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Encyclopedia > Grand Duke Nicholas
Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich
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Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich
Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich
Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich

Grand Duke Nikolai (Nicholas) Nikolayevich Romanov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший - the younger)) (6 November 1856 - 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander in the Caucasus. He was the last influential Romanov. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1265, 189 KB) Summary Grand Duke Nicholas - Project Gutenberg eText 16363 The Project Gutenberg EBook of The New York Times Current History of the European War, Vol 1, Issue 4, January 23, 1915, by Various http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1265, 189 KB) Summary Grand Duke Nicholas - Project Gutenberg eText 16363 The Project Gutenberg EBook of The New York Times Current History of the European War, Vol 1, Issue 4, January 23, 1915, by Various http://www. ... Image File history File links Nik_nik_ml. ... Image File history File links Nik_nik_ml. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... The House of Romanov (Ром́анов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... General is a high military rank, used by nearly every country in the world. ... Combatants Allies: • Serbia, • Russia, • France, • Romania, • Belgium, • British Empire and Dominions, • United States, • Italy, • ...and others Central Powers: • Germany, • Austria-Hungary, • Ottoman Empire, • Bulgaria Casualties 5 million military, 3 million civilian (full list) 3 million military, 3 million civilian (full list) World War I, also known as the First World... Nicholas I of Russia Nikolai I Pavlovich (Russian: Николай I Павлович), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), also Nicholas, was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855 and king of Poland from 1825 until 1831. ...

Contents


Family and ancestry

Nicholas was born to Nikolai Nikolaevich Romanov (1831 - 1891) and Alexandra Friederike Wilhelmine von Oldenburg (1838 - 1900). Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich (July 27, 1831 - April 13, 1891) was the third son and sixth child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia. ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ...


His father was the sixth child and third son born to Nicholas I of Russia and his Empress consort Charlotte of Prussia (1798 - 1860). Charlotte was a daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Nicholas I of Russia Nikolai I Pavlovich (Russian: Николай I Павлович), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), also Nicholas, was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855 and king of Poland from 1825 until 1831. ... King George V of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Mary A queen consort is the wife and consort of a reigning king. ... Princess Charlotte of Prussia (Frederica Louise Charlotte Wilhelmina, July 13, 1798-November 1, 1860) was, as Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress consort of Russia as the wife Nicholas I of Russia. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Frederick William III, known in German as Friedrich Wilhelm III, reigned as king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Louise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie (Louisa Augusta Wilhelma Amelia) (March 10, 1776 - July 19, 1810), Queen of Prussia, was born in Hanover, where her father, Prince Charles of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal of the household brigade. ...


His mother was a daughter of Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Oldenburg (1812 - 1881) and Princess Therese Wilhelmine Friederike Isabelle Charlotte von Nassau-Weilburg (1815 - 1871). 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


His maternal grandfather was a son of Duke Peter Friedrich Georg von Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Sophie Marie Dorothea of Württemberg. Catherine was later remarried to William I of Württemberg. Paul I of Russia by Vladimir Borovikovsky Paul I of Russia (Russian: Pavel Petrovich, Павел I Петрович) (October 1, 1754 - March 23, 1801) was an Emperor of Russia (1796 - 1801). ... Portrait of Maria Fyodorovna in 1777 by Alexander Roslin Sophie Marie Dorothea Auguste Louise of Württemberg or Maria Fyodorovna (Russian: )(October 25, 1759 - November 5, 1828) the second wife of Tsar Paul I of Russia. ... William I of Württemberg (27 September 1781-25 June 1864) was King of Würtemberg. ...


His maternal grandmother was a daughter of Georg Wilhelm August Heinrich von Nassau-Weilburg, Duke of Nassau (1792 - 1839) and Princess Luise von Saxe Altenburg. 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Duke of Nassau was a son of Friedrich Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg, Prince of Nassau (1768 - 1816) and Luise Isabelle von Kirchberg, Countess of Sayn-Hachenburg. His paternal grandparents were Duke Karl Christian of Nassau-Weilburg (1735 - 1788) and Carolina of Orange-Nassau. 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Her Serene Highness Fürstin Carolina zu Nassau-Weilburg née Her Serene Highness Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau, Princess-Regent of Friesland (February 28, 1743- May 6, 1787) was the daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of the Netherlands, and HRH Princess Anne (née Princess Royal...


