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Encyclopedia > Grand Duke of Lithuania
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The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called " Pahonya (Belarusian: Паго́ня translated as Chase) is a historical symbol known in Belarus since medieval times. More recenly, it was on the state seal of the Belarus National Republic, the coat of arms of the Belarusian Popular Front, and for a brief period it... Пагоня" in Belarusian, " Vytis The Coat of arms of the Republic of Lithuania is the Vytis (the Knight) or Pogoń. Structure The heraldic shield features a red field with an armored knight on a white (silver) horse holding a silver sword in his right hand above his head. A blue shield hangs... Vytis" in Lithuanian and " Pogoń Litewska - is a Polish Coat of Arms. It was used by several szlachta families in the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. History Blazon Notable bearers Notable bearers of this Coat of Arms include: See also: Vytis Pahonya Czartoryski Coat of Arms   Polish heraldry Coat of Arms... Pogoń" in Polish
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Another version of the Lithuanian banner

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania ( Lithuanian is the official language of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native Lithuanians. The Lithuanian name for the language is Lietuvių kalba. In older literature on Baltic languages, Lithuanian can sometimes refer to Baltic Languages in general. History The Lithuanian language still retains much of the original sound... Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian is the language of the Belarusian nation. It is one of the three East Slavic languages and is spoken in and around Belarus. It is also known as Belarusan, Byelorussian, Belorussian, or Belarusian. The word Byelorussian is an adjective derived from the transliteration of the Russian name of the... Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. Written Ukrainian bears resemblances to these two languages, but with several notable differences. Historically, Belarusian and Ukrainian diverged from Old or Middle Ruthenian language. Spoken literary Ukrainian, however finds... Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish (polski, język polski) is the official language of Poland. History Polish has been influenced by contact with foreign languages (foremost Latin, Czech, French, German, Italian, Old Belarusian, Russian and recently it has been virtually bombarded by English, especially American English language elements). A small hint when learning... Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie) was an Eastern European state in (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Events Fourth through eighth crusades... 13th - (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age a cooling period that resulted in lower crop yields across the world, and harsher... 16th centuries. Founded by at that time This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Lithuanian mythology is very close to Latvian mythology. Lithuanian gods, goddesses and spirits: Aušautas Aušlavis Aušra Aušrinė, goddess of the Morning Star Austrinis, god... pagan, Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The term Baltic countries is sometimes used more or less synonymously for Northern Europe (Russia not included) The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the... Baltic The earliest evidence of inhabitants in present-day Lithuania dates back to 10,000 BC. Between 3,000-2,000 BC, the cord-ware culture people spread over a vast region of eastern Europe, between the Baltic Sea and the Vistula River in the West and the Moscow-Kursk line... Lithuanians in the first half of the (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Events Fourth through eighth crusades... 13th century, soon it overpassed the confines of the traditional area of Lithuanian settlement, affiliating wide territories of former Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by... Kievan Rus. This way it covered the territory of present-day The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuania, Belarus ( Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. Belarus... Belarus, Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine, Transnistria or Transdniester (Russian: Приднестровье (Pridnestrovye), Romanian Transnistria, referred to as Stânga Nistrului (Left Bank of the Nistru) by official Moldovan sources). Transnistria is a region in eastern Europe. The name comes from it being... Transnistria and partially The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poland and The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia in the period of its greatest extent in the (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. Events Renaissance affects philosophy, science and art. The New Monarchs come to power in France, England, Portugal and Spain. Rise of... 15th century. In the The Union of Krewo (or Union of Krevo) was a a political and dynastic agreement between Queen Jadwiga of Poland and Grand Prince Jagiello of Lithuania and the begining of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. The document was signed in the town of Krewo on August 14, 1385, and provided for... Union of Krewo in Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Hapsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Lithuania and Poland. Dan I is succeeded as ruler of Wallachia by Mircea the Old. The Viking colony of Greenland submits itself to the Norwegian king. Births March 12 - Ashikaga Yoshimochi, Ashikaga shogun Deaths... 1386, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was connected to the The Jagiellon Era 1385-1572, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jagiello. The partnership proved profitable for the Poles and Lithuanians, who played a dominant role in one of the most powerful empires in Europe for the... Kingdom of Poland through a common monarch. Since the The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania... Lublin Union in Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. March 13 - Battle of Jarnac - Royalist troops under Marshal Gaspard de Tavannes surprise and defeat the Huguenots under the Prince of Condé, who is captured and murdered. A substantial proportion of the Huguenot army manages to escape under Gaspard de Coligny. June... 1569, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was an integral part of the The Commonwealth around 1619 Official languages Polish and Latin Established church Roman Catholic Capitals Cracow (until 1596) Warsaw (from 1596) Largest City Gdańsk, later Warsaw Head of state King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania Area about 1 million km² Population about 11 million Existed 1569 - 1795... Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (having separate laws, an army and treasury) until the May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). King Stanislaw August (left) enters St. Johns Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaws Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted. Polands Constitution of May 3rd, 1791, was instituted by... May Constitution of Events January 25 - The British Parliament passes the Constitutional Act of 1791, splitting the old province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada March 3 - The U.S. Congress passes a resolution calling for the establishment of the United States Mint (U.S. Mint not created until next year). March... 1791, which abolished all the subdivisions of the states and merged them into This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended page. The state formed by Boleslaus I of... Kingdom of Poland. However, the new state was annexed soon afterwards by Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Imperial Russia, The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia ( German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad... Prussia and The Republic of Austria ( German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It borders Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The state is a representative democracy... Austria in the effect of the The Partitions of Poland ( Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). They involved Prussia, Russia and Austria dividing up the Polish lands between themselves. The three partitions occurred... Partitions of Poland of Events January 16 - French occupy Utrecht, Netherlands. January 20 - French troops enter Amsterdam and later proclaim Batavian Republic. January 23 - Dutch fleet freezes in IJsselmeer. February 7 - The 11th Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed. April 7 - France adopts the metre as the unit of length. April 8... 1795.


