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Encyclopedia > Grand Prince of Finland

Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. 18091917 it was the official title of the head of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. For Fürst, the German title of nobility that is best translated as Prince, see below. ... Events June 1 - With the death of the Duc dAnjou, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre becomes heir-presumptive to the throne of France. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917. ...

In 1581, King John III of Sweden, who had previously (155663) been Duke of Finland (a royal duke), assumed the subsidiary title Grand Prince of Finland (in Swedish Storfurste till Finland) to the Kings of Sweden. This is to be seen as a marking of the Swedish sovereign's power in Finland, as well as the import of Finland as a part of the Sweden Proper. It did not result in any increase of Finnish autonomy. Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... John III of Sweden or Johan III of the Royal House of Vasa, was the king of Sweden (1568-1592). ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Spain and France (in Italy, principe... In Sweden, Duke is considered a royal title, and is only given to members of the Royal House (currently Bernadotte). ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... Sweden proper, or Egentliga Sverige, is a term used to distinguish those territories that were fully integrated into the Kingdom of Sweden, as opposed to the dominions and possessions of, or states in union with, the Realm of Sweden. ...

King of Sweden, the Goths, the Wends;
Grand Prince of Finland;
Duke of Karelia, Wätski Pethin, Ingria, and the Estonians in Livonia[1] (http://www.geocities.com/eurprin/sweden.html)

In those years, John was and had been in quarrel with his eastern neighbor, Tsar Ivan IV of Russia, who had a litany of subsidiary titles as Grand Prince of several ancient Russian principalities and provinces. The use of Grand Prince on John's behalf was a countermeasure to signify his mighty position as sovereign of Sweden, also a multinational or multi-country realm, and equal to a Tsardom. Not only was Finland added, but Karelia, Ingria, and Livonia that all were along the Swedish-Russian border. It is said that the first use of the new title was in an occasion to contact Tsar Ivan. Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... The Ingrian flag Historically Ingria (Swedish Ingermanland, Finnish Inkeri, Russian Izhora) comprises the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in South-West, and Lake Ladoga in North-East. ... This article is about the region in Europe. ...

During the next two centuries, the title was used by some of John's successors on the throne, but not all (e.g. his brother Charles IX used King of the Finns in stead). Usually it was just a subsidiary title of the King, and so it was used only at very formal occasions. However, in 1802, King Gustav IV Adolf gave the title to his new-born son, Prince Carl Gustaf, who died three years later. Charles IX, or Karl IX (1550 – 1611), king of Sweden, was the youngest son of Gustav I of Sweden and Margareta Lejonhufvud. ... 1802 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Gustav IV Adolf (1778-1837), king of Sweden, of the house Holstein-Gottorp, was the son of Gustav III of Sweden and Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, and born at Stockholm on November 1, 1778. ...

During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of occupied Finland were assembled at the Diet of Porvoo on March 29, 1809 to pledge allegiance to Alexander I of Russia. Following the Swedish defeat in the war and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on September 17, 1809, Finland became a true autonomous grand duchy as a part of the Russian Empire. The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... The Diet of Finland, Suomen valtiopäivät or Finlands Lantdag, was the legislative assembly, and successor to the Riksdag of the Estates, of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Aleksandr Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), Emperor of Russia (reigned March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825), King of Poland (reigned 1815–1825), son of the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, afterwards Paul I, and Maria Fedorovna, daughter of... The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (Freden i Fredrikshamn in Swedish and Haminan rauha in Finnish ) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on September 17, 1809. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... A grand duchy is a form of principality, monarchy which has a Grand Duke or a Grand Duchess as head of state. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...

The Tsar ruled Finland, as Grand Duke of Finland, through his governor and a native Senate appointed by him. The country nevertheless enjoyed a high degree of autonomy, until its independence in 1917. The new elected monarch (Väinö I) was to be king instead of Tsar, marking the new status of the nation, but he never reigned until republic was proclaimed. Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,  listen; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Väinö I of Finland ( 1868 – 1940) was elected King of Finland, but renounced the throne after Imperial Germanys defeat in World War I. On Germanys urging, Finland had declared itself independent from Russia on December 6, 1917, (recognized by Bolshevist Russia on January 4, 1918), and there was... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people that dont base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ...

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Encyclopedia: Grand Duchy (4198 words)
Grand Duke is also the usual and established translation of sovereign Grand Prince in languages which do not have separate words meaning prince for (1) the non-ruling relatives of a monarch, and (2) monarch (sovereign or like) princes.
Grand Duke is also the usual and established translation in English and French of the Russian courtesy title Velikiy Knjaz (grand prince) of Russia, which from 17th century belonged to members of the family of the Russian tsar, although those Grand dukes were not sovereigns.
However, a grand prince was usually only primus inter pares within a dynasty, other princes of the dynasty were approximately as entitled to succession as the then ruler (succession was for example through agnatic seniority or rotation), and often other members of the dynasty ruled parts of the same realm as some sort of "sub-princes".
  More results at FactBites »



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