Karolina was a daughter of William IV of Orange and Princess Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange. William IV, Prince of Orange, stadtholder of The Netherlands (May 4, 1711–October 22, 1751), was born in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. ... Anne of Hanover, princess of Orange-Nassau by Bernard Accama (1736) Anne, Princess Royal of Great Britain, Ireland, and Hanover and Princess of Orange-Nassau, (2 November 1709-12 January 1759) was the second child and eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his consort, Queen Caroline. ...


Early Military Career

Grand Duke Nicholas was educated at the school of military engineers and received his commission in 1872. During the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78 he was on the staff of his father who was commander in chief. He distinguished himself on two occasions in this war. He worked his way up through all the ranks until he was appointed commander of the Guard Hussar Regiment in 1884. 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople (Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


He had a reputation as a tough commander, yet one respected by his troops. His experience was more as a trainer of soldiers than a leader in battle. Nicholas was a very religious man, praying in the morning and at night as well as before and after meals. He was happiest in the country, hunting or caring for his estates.


Nicholas was a Pan Slav nationalist, though not a rabid one. National flag of all Slavs approved on the Pan-Slav convention in Prague in 1848 The 19th century movement Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples. ...


By 1895 he was inspector-general of the cavalry, a post he held for 10 years. His tenure has been judged a success with reforms in training, cavalry schools, cavalry reserves and the remount services. He was not given an active command during the Russo-Japanese War, perhaps because the Czar did not wish to hazard the prestige of the Romanovs and because he wanted a loyal general in command at home in case of domestic disturbances. It was unfortunate, however, that Nicholas did not have this opportunity to gain experience in battlefield command. 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 25,331 Killed 146,032 Wounded 47,387 Killed 173,425 Wounded Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending into the Yellow Sea The... The House of Romanov (Ром́анов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...


Grand Duke Nicholas played a crucial role during the first Russian Rebellion of 1905. With anarchy spreading and the future of the dynasty at stake, the Czar had a choice of instituting the reforms suggested by Count Sergei Witte or imposing a military dictatorship. The only man with the prestige to keep the allegiance of the army in such a coup was the Grand Duke. The Czar asked him to assume the role of a military dictator. In an emotional scene at the palace, Nicholas refused, drew his pistol and threatened to shoot himself on the spot if the Czar did not endorse Witte's plan. This act was decisive in forcing Nicholas II to agree to the reforms. But, unfortunately for the Czar and for Russia, he went back on his word. 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Sergei Witte Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte (Серге́й Ю́льевич Ви́тте) (June 29, 1849 – March 13, 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. ...


The Empress consort Alexandra of Hesse, a convinced autocrat, never forgave the Grand Duke. King George V of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Mary A queen consort is the wife and consort of a reigning king. ... Princess Alix of Hesse, as Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (1872-1918) Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (Alix Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice, 6 June 1872 - 17 July 1918), was the consort of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the last Tsar of Russia. ...


From 1905 to the outbreak of World War I, he was commander-in-chief of the St. Petersburg Military District. He had the reputation there of appointing men of humble origins to positions of authority. The lessons of the Russo-Japanese War were drilled into his men. Combatants Allies: • Serbia, • Russia, • France, • Romania, • Belgium, • British Empire and Dominions, • United States, • Italy, • ...and others Central Powers: • Germany, • Austria-Hungary, • Ottoman Empire, • Bulgaria Casualties 5 million military, 3 million civilian (full list) 3 million military, 3 million civilian (full list) World War I, also known as the First World... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 25,331 Killed 146,032 Wounded 47,387 Killed 173,425 Wounded Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending into the Yellow Sea The...


Marriage

Nicholas was happily married since 1907 to Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia, the daughter of King Nicholas of Montenegro. Both were deeply religious Orthodox Christians, with a tendency to mysticism. Since the Montenegrins were a fiercely Slavic, anti-Turkish people from the Balkans, Anastasia reinforced the Pan Slav tendencies of Nicholas. They had no children. Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna (1901-1918) Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia (Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova, in Russian: Великая Княжна Анастасия Николаевна ) (June 18, 1901 – July 17, 1918) was the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and Empress Alexandra. ... King Nikola I Petrovic Njegos Краљ Никола I Петровић Његош (October 7, 1841- March 2, 1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as a king from 1910 to 1918 and as a prince from 1860 to 1910. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Mysticism from the Greek (muo, concealed) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an important source of knowledge or understanding. ... Montenegrins in Montenegro according to the 2003 census Montenegrins are South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the republic of Montenegro, a joint partner of the Serbia and Montenegro country. ... The Slavic peoples are defined by their linguistic attainment of the Slavic languages. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of south-eastern Europe. ...