Being expanded presumably by peaceful means, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a multinational state, where all its parts ( The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has multiple meanings (see Catholicism); the term Roman Catholic Church is used in this article to avoid... Catholic The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuanians and The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poles, Eastern Orthodoxy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Eastern Orthodoxy From Wikipedia The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, with a growing presence in the western world... Orthodox and The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. Or it may apply to these particular Churches themselves... Uniate Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Having evolved from the Old East Slavic language, Ruthenian was the ancestor of modern Belarusian, Ukrainian, and Rusyn. Therefore, it is sometimes also... East Slavs, The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jews, The Armenians are a nation or ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus and eastern Asia Minor. A large concentration remain there, especially in Armenia, but almost as many are scattered elsewhere throughout the world. History Until modern times, the history of the Armenians is the history of Armenia, a name... Armenians, Ethnic Germans (usually simply called Germans, in German Volksdeutsche) are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German rather than anything else but who do not live within the Federal Republic of Germany nor hold its citizenship. The concept of ethnic belonging is always problematic; it... Germans etc.) contributed to cultural and political life. This multinational character of the state and cosmopolitan tendencies in thinking of the leading elite after the end of (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. Events The transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age Beginning of the Ottoman Empire, early expansion into... 14th century caused the question of legacy of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th - (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th centuries. This question was disputed by Polish, Russian, Lithuanian and Belarusian historians and national leaders. These disputes reached their peak during independence wars in 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. January 9 - Britain announces it will build 1,000,000 homes for war veterans. January 10 - League of Nations holds its first meeting... 1920, sometimes becoming local wars (see The Curzon line was a boundary line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a border between Poland, to the west, and Lithuania, Russia and Ukraine, to the east. It lay approximately along the border which was established between Prussia and Russia in 1797... Curzon line, Central Lithuania (Polish Republika Litwy Środkowej, Lithuanian Vidurine Lietuva) was a semi-independent state, created in 1920 by allegedly rebellious soldiers of the Lithuanian-Belarussian division of the Polish army. Background 50 years after January Uprising 1864, the historical Grand Duchy of Lithuania was under military government of Imperial... Central Lithuania).


