonic (intrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with phaneritic texture. ... Figure 1:Mantle-peridotite xenolith with green peridot olivine and black pyroxene crystals from San Carlos Indian Reservation, Gila Co. ... For the logical fallacy, see Amphibology. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... In geology an intrusion is usually a body of igneous rock that has crystallized from a molten magma below the surface of the Earth. ... This page is about a volcanic rock. ...


Chemical composition

A worldwide average of the average proportion of the different chemical components in granites, in descending order by weight percent, is:[1]

Based on 2485 analyses R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Alumina redirects here. ... Potassium oxide is a compound of potassium and oxygen used mainly as a intermediate in inorganic synthesis. ... Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O. It is used in ceramics and glasses. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Iron(II) oxide, also called ferrous oxide, is a black-colored powder with the chemical formula FeO. It consists of the element iron in the oxidation state of 2 bonded to oxygen. ... Iron(III) oxide — also known as ferric oxide, Hematite, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, colcothar, or simply rust — is one of the several oxide compounds of iron, and has paramagnetic properties. ... Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. ... Flash point non-flammable Related Compounds Other cations Titanium(II) oxide Titanium(III) oxide Titanium(III,IV) oxide Zirconium dioxide Hafnium dioxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium... Phosphorus pentoxide, perhaps more accurately diphosphorus pentoxide, is so called because of its empirical formula P2O5, as should be expected of any element in oxidation number +5. ... Manganese(IV) oxide (MnO2) is a chemical compound also known as manganese dioxide or manganese oxide. ...


Occurrence

The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia
The Stawamus Chief is a granite monolith in British Columbia

Granite is currently known only on Earth where it forms a major part of continental crust. Granite often occurs as relatively small, less than 100 km² stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. In some locations very coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1003 KB) South Peak of the Stawamus Chief monolith near Squamish, British Columbia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1003 KB) South Peak of the Stawamus Chief monolith near Squamish, British Columbia. ... The Stawamus Chief is a colossal dome of granitic rock located adjacent to the town of Squamish, British Columbia. ... For other uses, see Monolith (disambiguation). ... The thickness of the Earths crust (km). ... Half Dome, a granite monolith in Yosemite National Park and part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... A dike in geology refers to a tabular intrusive igneous body. ... Aplite is a fine to very fine-grained sugary-textured rock of granite composition. ... Pluton redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods, although much of it is of Precambrian age. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust of the Earth and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents. Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A geologic age is a time period on the geologic timescale delimited by major geologic or paleontologic events. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... The thickness of the Earths crust (km). ... Basement rock usually refers to the thick foundation of ancient, and oldest metamorphic and igneous rock that forms the crust of continents, often in the form of granite. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlain by limestone. ...


Despite being fairly common throughout the world, the areas with the most commercial granite quarries are located in Finland, Norway and Sweden (Bohuslän), northern Portugal in Chaves and Vila Pouca de Aguiar, Spain (mostly Galicia and Extremadura), Brazil, India and several countries in southern Africa, namely Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe and South Africa. For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... Location  - Region  - Subregion  - District or A.R.   Norte Alto Trás-os-Montes Vila Real Mayor  - Party João Gonçalves Baptista PSD Area 591. ... District or region Vila Real Mayor   - Party Domingos Dias PSD-CDS Area 437. ... Galicia (Iberia) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Capital Mérida Official languages Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41,634 km²  8. ...


Origin

Granite is an igneous rock and is formed from magma. Granitic magma has many potential origins but it must intrude other rocks. Most granite intrusions are emplaced at depth within the crust, usually greater than 1.5 kilometres and up to 50 km depth within thick continental crust. The origin of granite is contentious and has led to varied schemes of classification. Classification schemes are regional; there is a French scheme, a British scheme and an American scheme. This confusion arises because the classification schemes define granite by different means. Generally the 'alphabet-soup' classification is used because it classifies based on genesis or origin of the magma. Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ...


Geochemical origins

Granitoids are a ubiquitous component of the crust. They have crystallized from magmas that have compositions at or near a eutectic point (or a temperature minimum on a cotectic curve). Magmas will evolve to the eutectic because of igneous differentiation, or because they represent low degrees of partial melting. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, magnesium, titanium, calcium and sodium, and enrich the melt in potassium and silicon - alkali feldspar (rich in potassium) and quartz (SiO2), are two of the defining constituents of granite. A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more elements which has a lower melting point than any of its constituents. ... Igneous differentiation is an umbrella term for the various processes by which magmas undergo bulk chemical change during the partial melting process, cooling, emplacement of eruption. ... Fractional crystallization is one of the most important geochemical and physical processes operating within the Earths crust and mantle. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ...