World War I: Command of the German/Austro Hungarian Front

The Grand Duke had no part in the planning and preparations for World War I, that being the responsibility of General Vladimir Sukhomlinov and the general staff. On the eve of the outbreak of World War I, his first cousin once removed, the Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, yielded to the entreaties of his ministers and appointed Grand Duke Nicholas to the supreme command. He was 57 years old and had never commanded armies in the field before, let alone the largest army ever put into the field up to then in all of history. Vladimir Aleksandrovich Sukhomlinov (Russian: Владимир Александрович Сухомлинов) (August 4(16), 1848 - February 2, 1926, Berlin) was a Russian Cavalry General (1906) who served as the Chairman of the General Staff in 1908-09 and the Minister of War until 1915, when he was ousted from office amid allegations of espionage. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Consanguinity. ... Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918)(in Russian Николай II (Nikolai II)) was the last crowned Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ...


Grand Duke Nicholas was responsible for all Russian forces fighting against Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. By and large the Russian high command was not up the challenge of this great war. Different armies failed to coordinate their actions (which resulted in the disasters of Tannenburg and the Masurian Lakes). Russian soldiers were poorly equipped, poorly trained, and poorly commanded, and to some degree, this is the responsibility of the Supreme Commander. The Grand Duke's role was limited to picking and choosing from the various plans offered by the many Russian Army Generals. No coherent plan for victory emerged from the Grand Duke or his staff, though on a personal level he was well liked by both officers and the troops. For the 1410 battle at the same location, see Battle of Grunwald Combatants Russia Germany Commanders Alexander Samsonov Pavel Rennenkampf Paul von Hindenburg Strength 150,000 210,000 Casualties 30,000 killed or wounded; 95,000 captured 20,000 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Tannenberg of 1914 was a decisive conflict... During World War I, there was: First Battle of the Masurian Lakes, September 1914 Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, February 1915 This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


Nicholas seems to have been more a bureaucrat than a military leader, lacking the broad strategic sense and the ruthless drive to command all the Russian armies. His headquarters had a curiously calm atmosphere, despite the many defeats and the millions of casualties. It must be admitted that the Russian army did not perform any better with his cousin, the Tsar, in charge of war.


The Grand Duke gained the enmity of Rasputin, the dissolute monk who had the ear of the Empress. He threatened to hang Rasputin should he come anywhere close to the Russian armies in the field. Rasputin then prophesied that the Russian armies would continue to be defeated until the Emperor placed himself at their head. The Emperor, despite having no training or aptitude, did so on August 21, 1915. Rasputin Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (Russian: Григо́рий Ефи́мович Распу́тин) (January 23, 1871 – December 16, 1916 (O.S.)) was a Russian mystic with an influence in the later days of Russias Romanov dynasty. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


World War One: Command in the Caucasus

Upon his dismissal, the Grand Duke was immediately appointed commander-in-chief and viceroy in the Caucasus area (taking over for the the old Governor General Vorontsov). While the Grand Duke was officially in command, General Yudenich was the driving figure in the Russian Caucusus army. Their opponent was the Ottoman Empire. While the Grand Duke was in command, the Russian army sent an expeditionary force through to Persia (now Iran) to link up with British troops. Also in 1916 the Russian army captured the Fortress of Erzerum, the port of Trebizond (now Trabzon) and the town of Erzincan. The Turks responded with an offensive of their own. Fighting around Lake Van swung back and forth but ultimately proved inconclusive. The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Vorontsov, also Woronzow, is a celebrated Russian family, which attained the dignity of Counts of the Holy Roman Empire in 1744 and Serene Princes of the Russian Empire in 1852. ... General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army in World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Sogut (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... The Battle of Erzurum was a decisive Russian victory over the Turks along the Caucasus Front during World War I. Backgound Russia had won significant battles at Sarikamis and Kara Killisse but lacked the resources to exploit their victories. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey. ... Traditional Trabzon country house Location of Trabzon Province within Turkey Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond or Τραπεζούντα (Trapezoúnda; see also List of traditional Greek place names) in Greek, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey (Lat (DMS) 41° 2 60N Long (DMS) 39° 43 37E). ... The Battle of Erzincan was a Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: Վանա լիճ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ...


Nicholas tried to have a railway built from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories with a view to bringing up more supplies for a new offensive in 1917. But in March of 1917, the Czar was overthrown and the Russian army began to slowly fall apart.