The word "conquest", although it's used often by international (especially Anglo-American), is not the most proper word to describe the process by which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania united the lands of Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. Belarus borders Poland on the west... White Ruthenia. It is worth noting that both peoples, the forefathers of modern The earliest evidence of inhabitants in present-day Lithuania dates back to 10,000 BC. Between 3,000-2,000 BC, the cord-ware culture people spread over a vast region of eastern Europe, between the Baltic Sea and the Vistula River in the West and the Moscow-Kursk line... Lithuanians and modern Belarusians, also spelt Belarusans, Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorussians are a distinct ethnic group of East Slavs who are the major population of Belarus, also being minorities in the neighboring Poland (especially Bialystok province), Russia, Lithuania and Ukraine. Noticeable numbers are in emigration in the Canada. The prefix Bela can be... Belarusians, called themselves "Lithuanians" in their own tongue (respectively lietuviai in Lithuanian is the official language of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native Lithuanians. The Lithuanian name for the language is Lietuvių kalba. In older literature on Baltic languages, Lithuanian can sometimes refer to Baltic Languages in general. History The Lithuanian language still retains much of the original sound... Lithuanian and Belarusians, also spelt Belarusans, Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorussians are a distinct ethnic group of East Slavs who are the major population of Belarus, also being minorities in the neighboring Poland (especially Bialystok province), Russia, Lithuania and Ukraine. Noticeable numbers are in emigration in the USA and Canada. The prefix Bela... litvins in Belarusian is the language of the Belarusian nation. It is one of the three East Slavic languages and is spoken in and around Belarus. It is also known as Belarusan, Byelorussian, Belorussian, or Belarusian. The word Byelorussian is an adjective derived from the transliteration of the Russian name of the... Belarusian).

Contents

History

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania began its rise to great power status under the reign of Modern portrait of Mindaugas Mindaugas (also known as Mindowe (Polish), Mendog (Polish, modern), Mindovg (Russian), Міндо́ўг (Mindowh) (Belarusian)) (c.1203 - 1263) ruled Lithuania as grand duke (didysis kunigaikštis) from c.1236 and as the countrys sole king (karalius) from 1253... Mindaugas (Mindouh) beginning in Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. Mongols seize Moscow, at that time a small town. Peterborough Cathedral is consecrated. The Khmers are expelled from Luang Phrabang in Laos. The Sukhothai kingdom is... 1238. The duchy expanded both south and west, incorporating large quantities of former Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. Essentially, the word is a Latin rendering of the ancient place name Rus. See Etymology of Rus and derivatives... Rus lands in both directions. Expansion reached its height under Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. Gediminas (known as Gedymin in Slavic languages) was the true founder of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as a Baltic-Slavic empire claiming the heritage of ancient Kievan Rus. He has a reputation of inveterate pagan who fiercely resisted all attempts to... Gediminas who created a strong central government and succeed in creating and empire that spread from the Black Sea - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Black Sea From Wikipedia Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS Cities of the Black Sea The Black Sea (known as the Euxine Sea in the antiquity) is an... Black to the The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of east and central Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Öresund, the Great Belt and the Little Belt. Kattegat then continues in the Skagerrak into the... Baltic sea. The ease with which Lithuania built up an empire can be accredited to the diplomatic and tactical skill of Lithuanian grand dukes as well as to the Honorary guard of Mongolia. The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. They currently number about 8.5 million and speak the Mongol language. They form one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of... Mongols and their weakening of all the Rus lands. Lithuania was in an ideal position to take advantage of the weakness of the other The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. Each of the many nationalities of Russia has a separate history and complex origins. The historical origins of the Russian state, however, are chiefly those of the East Slavs and the assimilated Finno-Ugric... Eastern Slavs. While almost every other state around it had been pillaged or defeated by the Mongols, the hordes never reached as far north as Lithuania and its territory was left untouched. Lithuania's expansion was also accelerated because of the weak control the Mongols had over the areas they had conquered. (Ruthenia was never incorporated directly into the This article refers to the Mongol state in what is now Russia. For the Irish rock band, see The Golden Horde (band). The Golden Horde (also known as Kipchak or Qipchaq Khanate) was a Tatar state established in present day Russia by unification of Blue Horde and White Horde around... Golden Horde. Instead, it was always a vassal state with a fair degree of independence.) The rise of Lithuania occurred at the ideal time when they could expand while meeting very little Ruthenian resistance and only limited opposition from the Mongols.


