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Encyclopedia > Grand strategy

Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empire's resources. Issues of grand strategy typically include the choice of primary versus secondary theatres in war, the general types of armaments to favor manufacturing, and which international alliances best suit national goals. It has considerable overlap with foreign policy, but is focussed primarily on the military implications of policy. A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and derives its legitimacy from that function. ... An empire (also known technically, abstractly or disparagingly as an imperium, and with powers known among Romans as imperium) comprises a set of regions locally ruled by governors, viceroys or client kings in the name of an emperor. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... A foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. ...


Grand strategy is typically decided by the political leadership of a country, with input from the most senior military officials. Because of its scope and the number of different people and groups involved, grand strategy is usually a matter of public record, although the details of implementation (such as the immediate purposes of a specific alliance) are often concealed. A grand strategy may extend across many years or even multiple generations.

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Examples

A classic example of modern grand strategy is the decision of the Allies in World War II to concentrate on the defeat of Germany first. The decision, a joint agreement made after the attack on Pearl Harbor had drawn the US into the war, was a sensible one in that Germany was the most powerful member of the Axis, and directly threatened the continued existence of both the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Conversely, while Japan's conquests garnered considerable public attention, they were mostly in colonial areas deemed less essential by planners and policymakers. The specifics of Allied military strategy in the Pacific War was therefore shaped by the lesser resources made available to the theatre commanders. When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries that fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of World War II. Other... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that engulfed much of the globe... The Imperial Japanese Navy made its attack on Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941. ... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War, which is known in Japan as the Greater East Asia War, occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in Asia. ...


A more recent example of grand strategy was the policy of containment used by the US during the Cold War. Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War. ... For the generic term for a high-tension struggle between countries, see cold war (war). ...


An example of grand strategy incorporating both military and economic elements was the decision by the Chinese leadership in the early 1980s to reduce the size of the People's Liberation Army so that more resources could be used by the civilian economy on the premise that a growing civilian economy would be able to support a more advanced military in the future. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Scipio Africanus as a grand strategist

The greatest example of the application of grand strategy may be that of Scipio Africanus, a general of the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War. Scipio Africanus made a name for himself for personal bravery at the battle of Ticinus (218 B.C.E.). After the disastrous battle of Cannae (216 B.C.E.) he again gained renown when he broke up a meeting of noblemen who were planning on deserting Italy altogether, and forced them at swordpoint to remain faithful to Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (236 - 183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... General is a military rank used by nearly every country in the world. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century) The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Publica Romanorum) was the republican government of the city of Rome and its territories from 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, which sometimes placed at 44 BC the year of Caesar... The Second Punic War was fought between Carthage and Rome from 218 to 202 BC. It was the second of three major wars fought between the Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Roman Republic, then still confined to the Italian Peninsula. ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (236 - 183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... Cannae (mod. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1...


The following year after his father's death in 210 B.C.E., Scipio Africanus offered himself to the Roman Republic as general of her Spanish armies. After gaining control, he immediately attacked Carthago Nova, the nexus of Carthiginian power in Spain. After skillfully capturing the near-invincible Carthiginian city, he managed to trap Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal, between a Scylla and Charybdis: if Hasdrubal was to attempt to retake Carthago Nova, he was open to attack by Scipio Africanus and faced almost certain defeat; but, if Hasdrubal attacked Scipio instead of Carthago Nova, even if Scipio lost, there was a slim chance the Carthaginians would easily recapture the city. At the Battle of Baecula, Scipio outmaneuvered Hasdrubal, and successfully secured the Roman foothold in Spain (209 B.C.E.). Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (236 - 183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century) The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Publica Romanorum) was the republican government of the city of Rome and its territories from 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, which sometimes placed at 44 BC the year of Caesar... Carthago Nova (New Carthage, Carthage already meaning new city in Punic) is the Latin name of the most important Carthaginian coastal trading colony in Spain. ... Sociologists usually define power as the ability to impose ones will on others, even if those others resist in some way. ... Scylla and Charybdis are two sea monsters of Greek mythology situated on opposite sides of a narrow channel of water, so close that sailors attempting to avoid Charybdis will pass too close to Scylla and vice versa. ... The Battle of Baecula was fought in 208BC between a campaigning Scipio Africanus and Carthaginian Hadrubal. ...


During his Spanish campaign, Scipio was noteworthy because of his wisdom and compassion towards the nobility of the Spanish tribes. By not imposing ultimatums on the Spanish tribesman and treating them with respect and compassion, Scipio was able to cleverly win over the hearts and souls of both the Spanish citizenry and the Spanish oligarchies, something which he needed to best the heavily entrenched and numerically superior Carthignians under the aforementioned Hasdrubal and Mago, another general of Carthage. The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... This article is on the social structure. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... Oligarchy is a form of government where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ... Hasdrubal was the name of several Carthaginian generals, among whom the following are the most important: 1. ... Mago Barca (also spelled Magon) (243 BC - 203 BC), brother of the Carthaginian General Hannibal, who had played a major role in the Second Punic War against Rome. ... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ...


After a poignant victory in the Battle of Ilipa in 206 B.C.E., Carthaginian holdings in Spain were nearly eradicated and the tribes of Spain were firmly under his benevolent grasp. Then, in a daring and retrospectively foolhardy move, Scipio left the safety of Spain and traveled to meet Syphax and Massinissa of Numidia, both of whom he won over by his eloquence and charisma. Massinissa would later become one of Scipio's most trusted generals, while Syphax would later turn on him. However, for the time, Scipio had secured not only Spain, but two formidable allies. The Battle of Ilipa was a battle of the Second Punic War. ... Syphax was a king of the Masaesyles in western Numidia. ... Masinissa (c. ... Numidia was an ancient African Berber kingdom and later a Roman province on the northern coast of Africa between the province of Africa (where Tunisia is now) and the province of Mauretania (which is now the western part of Algerias coastal area). ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries that fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of World War II. Other...


