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Encyclopedia > Grandfather clause

A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. It is often used as a verb: to "grandfather" means to grant such an exemption. For example, a "grandfathered power plant" might be exempt from newer and tougher pollution laws. Often, such a provision is used as a compromise, to effect new rules without upsetting a well-established logistical or political situation. This extends the idea of a rule not being "retroactively applied". It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Compromise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... An ex post facto law (Latin for from a thing done afterward), also known as a retrospective law, is a law that is retroactive, i. ...

People may be "grandfathered" to receive new benefits they are not otherwise entitled to. For example, if a company has a pension plan that after a certain date improves to include additional or superior benefits, those who have already retired may be "grandfathered in"; they may be granted the same improvements to their existing pension plan. Thus to some extent new rules are retroactively applied: not to past payments, but to past acquirements of rights to future payments.



The original grandfather clauses were contained in the Jim Crow laws used from 1890 to 1910 in much of the Southern United States to prevent blacks, Native Americans, and certain whites from voting. Earlier prohibitions on voting in place prior to 1870 were nullified by the Fifteenth Amendment. In response, some states passed laws requiring poll taxes and/or supposed literacy tests from would-be voters. An exemption to these requirements was made for all persons allowed to vote before the American Civil War, and any of their descendants. The term was born from the fact that the law tied the then-current generation's voting rights to those of their grandfathers. The term Jim Crow laws refers to a series of laws enacted mostly in the Southern United States in the later half of the 19th century that restricted most of the new privileges granted to African-Americans after the Civil War. ... Historic Southern United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... A literacy test, in a strict sense, is a test designed to determine ones ability to read and write a given language. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The term descendant or descendent has several meanings, some of which are listed below: A living being, like a plant, animal or person, that belongs to a particular lineage. ...

After the U.S. Supreme Court found Jim Crow laws with such exemptions unconstitutional in Guinn v. United States, a strict application of poll taxes and/or literacy tests would have disenfranchised some whites, and sometimes did so in early years. However, as time passed, states with Jim Crow laws chose not to enforce them against any whites. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym... Holding A state statute drafted in such a way as to serve no rational purpose other than to disadvantage the right of African-American citizens to vote violated the 15th Amendment. ...

These laws had the effect of disenfranchising blacks, Native Americans, and certain whites, until the ratification of the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the 1965 Voting Rights Act, and a 1966 Supreme Court ruling that eliminated most legal barriers to black voting. Disenfranchising refers to the removal of the ability to vote from a person or group of people. ... Amendment XXIV in the National Archives Amendment XXIV (the Twenty-fourth Amendment) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. Â§ 1973-1973aa-6)[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...

In spite of its origins, today the term "grandfather clause" does not retain any pejorative sense. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ...

Modern examples

  • Strict building codes were implemented in Japan in 1981. These codes applied only to new buildings, and existing buildings were not required to upgrade to meet the codes. One result of this was that during the great Kobe earthquake many of the pre 1981 buildings were destroyed, whereas most buildings built post 1981, in accordance with the new building codes, withstood the earthquake.
  • Under the extreme heat policy at the Australian Open in tennis, once the policy is invoked, no new matches can begin, but matches that have already commenced may finish.

Categories: Japan-related stubs | 1995 | Earthquakes | Japanese history ... Margaret Court Arena at the Australian Open. ... The Australian Open is held each January at Melbourne Park. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ...