The Lithuanian Empire was not one built upon military aggression. The Grand Duchy's existence always depended upon diplomacy just as much as upon arms. Most cities it annexed were never defeated in battle but agreed to be vassals of Lithuania. Since most of them were already vassals of the Golden Horde or of This article is about Muscovite Russia. For the duck see Muscovy Duck Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княж... Muscovy this decision was not one of giving up independence but rather of exchanging one master for another. This can be seen in the case of For other cities named Novgorod see Novgorod (disambiguation). Novgorod (Но́вгород) is a city in North-Western Russia. Since 1998 the official name of the city has been Velikiy Novgorod (Great Novgorod). It is the capital of Novgorod Oblast. The city lies along... Novgorod, it was often brought into the Lithuanian sphere of influence and became an occasional dependency of Lithuania, but Lithuanian armies never attacked the city. Rather Lithuanian control was the result of internal factions within the city looking to escape domination by Muscovy. This method of empire building was, however, quite unstable. Changing internal politics within a city would often see it pull out of Lithuania's control, as happened on a number of occasions with Novgorod and other Rus cities.

Christianization of Lithuania in 1387 by Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to...
Christianization of Lithuania in 1387 by Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Enlarge
" The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Christianization of The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuania in Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. August 23 - Olaf IV of Norway/ Olaf III of Denmark dies. The vacant thrones come under the Regency of his mother Margaret I of Denmark who would soon become Queen in... 1387", oil on canvas by Categories: Stub | Polish painters | 1838 births | 1893 deaths ... Jan Matejko, 1889, Categories: Stub | Buildings in Poland | Castles in Poland | Warsaw ... Royal Castle in Warsaw.

Lithuania reached its height under Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. Vytautas the Great (Vitovt, Witold) (sometimes - Aleksandras I, in Belarusian as Vitaut (Вітаўт)) 1352-1430 was Lithuanian grand duke, ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He was the son of Kęstutis, cousin of Ladislaus II... Vytautas the Great (Vitaut, Vitovt, Witold) who reigned from Events Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General Yi Seonggye leads a coup détat, overthrowing the kingdom of Goryeo and founding the kingdom of Joseon Afyonkarahisar in western Turkey is conquered by Sultan Beyazid I Louis de Valois is created the 1st Duke of Orléans, the second time... 1392 to Events May 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians Year in topics 1430 in art Births Robert Morton, English composer, approximate date Antoine Busnois, Burgundian composer, approximate date Deaths Christine de Pizan... 1430. The territory spread from the Baltic to the Black sea. Muskovys speedy expansion soon put it into a position to rival Lithuania, however, and after the annexation of Novgorod in Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. April 26 - The Pazzi attack Lorenzo de Medici and kill his brother Giuliano during High Mass in the Florence Cathedral. December 28 - Battle of... 1478 Muskovy was unquestionably the preeminent state in North East Europe. Between Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. March 30 - Ferdinand and Isabella sign a decree aimed at expelling all Jews from Spain unless they convert to Roman Catholicism. August 3 - On Friday, August... 1492 and Events February - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor attacks Venice June 6 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three year truce and cede several territories to Venice December 10 - League of Cambrai formed as an alliance against Venice between... 1508 Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand... Ivan III seized a part of the former Rus lands from Lithuania. The loss of land to Muscovy and the continued pressure from the expanding Russian state made a real threat of destroying the state of Lithuania, as it was forced to pursue ever closer alliances with The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poland until it was united with its western neighbour in the The Commonwealth around 1619 Official languages Polish, Latin Established church Roman Catholic Capital Cracow (until 1596) Warsaw (from 1596) Largest City Gdańsk, later Warsaw Head of state King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania Area about 1 million km² Population about 11 million Existed 1569 - 1795 The Polish... Commonwealth of Two Nations (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) in the The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania... Union of Lublin of Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. March 13 - Battle of Jarnac - Royalist troops under Marshal Gaspard de Tavannes surprise and defeat the Huguenots under the Prince of Condé, who is captured and murdered. A substantial proportion of the Huguenot army manages to escape under Gaspard de Coligny. June... 1569.