This process operates regardless of the origin of the parental magma to the granite, and regardless of its chemistry. However, the composition and origin of the magma which differentiates into granite, leaves certain geochemical and mineralogical evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was. The final mineralogy, texture and chemical composition of a granite is often distinctive as to its origin. For instance, a granite which is formed from melted sediments may have more alkali feldspar, whereas a granite derived from melted basalt may be richer in plagioclase feldspar. It is on this basis that the modern "alphabet" classification schemes are based. For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ...


Alphabet soup classification

The 'alphabet soup' scheme of Chappell & White was proposed initially to divide granites into I-type granite (or igneous protolith) granite and S-type or sedimentary protolith granite[2]. Both of these types of granite are formed by melting of high grade metamorphic rocks, either other granite or intrusive mafic rocks, or buried sediment, respectively. Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Protolith refers to the precursor lithology of a metamorphic rock. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ...


M-type or mantle derived granite was proposed later, to cover those granites which were clearly sourced from crystallised mafic magmas, generally sourced from the mantle. These are rare, because it is difficult to turn basalt into granite via fractional crystallisation. Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... In geology, mafic minerals and rocks are silicate minerals, magmas, and volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks that have relatively high concentrations of the heavier elements. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility. ...


A-type or anorogenic granites are formed above volcanic "hot spot" activity and have peculiar mineralogy and geochemistry. These granites are formed by melting of the lower crust under conditions that are usually extremely dry. The rhyolites of the Yellowstone caldera are examples of volcanic equivalents of A-type granite.[3] [4] The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... Look up Crust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. ...


Granitization

An old, and largely discounted theory, granitization states that granite is formed in place by extreme metasomatism by fluids bringing in elements e.g. potassium and removing others e.g. calcium to transform the metamorphic rock into a granite. This was supposed to occur across a migrating front. The production of granite by metamorphic heat is difficult, but is observed to occur in certain amphibolite and granulite terrains. In-situ granitisation or melting by metamorphism is difficult to recognise except where leucosome and melanosome textures are present in gneisses. Once a metamorphic rock is melted it is no longer a metamorphic rock and is a magma, so these rocks are seen as a transitional between the two, but are not technically granite as they do not actually intrude into other rocks. In all cases, melting of solid rock requires high temperature, and also water or other volatiles which act as a catalyst by lowering the solidus temperature of the rock. Metasomatism is the chemical alteration of a rock by hydrothermal and other fluids. ... Amphibolite Amphibolite (IPA: , ) is the name given to a rock consisting mainly of hornblende amphibole, the use of the term being restricted, however, to metamorphic rocks. ... Modern petrology defnes a granulite sensuo stricto as a coarse grained, high-grade metamorphic rock composed primarily of pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar and accessory garnet, oxide and amphibole. ... A melanosome in geology refers to the dark, mafic mineral bands formed in migmatite which is undergoing eutaxitic melting; probably to form granite. ... Gneiss Gneiss (pronounced ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Volatiles are that group of compounds with low boiling points (see volatile) that are associated with a planets or moons crust and/or atmosphere. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... In chemistry, materials science, and physics, the solidus is a line on a phase diagram below which a given substance is stable in the solid phase. ...


Ascent and emplacement

The ascent and emplacement of large volumes of granite within the upper continental crust is a source of much debate amongst geologists. There is a lack of field evidence for any proposed mechanisms, so hypotheses are predominantly based upon experimental data. There are two major hypotheses for the ascent of magma through the crust:

  • Stokes Diapir
  • Fracture Propagation

Of these two mechanisms, Stokes diapir was favoured for many years in the absence of a reasonable alternative. The basic idea is that magma will rise through the crust as a single mass through buoyancy. As it rises it heats the wall rocks, causing them to behave as a power-law fluid and thus flow around the pluton allowing it to pass rapidly and without major heat loss (Weinberg, 1994). This is entirely feasible in the warm, ductile lower crust where rocks are easily deformed, but runs into problems in the upper crust which is far colder and more brittle. Rocks there do not deform so easily: for magma to rise as a pluton it would expend far too much energy in heating wall rocks, thus cooling and solidifying before reaching higher levels within the crust. A lava lamp illustrates the basic principle of diapirism. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... Country rock is a geological term meaning the rock native to an area. ... See Also: Watt In physics, a power law relationship between two scalar quantities x and y is any such that the relationship can be written as where a (the constant of proportionality) and k (the exponent of the power law) are constants. ... Pluton redirects here. ... Gold is a highly ductile metal Ductility is a mechanical property which describes how much plastic deformation a material can sustain before fracture occurs. ...