United States

  • In the 1980s, as states in America were increasing their drinking ages back to 21, many of those who were of legal drinking age before the increase were still permitted to purchase and drink alcoholic beverages. Similar conditions applied when New Jersey and certain counties in New York raised tobacco purchase ages from 18 to 19 in the early 2000's.
  • The FCC has required all radio stations licensed in the United States since the 1930s to have four-letter callsigns starting with a W (for stations east of the Mississippi River) or a K (for stations west of the Mississippi River). However, stations with three-letter callsigns and stations west of the Mississippi River starting with a W (such as WBAP in Dallas and WIBW in Topeka, plus KDKA, KQV and KYW in Pennsylvania) licensed before the 1930s have been permitted to keep their callsigns.
  • In aviation, grandfather rights refers to the control airlines exert over "slots" (that is, times alloted for access to runways). While the trend in airport management has been to reassert control over these slots, many airlines are able to retain their traditional rights based on current licenses.
  • Michigan law MI ST 287.1101-1123 forbade ownership or acquisition of large and dangerous exotic carnivores as pets. However animals already owned as pets at the time of enactment were grandfathered in, and permitted to be kept. [1]
  • In 1920, when Major League Baseball introduced the prohibition of the spitball, it was recognized that there were some professional pitchers who had built their careers in large part on the spitball. A special exception was made for these 17 named players, and they were permitted to throw spitballs for the rest of their careers. Burleigh Grimes threw the last legal spitball in 1934.
  • In NASCAR, grandfather clause protection refers to Alltel, Cingular, Samsung and RadioShack (for a race at Texas Motor Speedway) (all parties had been regular sponsors in NASCAR's then-Winston Cup Series since 2002), in reference to a prohibition on NASCAR sponsorships in the Nextel Cup Series established on June 19, 2003. No telecommunications company advertising is permitted at NASCAR Nextel Cup Series events under the exclusivity agreement between NASCAR and Nextel. (Samsung was prohibited because they were a technical competitor to Nextel, which uses exclusively Motorola products.) They may continue with their present sponsorships, but if they change, they will become prohibited. After the 2005 merger of Sprint and Nextel, the prohibition on Samsung and RadioShack was removed, because Sprint carries Samsung products, and Sprint is sold at RadioShack. Another instance that has arrived is the present Motorola sponsorship of the #7 of Robby Gordon. As Nextel banned the use of the sponsor as a primary, but can be used as an associate, as the Motorola logo could be seen on the door post of Gordon's car. This sponsorship issue came ahead after AT&T's acquisition of BellSouth in 2006, which gave the company 100% ownership of Cingular and announced phaseout of the Cingular brandname in favor of AT&T for wireless service. Sprint and NASCAR immediately prohibited AT&T from remaining as a sponsor for Jeff Burton, even though AT&T owned 60% of Cingular before the BellSouth deal. A compromise was later reached that allows AT&T to remain as a sponsor through the 2008 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series while Richard Childress Racing has time to find a new sponsor for 2009.[2]
  • The NFL outlawed the one-bar facemask for the 2004 season but allowed existing users to continue wearing them. As of the end of the 2006 NFL season only Arizona Cardinals punter Scott Player was still wearing the one-bar facemask. It is not known if Player, recently signed by the Cleveland Browns after being cut by Arizona, will continue to wear a one-bar fasemask with his new team.
  • The NFL introduced a numbering system for the 1973 season, requiring players to be numbered by position. Players who played in the NFL in 1972 and earlier were allowed to keep their old numbers, although New York Giants linebacker Brad Van Pelt wore number 10 despite entering the league in 1973 (linebackers had to be numbered in the 50s at the time; they may now wear numbers in the 50s or 90s). The last player to be covered by the grandfather clause was Julius Adams, a defensive end for the New England Patriots who wore number 85 through the 1985 season.
  • Three former venues in the National Hockey League, Chicago Stadium, Boston Garden and Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, had shorter-than-regulation ice surface, as their construction predated the regulation. The distance was taken out of the neutral zone and this often threw visiting players off of their game, giving home teams an immense advantage. It was also supposed that this allowed Bobby Orr to complete his famous end-to-end rushes quicker in the Garden. All three arenas were replaced by newer facilities in 1996.
  • The National Hockey League required all players to wear helmets in 1979. However, if a player had signed his first professional contract before this ruling, he was allowed to play without a helmet. Craig MacTavish was the last player to do so. Though only a minority of players wear visors, if this equipment was mandatory, it is likely that existing non-visor players will be exempt.
  • A similar rule, 1.16, exists in Major League Baseball concerning batting helmets, requiring players who were not in the major leagues prior to 1983 to wear a helmet with at least one earflap, as of 2007, the only Major League Baseball player allowed to wear an earflap-less batting helmet is Julio Franco. Franco is currently a free agent, having been released by both the New York Mets and the Atlanta Braves.
  • The Steel Electric-class ferryboats used by Washington State Ferries are in violation of several Coast Guard regulations, but because they were built in 1927, before the enactment of the regulations, they are allowed to sail.
  • According to the Interstate Highway Act private businesses are not allowed at rest areas along interstates. However, private businesses that began operations prior to January 1, 1960 were allowed to continue operation indefinitely.
  • Tolled highways that existed before the Interstate Highway System are exempt from Interstate standards despite being designated as Interstate highways, and many such toll roads (particularry the Pennsylvania Turnpike) remain as such. However, tolled highways built since, such as the tolled section of PA Route 60 and PA Turnpike 576, must be built or upgraded to Interstate standards before receiving Interstate designation. Both highways will be part of the Interstate system in the form of I-376 and I-576, respectively, in the near future.
  • Interstate Highway standards mandate a minimum 11-foot median; however, highways built prior to those standards have been grandfathered into the system. The Kansas Turnpike is the most notable example, as it has a Jersey barrier along its entire 236-mile length.
  • In 2006, NASCAR passed a rule that required teams to field no more than four cars. Since Roush Racing had five cars, they could continue to field five cars.