Grand Duchy of Lithuania retained many rights in that A federation (from the Latin fœdus, covenant) is a state comprised of a number of self-governing regions (often themselves referred to as states) united by a central (federal) government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states is constitutionally entrenched and may not be... federation (including separate treasury and army) until the May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). King Stanislaw August (left) enters St. Johns Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaws Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted. Polands Constitution of May 3rd, 1791, was instituted by... May Constitution of Poland was passed Events January 25 - The British Parliament passes the Constitutional Act of 1791, splitting the old province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada March 3 - The U.S. Congress passes a resolution calling for the establishment of the United States Mint (U.S. Mint not created until next year). March... 1791.


The chancery languages of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was old Belarusian (sometimes referred to as Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. See IPA in Unicode if you have display problems. Terminology Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between 10th and 14th century in Kievan Rus and its successor states. As the... Old Ruthenian) and Latin. First was used for correspondance to eastern countries, while the latter - to western countries. While Ruthenian was used for writing, the individual national languages were widely spoken by ething groups in their respective areas. Lithuanian was used in Lithuanian populated areas of the country, which included today's The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuania and parts of today's Belarus ( Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. Belarus... Belarus. Ethnically at the start of the country Lithuanians made 70% of population. With the aquirement of new slavic populated territories, this part decreased to 50% and with the aquirement of even more lands to 30%. Other major nations were The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. Each of the many nationalities of Russia has a separate history and complex origins. The historical origins of the Russian state, however, are chiefly those of the East Slavs and the assimilated Finno-Ugric... Eastern Slavs (who eventually made The Ukrainians are a Slavic people of central-eastern Europe. They are the descendants of several peoples who inhabited the vast area extending from north of the Black Sea to the borders of Russia, Poland, Moldova, Belarus and Slovakia. Ukraine had a very turbulent history, a fact justified by its... Ukrainians and Belarusians, also spelt Belarusans, Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorussians are a distinct ethnic group of East Slavs who are the major population of Belarus, also being minorities in the neighboring Poland (especially Bialystok province), Russia, Lithuania and Ukraine. Noticeable numbers are in emigration in the Canada. The prefix Bela can be... Belarusians) and Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. Most Tatars live in the central and southern parts of Russia, Ukraine, and in Bulgaria, China, Kazakhstan, Romania, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. They collectively numbered more than 8 million in the late 20th century... Tatars (in the south).


Military

Despite Lithuania's somewhat peaceful conquest of much of its Rus holdings it could call upon potent military strength if needed and were the only power in Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. Usually some or all of the countries adjacent to Russias western border are included. As is also true of continents, regions are only... Eastern Europe that could contend with the Golden Horde as equals. While very few armies in the world could oppose the Mongols at their height, the Golden Horde was an easier rival, and one Lithuania could match. When the Golden Horde did try to prevent Lithuanian expansion they were often rebuffed. In both Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. End of the reign of Emperor Kogon of Japan, first of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders July 19 - Battle of Halidon Hill, last of the wars of Scottish Independence Cornwall gains independence from England Births Deaths September... 1333 and Events Emperor Go-Murakami ascends to the throne of Japan Births Duke Rudolf IV of Austria, the Founder, on November 1 Deaths Emperor Go-Daigo of Japan Otto the Merry, Duke of Austria, on February 17 Categories: 1339 ... 1339 the Lithuanians defeated large Mongol forces attempting to regain The view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: Смоленск; Polish Smoleńsk) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dniepr river at 54.79° North, 32.05° East, administrative center of Smolensk Oblast. Its population in 2003 is 351,100... Smolensk from the Lithuanian sphere of influence. Even when victorious the Mongols rarely had the power to stop Lithuania for long. A large victory in Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births Deaths November 1 - John V, Duke of Brittany Categories: 1399 ... 1399, for instance, only briefly delayed Lithuanian control spreading all the way to the Black Sea. Due to of Lithuanian power the Mongols could not exert military dominance over northwestern Russia, and partially for this reason Smolensk, Categories: Russia geography stubs | Cities in Russia ... Pskov, Novgorod, and Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina... Polotsk were some of the few major cities never to be ravaged by the Mongols.