The Revolution

The February Revolution found Nicholas in the Caucasus. He was appointed by the Emperor, in his last official act, as the supreme commander in chief, and was wildly received as he journeyed to headquarters in Mogilev. However within 24 hours of his arrival, the new premier, Prince Georgy Lvov, cancelled his appointment. Nicholas spent the next two years in the Crimea, sometimes under house arrest, taking little part in politics. There appears to have been some sentiment to have him head the White Russian forces active in southern Russia at the time, but the leaders in charge, especially General Anton Denikin, were not about to share power. He and his wife escaped just ahead of the Red Army in April 1919 aboard the British Battleship HMS Marlborough. The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Mahilyow, or Mahileu (Belarusian: Магілёў; Russian: Могилёв (Mogilev), Polish Mohylew or Mogilew) is a city in the eastern Belarus, close to the border to Russia with about 300,000 inhabitants. ... Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov, Knyaz (Prince) (Russian: Георгий Евгеньевич Львов) (November 2, 1861-March 7, 1925) was a Russian statesman and the first post-imperial prime minister of Russia, in the Russian Provisional Government from March 23 to July 21, 1917. ... Crimea /kraɪˈmia/ is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... White Army armoured trains flag with To Moscow! slogan inscribed on it, now stored in the Moscow Red Army museum The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during World War I. Following the Russian Revolution he was part of the counter-revolutionary White Russian forces in the civil... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... HMS Marlborough was an Iron Duke-class battleship of the Royal Navy, named in honour of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and launched in 1912. ...


In Exile

After a stay in Genoa as a guest of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy , King of Italy, (his brother-in-law), Nicholas and his wife took up a reclusive residence in a small country house at Choigny, 20 miles outside Paris. He was guarded 24 hours by the French secret police as well as by a small number of faithful Cossack retainers. He became the centre of an anti-Soviet Monarchist resistance. Plans were underway to send agents into Russia. A top priority of the Soviet secret police was to penetrate the monarchist organization and to kidnap Nicholas. They were successful in the former, infiltrating spies and rolling up the monarchist network, including luring the anti-Bolshevik British master spy Sidney Reilly across the border to his death. But, as late as June 1927, monarchists were able to explode a bomb at Lubyanka Prison in Moscow. Location within Italy Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes, German Genua, Spanish Génova,Galician Xénova) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Victor Emmanuel III of Italy , Vittorio Emanuele III in italian (11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947), was the King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... A secret police (sometimes political police) force is a police organization that operates in secret to enforce state security. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Sidney Reilly (1874?-1925) was a Russian-born adventurer who worked for British Secret Intelligence Service for a time. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Lubyanka was one of the most infamous NKVD prisons in Soviet Union. ...


Grand Duke Nicholas died on January 5, 1929 of natural causes on the French Riviera, where he had gone to escape the rigors of winter. January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Promenade des Anglais in Nice on the French Riviera at night. ...


A competent but not great general, Nicholas radiated integrity and character. Enormously tall, he had a forbidding manner but was plain in dress and well liked by the common soldiers. Profoundly religious like his wife, his mysticism tended to make him rather fatalistic, a significant weakness in a military commander. He was a sentimental man, easily moved to tears. Mysticism from the Greek (muo, concealed) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an important source of knowledge or understanding. ...


References

  • "A Peace To End All Peace", David Fromkin, Avon Books, New York, 1990
  • "The Flight Of The Romanovs, A Family Saga", John Curtis Perry and Constantine Pleshakov, Basic Books, New York, 1999
  • "Encyclopaedia Britannica", Vol. 16, pp. 420-421, Chicago, 1958
  • " A People's Tragedy, The Russian Revolution 1891-1924", Orlando Figes, Pilmico, London, 1997

  Results from FactBites:
 
Grand Duke Nicholas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1725 words)
Nicholas was born to Nikolai Nikolaevich Romanov (1831 - 1891) and Alexandra Friederike Wilhelmine von Oldenburg (1838 - 1900).
The Duke of Nassau was a son of Friedrich Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg, Prince of Nassau (1768 - 1816) and Luise Isabelle von Kirchberg, Countess of Sayn-Hachenburg.
Nicholas was happily married since 1907 to Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia, the daughter of King Nicholas of Montenegro.
Nicholas II of Russia - definition of Nicholas II of Russia in Encyclopedia (2262 words)
Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia (6 May 1868 to 4 July 1918 in the Julian Calendar, or 18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918 in the Gregorian Calendar), was the last crowned Emperor of Russia.
Nicholas fell in love with Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, but his father did not approve the match, hoping instead for a marriage with a princess of the House of Orlйans to consummate Russia's newfound alliance with the French Republic.
Nicholas relied heavily on the advice of his uncles, the Grand Dukes (brothers of the late Alexander III), and also on his and his wife's cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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