Amendment XXII in the National Archives The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office... For the victim of Mt. ... FDR redirects here. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Many nations have a legal drinking age, or the minimum age one must be to drink alcohol. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the decade starting at the beginning of 2000 and ending at the end of 2009. ... The FCCs official seal. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... WBAP is an AM radio station in the Dallas Fort Worth Metroplex following a talk format. ... WIBW can stand for three different broadcasting outlets in Topeka, Kansas: WIBW (AM), a news and sports talk radio station broadcasting at 580 kHz WIBW-FM, a country radio station broadcasting at 94. ... KDKA is the callsign of two broadcast stations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA: KDKA AM 1020, the first commercial station in the U.S. KDKA-TV, channel 2 (DTV 25) KDKA-FM 92. ... KQV is, allegedly, a radio station in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... KYW is the callsign of two broadcast stations in Philadelphia: KYW (AM), broadcasting at 1060 kHz on radio. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... Jack Roosevelt Jackie Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) became the first African-American major league baseball player of the modern era in 1947. ... MLB and Major Leagues redirect here. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 23, 32, 37, 44, 49 Name New York Yankees (1913–present) New York Highlanders (1903-1912) Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902) (Also referred to as... Mariano Rivera is the closing pitcher for the New York Yankees. ... Mariano Rivera (born November 29, 1969 in Panama City, Panama) is a Panamanian baseball player. ... A spitball is a baseball pitch in which the ball has been altered by the application of spit, petroleum jelly, or some other foreign substance. ... Burleigh Arland Grimes (August 18, 1893 - December 6, 1985) was an American professional baseball player, and the last pitcher officially permitted to throw the spitball. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... Alltel (NYSE: AT) is an American telecommunications company with headquarters in Little Rock, Arkansas. ... This article is about the wireless subsidiary of AT&T. For the defunct wireless provider that was merged into Cingular in 2004, see AT&T Wireless Services. ... Samsung Group is one of the largest South Korean business groupings. ... The exterior of a typical free-standing RadioShack store. ... Texas Motor Speedway is a superspeedway located in the northernmost portion of the U.S. city of Fort Worth, Texas -- the portion located in Denton County, Texas. ... The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... Motorola Inc. ... Sprint Nextel Corporation (NYSE: S) is one of the largest telecommunications companies in the world. ... Robby Gordon (born in Bellflower, California, on January 2, 1969) is an American racing driver who currently competes in the NASCAR NEXTEL Cup Series, owning his #7 Ford Fusion, sponsored by Jim Beam, and also owning his #55 Verizon Wireless/Motorola ride which competes part-time in the Busch Series... AT&T Inc. ... BellSouth Corporation was an American telecommunications holding company based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Jeffery Brian Burton (born June 29, 1967 in South Boston, Virginia) also sometimes referred to as JB is a NASCAR Nextel Cup Series driver. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Richard Childress Racing is a NASCAR team fielding Chevrolets for Kevin Harvick (#29 Royal Dutch Shell), Clint Bowyer (#07 Jack Daniels) Jeff Burton (#31 (Cingular Wireless/AT&T), full-time, and Scott Wimmer (#33 Holiday Inn part-time in the Nextel Cup series, as well as the #2 BB... NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... The one-bar facemask is a model of facemask for use with football helmets which was one of the earliest facemasks available. ... The 2006 season of the National Football League (NFL) was the 87th one played by the major professional American football league in the United States. ... City Glendale, Arizona Other nicknames The Cards, The Birds, Big Red, The Buzzsaw Team colors Cardinal Red, Black, and White Head Coach Ken Whisenhunt Owner Bill Bidwill General manager Rod Graves Mascot Big Red League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1920–present) Western Division (1933-1949) American Conference (1950-1952... [[Image:|frame|right|Todd Sauerbrun punts the ball for the Carolina Panthers. ... Scott Darwin Player (born December 17, 1969 in St. ... “Browns” redirects here. ... The 1973 NFL season was the 54th regular season of the National Football League. ... The 1972 NFL season was the 53rd regular season of the National Football League. ... This article is about the current National Football League team. ... Brad Alan Van Pelt (born April 5, 1951 in Owosso, Michigan) is a former American football linebacker who played fourteen seasons the National Football League. ... Julius Adams (born April 26, 1948 in Macon, Georgia) was a defensive lineman in the NFL. For his entire career he played for the New England Patriots. ... City Foxborough, Massachusetts Other nicknames The Pats Team colors Nautical Blue, New