Religion

Until Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. August 23 - Olaf IV of Norway/ Olaf III of Denmark dies. The vacant thrones come under the Regency of his mother Margaret I of Denmark who would soon become Queen in... 1387 Lithuanians professed their own religion, which was different from all other world religions and non-Christian ( Paganism is a catch-all term which has come to bundle together (by extension from its original classical meaning of a pre-Christian religion) a very broad set of not necessarily compatible religious beliefs and practices that are usually, but not necessarily, characterized by polytheism and, less commonly, animism. Origins... pagan). Lithuanians were also a nation very dedicated to its faith. The pagan beliefs needed to be firmly entrenched to survive strong pressure from missionaries and foreign powers. Belarus ( Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. Belarus... Belarus and Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine and local The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Spain and France (in Italy, principe... dukes (princes) in these regions were firmly Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. During the first millennium of Christendom, differences developed between the Christian East and West. By the 11th century, this had culminated in a Great Schism, separating the Roman Catholic Church... Orthodox. Crusades were also launched against the Lithuanians, most notably by the Teutonic Knights Castle in Malbork (Marienburg) The Teutonic Order (German: Deutscher Orden, Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum) was a crusading order of knights under Roman Catholic religious vows which was formed at the end of the 12th century in Palestine to give medical aid to pilgrims to the holy... Teutonic Knights. While pagan beliefs in Lithuania were strong enough to survive centuries of pressure from crusaders and missionaries, they did eventually succumb. After its union with Poland, Lithuania converted to This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. See Catholicism (disambiguation) for alternative meanings Catholicism has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Websters Dictionary as: a) the whole orthodox christian church, or adherence thereto; and b) the doctrines or faith of the Roman Catholic church, or adherence thereto... Catholicism, while most of the Belarusian lands stayed Orthodox (rather, The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. Or it may apply to these particular Churches themselves... Greek Catholic). The Teutonic Knights Castle in Malbork (Marienburg) The Teutonic Order (German: Deutscher Orden, Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum) was a crusading order of knights under Roman Catholic religious vows which was formed at the end of the 12th century in Palestine to give medical aid to pilgrims to the holy... Teutonic Knights were crushed by the Poles and Lithuanians at the Battle of Grunwald Conflict 1409- 1411 war Date July 15, 1410 Place Grunwald/ Tannenberg Result Decisive Polish and Lithuanian victory The Battle of Grunwald took place on July 15, 1410 between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on one side (estimated 39,000 troops), and the... battle of Tannenberg in Events July 15 – Lithuanian forces under the cousins Władysław Jagiełło of Poland and Witowt of Lithuania decisively defeat the forces of the Teutonic Knights, whose power is broken Jan Hus is excommunicated by the Archbishop of Prague. Births Conrad Paumann German organist... 1410.


Culture

to be written



One of the oldest universities in Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. Usually some or all of the countries adjacent to Russias western border are included. As is also true of continents, regions are only... Eastern Europe, Vilnius University (Lithuanian Vilniaus Universitetas, Polish Uniwersytet Wileński, formerly Stefan Batory University) is the oldest and biggest university in Lithuania. University campus, 19th century History Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth In 1568 the local nobles asked the Jesuits to open an academy either in Wilno (Polish name for Vilnius) or... Vilnius University, was founded by This article is about Stefan Bathory, the king of Poland. For more information on his father, also named Stephen (István) see: István Báthory Reign From December 9, 1575 until December 12, 1586 Elected On December 9, 1575 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On May... Stefan Batory, Grand duke of The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuania and king of The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poland, in Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. January 23 - The Union of Utrecht united the northern Netherlands in a confederation called the United Provinces. William I of Orange becomes Stadtholder, and... 1579. Due to the work of the The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. It was founded in 1534 by a group of University of Paris graduate students led by Iñigo López de Loyola (Ignatius of Loyola). Foundation On August 15, 1534, Ignatius and... Jesuits during the The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. Even before the posting of Martin Luthers Ninety-Five Theses in 1517, there had been... Counter-reformation the university soon developed into one of the most important scientific and cultural centres of the region and the most notable scientific centre of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.