Nowadays fracture propagation is the mechanism preferred by many geologists as it largely eliminates the major problems of moving a huge mass of magma through cold brittle crust. Magma rises instead in small channels along self-propagating dykes which form along new or pre-existing fault systems and networks of active shear zones (Clemens, 1998)[5]. As these narrow conduits open, the first magma to enter solidifies and provides a form of insulation for later magma. For other uses, see Fracture (disambiguation). ... A dike in geology refers to a tabular intrusive igneous body. ... Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. ...


Granitic magma must make room for itself or be intruded into other rocks in order to form an intrusion, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how large batholiths have been emplaced: Half Dome, a granite monolith in Yosemite National Park and part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. ...

  • Stoping, where the granite cracks the wall rocks and pushes upwards as it removes blocks of the overlying crust
  • Assimilation, where the granite melts its way up into the crust and removes overlying material in this way
  • Inflation, where the granite body inflates under pressure and is injected into position

Most geologists today accept that a combination of these phenomena can be used to explain granite intrusions, and that not all granites can be explained entirely by one or another mechanism. Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals such as those containing metals like gold, copper, zinc, nickel and lead or gems such as diamonds. ...


Natural Radiation

Granite is a normal, geological, source of radiation in the natural environment. Granite contains around 10 to 20 parts per million of uranium. By contrast, more mafic rocks such as tonalite, gabbro or diorite have 1 to 5 ppm uranium, and limestones and sedimentary rocks usually have equally low amounts. Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of small fast-moving particles that have energy and mass. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Tonalite is an igneous, plutonic (intrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with phaneritic texture. ... Gabbro specimen. ... Categories: Mineral stubs | Igneous rocks ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ...


Many large granite plutons are the sources for palaeochannel-hosted or roll front uranium ore deposits, where the uranium washes into the sediments from the granite uplands and associated, often highly radioactive, pegmatites. Palaeochannels are deposits of unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sedimentary rocks deposited in ancient, currently inactive river and stream channel systems. ... Uranium ore deposits are ore deposits which constitute economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earths crust. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Granite could be considered a potential natural radiological hazard as, for instance, villages located over granite may be susceptible to higher doses of radiation than other communities.[6] Cellars and basements sunk into soils formed over or from particularly uraniferous granites can become a trap for radon gas, which is heavier than air. For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ...


However, in the majority of cases, although granite is a significant source of natural radiation as compared to other rocks it is not often an acute health threat or significant risk factor. Various resources from national geological survey organisations are accessible online to assist in assessing the risk factors in granite country and design rules relating, in particular, to preventing accumulation of radon gas in enclosed basements and dwellings.


Uses

Antiquity

The Red Pyramid of Egypt (c.26th century BC), named for the light crimson hue of its exposed granite surfaces, is the third largest of Egyptian pyramids. Menkaure's Pyramid, likely dating to the same era, was constructed of limestone and granite blocks. The Great Pyramid of Giza (c.2580 BC) contains a huge granite sarcophagus fashioned of "Red Aswan Granite." The mostly ruined Black Pyramid dating from the reign of Amenemhat III once had a polished granite pyramidion or capstone, now on display in the main hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (see Dahshur). Other uses in Ancient Egypt,[7] include columns, door lintels, sills, jambs, and wall and floor veneer. How the Egyptians worked the solid granite is still a matter of debate. Dr. Patrick Hunt[8] has postulated that the Egyptians used emery shown to have higher hardness on the Mohs scale. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... Menkaures Pyramid, located on the Giza Plateau on the southwestern outskirts of Cairo, Egypt, is the smallest of the three Pyramids of Giza. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... The Black Pyramid of Amenemhat III is now nothing more than a pile of rubble. ... ny m3ˁt rˁ (Nimaatre)[1] Belonging to the truth of Re Nomen Amenemhat[1] Amun is in front Horus name Wahankh[1] Long of life Nebty name Itjijautawy[1] Who comes to the inheritance of the two lands Golden Horus ˁ3 ba(u) (Aabaw)[1] Great of power Issues... In archaeological parlance, a pyramidion is the uppermost piece, or capstone, of an Egyptian pyramid. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Column (disambiguation). ... Pre-fabricated, pre-tensioned concrete lintels spanning garage doors. ... Sill may refer to: Sill (geology), a tabular mass of igneous rock that has been intruded laterally between layers of older rock Architecture, a sill is the bottom edge of a window or door Construction, the bottom horizontal member of a wall or building to which vertical members are attached... A diagram of a door, with the jambs labeled. ... A veneer is a thin covering over something. ... Emery is a very hard rock type used to make abrasive powder. ... The hardenability of a metal alloy is its capability to be hardened by heat treatment. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ...