Century Silver, Red, and White Head Coach Bill Belichick Owner Robert Kraft General manager Bill Belichick (de facto) Mascot Pat Patriot League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960–69) Eastern Division (1960–69) National Football League (1970–present... The 1985 NFL season was the 66th regular season of the National Football League. ... NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... In relation to a company, a director is an officer (that is, someone who works for the company) charged with the conduct and management of its affairs. ... “Packers” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Green Bay Packers. ... Green Bay is the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... A piledriver is a professional wrestling driver move in which the wrestler grabs his/her opponent, turns him/her upside-down, and drops into a sitting or kneeling position, driving the opponents head into the mat. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mark William Calaway (born March 24, 1962[1][2]) is an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, (The) Undertaker. ... Kenneth Anderson (born March 6, 1976) is an American professional wrestler better known by the ring name Mr. ... Thomas Laughlin (born February 14, 1971),[2] is an American professional wrestler better known by his ring name, Tommy Dreamer. ... Glen Thomas Jacobs (born April 26, 1967) is an American professional wrestler better known by the ring name, Kane. ... “NHL” redirects here. ... The Chicago Stadium was a famed and historic indoor sports arena in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Boston Garden was a famous arena built in 1928 in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Buffalo Memorial Auditorium (also known as The Aud) is an indoor arena in downtown Buffalo, New York. ... Robert Gordon Bobby Orr, OC (born March 20, 1948 in Parry Sound, Ontario) is a retired Canadian ice hockey defenseman, and is considered to be one of the greatest hockey players of all time. ... “NHL” redirects here. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Craig MacTavish (born August 15, 1958 in London, Ontario, Canada) is the head coach of the National Hockey Leagues Edmonton Oilers. ... A visor or shield in ice hockey is a device attached to the front of a hockey helmet to reduce potential of injury to the face. ... MLB and Major Leagues redirect here. ... MLB and Major Leagues redirect here. ... This article is about the Major League Baseball Player. ... Major league affiliations National League (1962–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 14, 37, 41, 42 Name New York Mets (1962–present) Other nicknames The Amazin Mets, The Amazins, The Metropolitans, The Kings of Queens Ballpark Shea Stadium (1964–present) Polo Grounds (1962–1963) Major league... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) East Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 3, 21, 35, 41, 42, 44 Name Atlanta Braves (1966–present) Milwaukee Braves (1953-1965) Boston Braves (1941-1952) Boston Bees (1936-1940) Boston Braves (1912-1935) Boston Rustlers (1911) Boston Doves (1907-1910) Boston... The Federal Assault Weapons Ban (AWB) was a provision of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, a federal law of the United States that included a prohibition on the sale of semi-automatic assault weapons manufactured after the date of the bans enactment. ... The Firearm Owners Protection Act (FOPA) is a United States federal law that revised many statutes in the Gun Control Act of 1968. ... Washington state maintains the largest fleet of passenger and auto ferries in the United States and the third largest in the world. ... The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act, was enacted on June 29, 1956, when a hospitalized Dwight D. Eisenhower signed this bill into law. ... Rest stop redirects here. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ... The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) defines standards for Interstate Highways in their publication A Policy on Design Standards - Interstate System. ... This Pennsylvania state route article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject Pennsylvania State Highways. ... Pennsylvania Route 60 (PA Route 60 or PA 60), also called State Route 60 (SR 60), is a major state highway in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, connecting Pittsburgh to the areas of the northwest and west of Pittsburgh. ... Pennsylvania Route 576, the Southern Beltway, is a partially-completed highway in the southern suburbs of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Interstate 376 (abbreviated I-376) is an east-west U.S. interstate highway spur route that lies entirely within Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ... Interstate 576 (abbreviated I-576) is an interstate highway spur route that is currently under construction, which will serve the southern suburbs of Pittsburgh. ... The Kansas Turnpike is a tolled freeway that lies entirely within the U.S. state of Kansas. ... Jersey wall on the Woodrow Wilson Bridge near Washington, D.C. A Jersey barrier or Jersey wall separates lanes of traffic (often opposing lanes of traffic) with a goal of minimizing vehicle crossover in the case of accidents. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... Outside Roush headquarters. ...