Legacy

According to some historians (especially The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russian) one of the most crucial effects of Lithuania's power was upon ethnic divisions amongst inhabitants of former Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by... Kievan Rus'. From this point of view creation of Grand Duchy of Lithuania played a major role in division of the The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. Each of the many nationalities of Russia has a separate history and complex origins. The historical origins of the Russian state, however, are chiefly those of the East Slavs and the assimilated Finno-Ugric... Eastern Slavs. After monglolian conquest of Rus' the Mongols attempted to keep the East Slavs unified and succeeded in conquering majority of the former Rus lands, but soon some of them were vassalized by Lithuania. This separation of the East Slavs among two powers created substantial differences that persist to this day. According to this claim while during Kievan Rus there were certainly substantial regional differences, it was the Lithuanian "annexation" of much of southern and western Rus that led to the permanent division between Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukrainians, Belarus ( Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. Belarus... Belarusians, and Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. The English term Russians is also used to refer to citizens of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity (see demographics of Russia for information on other nationalities inhabiting Russia... Russians. Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. As of 2003, Kiev officially had 2,642,486 inhabitants, although the large number... Kiev, For things named after Minsk, see Minsk (disambiguation) The Mariinsky Cathedral, 1732 Minsk (Belarusian: Менск, Мінск; Russian: Минск) (population 1.8 million) is the capital of Belarus and headquarters of the Commonwealth of Independent States. During 1919–... Minsk, and other southern cities of Rus had not enough resources to avoid annexation to The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia like Novgorod, a city which also had strong regional differences to Vladimir-Suzdal', but ones that were erased by total Muscovite regional domination. However, presence of a strong empire prevented quick reunification of land of Rus before the separate national identities formed. This claim seems to be highly controversial as on the same basis it can be claimed that the reason of creation of separate The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russian state was the fact that This article is about Muscovite Russia. For the duck see Muscovy Duck Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княж... Muscovy reminded under Honorary guard of Mongolia. The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. They currently number about 8.5 million and speak the Mongol language. They form one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of... Mongol political and cultural influence. From this point of view the reason of divisions amongst inhabitants of Rus' was Honorary guard of Mongolia. The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. They currently number about 8.5 million and speak the Mongol language. They form one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of... Mongolian influence on This article is about Muscovite Russia. For the duck see Muscovy Duck Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княж... Muscovy rather than Lithuanian is the official language of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native Lithuanians. The Lithuanian name for the language is Lietuvių kalba. In older literature on Baltic languages, Lithuanian can sometimes refer to Baltic Languages in general. History The Lithuanian language still retains much of the original sound... Lithuanian on other parts of Rus'. Besides, ethnic and linguistic divisions amongst inhabitants of The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... Rus were not initiated by division of this area between Honorary guard of Mongolia. The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. They currently number about 8.5 million and speak the Mongol language. They form one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of... Mongols and The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuania, and are much older than creation of Grand Duchy of Lithuania. And finally ethnic and linguistic frontier between Ukrainians, Belarusians and Russians, until 20th century did not cover with any political borders.


See also

  • The Commonwealth around 1619 Official languages Polish and Latin Established church Roman Catholic Capitals Cracow (until 1596) Warsaw (from 1596) Largest City Gdańsk, later Warsaw Head of state King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania Area about 1 million km² Population about 11 million Existed 1569 - 1795... Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
  • The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuania
  • Belarus ( Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. Belarus... Belarus
  • Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine
  • The Crimea (officially Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian transliteration: Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Russian: Автономная Рес... Crimea
  • Cities of Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Sources

  • Rowell, S.C. Lithuania Ascending a pagan empire within east-central Europe, 1295-1345. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gediminas of Lithuania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1787 words)
Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas - engraving of XVII ct.
He was the true founder of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as a Baltic--Slavic empire claiming the heritage of ancient Kievan Rus.
Jaunutis initially ruled Vilnius after the death of his father and was formally Grand Duke of Lithuania until his elder brothers Algirdas and Kęstutis returned from military campaigns in Ruthenia and forced him to abdicate his throne in their favor.
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Lithuania’s judicial system, which is based on a civil law system, consists of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, and district and local courts.
Lithuania is a member of the United Nations (UN) and the Council of Europe.
Lithuania was annexed by Russia, except for a small section in the southwest that was awarded to Prussia; that too went to Russia in 1815.
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