Many large Hindu temples in southern India, particularly those built by the 11th century king Rajaraja Chola I, were made of granite. There is a large amount of granite in these structures. They are comparable to the Great Pyramid of Giza.[9] Detail of a statue of Rajaraja at Brihadisvara Temple Rajaraja Chola I was the king of the Chola dynasty, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. Rajaraja, the greatest of all the Chola rulers of the Vijayalaya dynasty, laid the foundation for the growth of the Chola kingdom into an...


Modern

Granite has been extensively used as a dimension stone and as flooring tiles in public and commercial buildings and monuments. Because of its abundance granite was commonly used as to build foundations for homes in New England. The Granite Railway, America's first railroad, was built to haul granite from the quarries in Quincy, Massachusetts, to the Neponset River for transport. With increasing amounts of acid rain in parts of the world, granite has begun to supplant marble as a monument material, since it is much more durable. Polished granite is also a popular choice for kitchen countertops due to its high durability and aesthetic qualities. Marble on a house Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and fabricated (i. ... The incline section of the Granite Railway, 1934. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Norfolk County Settled 1625 Incorporated 1792 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor William J. Phelan Area  - City  26. ... The Neponset River is a river in eastern Massachusetts. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... A kitchen is a room used for food preparation and sometimes entertainment. ... A stainless steel countertop Countertop (also counter top, countertopping, or (British English) worktop) usually refers to a horizontal worksurface in kitchens, other food preparation areas, and workrooms in general. ...

Engineers have traditionally used polished granite surfaces to establish a plane of reference, since they are relatively impervious and inflexible. Sandblasted concrete with a heavy aggregate content has an appearance similar to rough granite, and is often used as a substitute when use of real granite is impractical. A most unusual use of granite was in the construction of the rails for the Haytor Granite Tramway, Devon, England, in 1820. Curling stones are traditionally fashioned of Ailsa Craig granite. The first stones were made in the 1750s, the original source being Ailsa Craig in Scotland. Because of the particular rarity of the granite, the best stones can cost as much as US$1,500. Between 60–70 percent of the stones used today are made from Ailsa Craig granite, although the island is now a wildlife reserve and is no longer used for quarrying.[10] Image File history File links Granite_azul_noce. ... Image File history File links Granite_giallo. ... Image File history File links Granite_gran_violet. ... Image File history File links Granite_lavanda_blue. ... Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ... This article is about the mathematical construct. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress. ... The Haytor Granite Tramway was a unique granite-railed tramway on Hay Tor, Dartmoor, Devon. ... For other uses, see Curling (disambiguation). ... This article is about Ailsa Craig, a Scottish island. ... This article is about the country. ...


Rock climbing

The granite peaks of the Torres del Paine in the Chilean Patagonia
The granite peaks of the Torres del Paine in the Chilean Patagonia