After Scipio's conquest of Gades, he returned to Rome and gave up his generalship of Spain in late 206 B.C.E. After being elected consul, he was given the Roman province of Sicily, where he enlisted local aristocracy into his army. After viewing the unwillingness of the aristocracy to fight, he gave them a choice: either they could stay and fight, or leave. However, if they left, they would automatically transfer their armor, horses, and weaponry to Scipio. Most left, and those that remained were determined. By doing this, Scipio secured necessary armaments for no price at all. After, Scipio spent much of his time before his invasion of Africa raising troops and building a fleet. This article is about the Spanish city. ... For modern diplomatic consuls, see Consulate general. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... This article is about political regions. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... The Ancient Greek term aristocracy meant a system of government with rule by the best. This is the first definition given in most dictionaries. ... Alternative meanings: vehicle armour, Armor (novel) A hoplite wearing a helmet, a breastplate and greaves (and nothing else). ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest continent and second most populous after Asia. ...


By 204 B.C.E., he was given permission to invade Carthaginian holdings in North Africa. He landed near the city of Utica, which he besieged. After an amazing tactical victory over combined Carthaginian and Numidian forces, where he issued a daring night raid on the enemy camp, he negotiated a peace treaty, in which he demonstrated laudable moderation and clemency. However, the Carthaginians, acting out of imprudence, broke the treaty and recalled Hannibal, who by this time was restrained to southern Italy with but a shell of his former army. Scipio trapped Hannibal by Zama, where he swiftly defeated the Carthaginian hero at the Battle of Zama in 202 B.C.E., quite possibly Scipio's greatest triumph. North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Azores, Canary Islands, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa. ... Utica was a Phoenician colony, on the African coast, near Carthage. ... A siege is a prolonged military assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Raid or RAID has several meanings: In the military or law enforcement world, any kind of offensive action characterized from swiftness of execution and importance of the aim. ... An enemy or foe is a relativist term for an entity that is seen as forcefully adverse or threatening. ... The term camp—normally used as an adjective, even though earliest recorded uses employed it mainly as a verb—refers to the deliberate and sophisticated use of kitsch, mawkish or corny themes and styles in art, clothing or conversation. ... Army (from French armée) can, in some countries, refer to any armed force (for example, the Peoples Liberation Army of China consists of ground force, navy and air force branches). ... Sir Galahad, a hero of Arthurian legend In many myths and folk tales, a hero is a man or woman (the latter often called a heroine), traditionally the protagonist of a story, legend or saga, who commonly possesses abilities or character far greater than that of a typical person, which... The Battle of Zama, fought on October 19, 202 BC, was the decisive battle of the Second Punic War. ...


After Scipio's victory, he issued a new treaty, which demonstrated an equal amount of mercy and leniency as found in the first. Despite the vicious cries of Roman Senators, the treaty was passed, and would not be broken again until just before the Third Punic War. When he returned to Rome, he was by far the most popular figure and could have quite possibly assumed dictatorship, but instead refused the extravagant honors placed upon him, and retired the responsibilities of the State to the Senate. A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Mercy is a term used to describe the leniency or compassion shown by one person to another, or a request from one person to another to be shown such leniency or compassion. ... The Washington Senators can refer to: The Washington Senators (officially named the Washington Nationals during the 1905–1956 seasons), an American League baseball team based in Washington, D.C. from 1901 to 1960. ... The Third Punic War was fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic from 149 BC to 146 BC. This was the last in a series of three wars. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... See also: popularity. ... Dictatorship, in contemporary usage, refers to absolute rule by a leadership (usually a single dictator) unrestricted by law, constitutions, or other social and political factors within the state. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ...


What Scipio accomplished during the Second Punic War is, in retrospection, remarkable. At the start of his career, he was an apt, albeit youthful, colonel of a nation on the brink of defeat. By the end of the Second Punic War, he was the most revered man in a regenerated, nearly omnipotent, Roman Republic. He was a true statesman, caring nothing for politics, but rather, for the sanctity and wellbeing of his state. He displayed remarkable prudence and foresight in regard to the dealing of his enemies, which, in the end, brought him allies while stripping his enemy of them. As a general, he is among the few in history who never had a recorded loss. Truly, as a grand strategist, Scipio Africanus was a resounding success, a benchmark in history that has never quite been surpassed. // For publications of this name, see also Nation (disambiguation). ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Representative democracy History of democracy Referenda Liberal democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Ideology Elections Elections by country Elections by calendar Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... The conventional meaning of prudence is to exercise sound judgement in practical affairs. ... The study of the future researches the medium-term to long-term future of societies and of the physical world. ... ...


American Grand Strategy Further Reading

  • American Grand Strategy After 9/11: An Assessment. Dr. Stephen Biddle. 50pp. April 2005. Strategic Studies Institute. Free PDF Download.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Grand strategy - definition of Grand strategy in Encyclopedia (316 words)
Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empire's resources.
Grand strategy is typically decided by the political leadership of a country, with input from the most senior military officials.
A classic example of modern grand strategy is the decision of the Allies in World War II to concentrate on the defeat of Germany first.
AllRefer.com - strategy and tactics (Military Affairs (nonnaval)) - Encyclopedia (278 words)
Strategy may be defined as the general scheme of the conduct of a war, tactics as the planning of means to achieve strategic objectives.
Karl von Clausewitz, the Prussian military theorist, who was influenced by Niccolo Machiavelli, described strategy as the planning of a whole campaign and tactics as the planning of a single battle.
Another school views strategy as a means of bringing the enemy to battle and tactics as the means of defeating him in battle.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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