United Kingdom

  • On the UK's national rail network Network Rail requires new locomotives and rolling stock to pass tests for Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) to ensure that they do not interfere with signalling equipment. Some old diesel locomotives, which have been in service for many years without causing such interference, are excused EMC tests and are said to have acquired "Grandfather Rights".
  • Many regulations regarding motor vehicles are covered by Grandfarther rights (although generally not refered to as such), particularly regarding new safety equipment that has become mandatory on new vehicles over the years. This includes things such as indicators, seatbelts, the use of safety glass, and on larger vehicles tachographs and speed limiters. Many standard for MOT testing such as emmisions and brake efficiency are based on standards in place when the vehicle was new. Drivers aswell are in some cases covered by Grandfarther rights, particularly relating to the driving of goods and passenger carrying vehicles (the latter when not in public service).

Network Rail is a British not for dividend company limited by guarantee whose principal asset is Network Rail Infrastructure Limited, a company limited by shares. ... Great Western Railway No. ... Rolling Stock banner Rolling Stock was a newspaper of ideas and a chronicle of the 1980s published in Boulder, Colorado by Ed Dorn and Jennifer Dunbar Dorn. ... Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the branch of electrical sciences which studies the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy with reference to the unwanted effects that such an energy may induce. ... A modern Diesel locomotive. ...

See also



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