Granite is one of the rocks most prized by climbers, for its steepness, soundness, crack systems, and friction. Well-known venues for granite climbing include Yosemite, the Bugaboos, the Mont Blanc massif (and peaks such as the Aiguille du Dru, the Aiguille du Midi and the Grandes Jorasses), the Bregaglia, Corsica, parts of the Karakoram, the Fitzroy Massif, Patagonia, Baffin Island, the Cornish coast and the Cairngorms. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Torres del Paine, Chile A view of the Torres del Paine National Park The three Towers of Paine (Spanish: Torres del Paine) in southern Chile are gigantic granite monoliths shaped by the forces of glacial ice. ... The Republic of Chile is a country in South America occupying a long coastal strip between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... The Bugaboos (or Bugaboos) are a granite mountain range in the Purcell Mountains of eastern British Columbia, Canada, located at . ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... The Aiguille du Dru (also the Dru or the Drus) is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in the French Alps. ... Aiguille du Midi (el. ... The Grandes Jorasses is a famous summit in the Mont Blanc range. ... The Bregaglia Range (commonly the Bregaglia) is a small group of mostly granite mountains in Graubünden, Switzerland and Sondrio, Italy. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... Baffin Island (Inuktitut: , French: ) in the territory of Nunavut is the largest member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... The Cairngorms: Ben Macdhui seen from Carn aMhaim This article is about the Scottish mountain range. ...


Granite rock climbing is so popular that many of the artificial rock climbing walls found in gyms and theme parks are made to look and feel like granite. Most, however, are made from manufactured materials, given the fact that granite is generally too heavy for portable rock climbing walls, as well as the buildings in which stationary walls are located. Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ... Climbing a rock-textured wall with belay, modular hand holds, incuts, and protrusions A climbing wall is an artificially constructed wall with grips for hands and feet, used for climbing. ...


See also

Gem animals. ... This page is intended as a list of all rock types. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Marble on a house Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and fabricated (i. ... Skarn: microscopic view under crossed polarizers Skarn is a metamorphic rock that is usually variably colored green or red, occasionally grey, black, brown or white. ... Greisen is a highly altered granitic rock or pegmatite. ... Aplite is a fine to very fine-grained sugary-textured rock of granite composition. ... Half Dome, a granite monolith in Yosemite National Park and part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Barre Town, Vermont Barre is a town in Washington County, Vermont, United States. ... Rock of Ages Corporation is a granite quarrying and finishing company located in Barre, Vermont. ... Elberton is the largest city located in Elbert County, Georgia. ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... Quarry for the Salt Lake Temple. ...

References

  1. ^ Harvey Blatt and Robert J. Tracy (1996). Petrology, 2nd edition, New York: Freeman, 66. 
  2. ^ Chappell, B.W. and White, A.J.R., 2001. Two contrasting granite types: 25 years later. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences v.48, p.489-499.
  3. ^ Boroughs, S., Wolff, J., Bonnichsen, B., Godchaux, M., and Larson, P., 2005, Large-volume, low-δ18O rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA: Geology 33: 821–824.
  4. ^ C.D. Frost, M. McCurry, R. Christiansen, K. Putirka and M. Kuntz, Extrusive A-type magmatism of the Yellowstone hot spot track 15th Goldschmidt Conference Field Trip AC-4. Field Trip Guide, University of Wyoming (2005) 76 pp., plus an appended map.
  5. ^ Clemens, John (1998). "Observations on the origins and ascent mechanisms of granitic magmas". Journal of the Geological Society of London 155 (Part 5): 843-51. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.155.5.0843. Retrieved on 2008-04-01. 
  6. ^ Radiation and Life
  7. ^ James A. Harrell. Decorative Stones in the Pre-Ottoman Islamic Buildings of Cairo, Egypt. Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
  8. ^ Egyptian Genius: Stoneworking for Eternity. Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
  9. ^ The Lost Temples of India (video). Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
  10. ^ National Geographic News - Puffins Return to Scottish Island Famous for Curling Stones

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Granite (479 words)
Granite is a coarse or medium-grained intrusive igneous rock that is rich in quartz and feldspar (k-feldspar and plagioclase); it is the most common plutonic rock of the Earth's crust, forming by the cooling of magma (silicate melt) at depth.
Granite may occur in dikes or sills (tabular bodies injected in fissures and inserted between other rocks), but more characteristically it forms irregular masses of extremely variable size, ranging from less than a few square miles to larger masses (batholiths) that are often hundreds or thousands of square miles in area.
Granites in which plagioclase greatly exceeds potassium feldspar are common in large regions of the western United States and are thought to be characteristic of the great series of batholiths stretching from Alaska and British Columbia southward through Idaho and California into Mexico.
Granite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1593 words)
Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks (granitoids) and is named according to the percentage of Quartz, Alkali feldspar (orthoclase) and Plagioclase Feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite.
Granite is widely distributed throughout the continental crust of the Earth and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents.
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