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Encyclopedia > Grand Duke

The title Grand Duke (in Latin, Magnus Dux; in Russian, Великий князь; in German, Großherzog, Italian Gran Duca; in French, Grand-duc; in Finnish, Suurherttua; in Polish, Wielki Książe; in Swedish, Storhertig; in Dutch, Groothertog; in Danish, Storhertug) used in Western Europe and particularly in Germanic countries for provincial sovereigns, is of a protocolary rank below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy... The term prince (the female form is princess), from the Latin root princeps, when used for a member of the highest aristocracy, has several fundamentally different meanings - one generic, and several types of titles. ... Fürst (plural Fürsten) is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince. The female form is Fürstin (plural Fürstinnen). ...


The feminine form is Grand Duchess. A Grand Duke's principality (state or merely titular) is called a Grand Duchy. A Grand Duchess is the wife of a Grand Duke or a woman who rules a Grand Duchy in her own right. ... A grand duchy is a form of principality, monarchy which has a Grand Duke or a Grand Duchess as head of state. ...


Grand Duke is the usual and established translation of Grand Prince in languages which do not have separate words meaning prince for (1) children of a monarch, and (2) monarch (sovereign or like) princes. English and French use Grand Duke also in this way. The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikštis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... The term prince (the female form is princess), from the Latin root princeps, when used for a member of the highest aristocracy, has several fundamentally different meanings - one generic, and several types of titles. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The title Grand Duke as translation of Grand Prince and the proper title Grand Duke have clearly different meanings and a separate background. Compare with the article Grand Prince. The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikštis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ...

Contents


Western Grand Dukes

(See also Grand Duchy) A grand duchy is a form of principality, monarchy which has a Grand Duke or a Grand Duchess as head of state. ...


The proper term of Grand Duke was a later invention, probably originating in Western Europe, to denote a particularly mighty duke, as the title Duke has until the end of Middle Ages been inflated to belong to rulers of relatively small fiefs (such as a city state or a district), instead of the big provinces it once was attached to. The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy...


One of the first examples was the semi-official use of Grand Duke meaning the later Dukes of Burgundy, i.e in 15th century, when they ruled a portion of East France as well as most of the Netherlands. Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (ruler 1419-67) assumed the subsidiary, legally void style and title Grand Duke of the West in 1435, having recently consolidated duchies of Brabant and Limbourg as well as the countships of Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Hainaut and Namur under his possession. His son and successor Charles the Bold (ruler 1467-77) continued to use the same style. Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (Philip the Good or Philippe le Bon) (1396–1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. ... Charles the Bold Charles, called the Bold (French: Charles le Téméraire) (November 10, 1433 – 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. ...


Apparently the first monarch ever officially titled Grand Duke was the Medici sovereigns of Tuscany beginning from the late 16th century. This official title was granted by Pope Pius V in 1569, but the lands in question apparently belonged under the vassalage of the Holy Roman Empire. The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. ... A poppy field in Tuscany Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria and Marche to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Saint Pius V, né Antonio Ghislieri, from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri (January 17, 1504 – May 1, 1572) was pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ...


Napoleon used to award that title extensively: during his era, several of his allies were allowed to assume the title of Grand Duke, usually at the same time as their inherited fiefs were enlarged by additional lands obtained thanks to being allies of Napoleon I of France. His conquerors, for example the Congress of Vienna, consented to yet more uses of the title. Thus, the 19th century saw a new group of monarchs titled Grand Duke all around Central Europe. A list of such is available at Grand Duchy. Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David. ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from September 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A grand duchy is a form of principality, monarchy which has a Grand Duke or a Grand Duchess as head of state. ...


At the same century, the courtesy use of translated Grand Duke, Russia, expanded because of births of several male dynasts, instead of the earlier precarious situations when Russia barely had only one or two to succeed.


The term can be said to originate in Germany, in a sense that a ruler in the then Germany's western borders was the first to be called so, and that it was a German overlord, the Holy Roman Emperor, whose vassal (however, an Italian) was first granted the official title, however, by the Pope.


The German and Dutch languages, which have separate words for royal prince (Prinz, Prins) and for sovereign prince (Fürst, Vorst), mark the Grand Princes of Lithuania, Russian states and other Eastern European as higher princes, as well as the Russian rulers and later princes of the blood, by the terms Grossfürst, Grootvorst, not Grossherzog, Groothertog.


The title Magnus Dux or Grand Duke (Didysis kunigaikštis in Lithuanian) is said to have been used by the rulers of Lithuania, and after Jagiello also became kings of Poland. From 1573, both the Latin and the Polish equivalent Wielki Ksiaze, in chief of Lithuania as well as Russia, Prussia, Mazovia, Samogithia, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlachia, Livonia, Smolensk, Severia and Chernigov (including hollow claims), were used as part of the respective versions of the full style officially used by the kings (title Krol) of Poland during the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish kings of the Swedish Vasa dynasty also used the grand-princely title for their non-Polish territory. The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ...


In 1582 king John III of Sweden added Grand Duke of Finland to the subsidiary titles of the Swedish kings, however without any factual consequences, Finland already being a part of the Swedish realm. Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... John III (Johan III) (December 23, 1537 - November 27, 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ...


After the Russian conquests, it continued to be used by the Russian Emperor in his role as ruler of Lithuania (1793-1918) and of autonomous Finland (1809-1917) as well. The Holy Roman Empire ruling house of Habsburg instituted a similar Grand Principality in Transylvania in 1765. 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Prince Albert of Monaco on the left represents a principality where he wields administrative authority. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Grand Prince

Main article: Grand Prince

Grand Princes or great princes were medieval monarchs which ruled usually several tribes and/or were overlords of other princes. At the time, they were usually treated and translated as kings. However, grand princes were not as elevated sovereign as later Western kings, and perhaps thus they are treated lower than kings, particularly in later literature. Grand Princes ruled in Central and Eastern Europe, notably among Slavs, Balts and Hungarians. The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikštis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The title Grand Prince is Velikiy Knjaz (Великий князь) in Russian. The Slavic word knjaz and the Baltic kunigaitis (today translated as Prince) are actually cognates of King. Thus, Veliki Knjaz was more like "high king" than "grand duke".


These countries developed in a way that the position of the head of the dynasty became more elevated. In such situations, those Monarchs assumed a higher title, such as Tsar or sole King. Grand Prince Ivan IV of Muscovy was apparently the last monarch to rule without any higher title, until he assumed the style Tsar of Russia in 1547. Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ...


The title Grand Prince (which in many of those lands already was in later medieval centuries awarded simultaneously to several rulers of the more expanded dynasty) continued, in modern times, as a courtesy title for all or several members of the Russian dynasty, such as the Grand Duke of Russia (veliki knjaz) in Russia's imperial era. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This is a list of those members of the Russian Imperial Family who bore the title Velikiy Knjaz (usually translated into English as Grand Duke, but more accurately Grand Prince). ...


Byzantine Grand Dukes

The Latin title dux (the etymological root of duke), which was phonetically rendered δουξ in Greek, was a common title for imperial generals in the Late Roman Empires (west and east), but note it was lower in rank than Comes (the etymological root of Count). In the Eastern Empire, a dux ranked just below a strategos. Dux is Latin for leader (from the verb ducere, to lead) and could refer to anyone who commanded troops, such as tribal leaders. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy... Comes (genitive: comitis) is the Latin word for companion, either individually or as a member of a collective known as comitatus (compare comitatenses), especially the suite of a magnate, in some cases large and/or formal enough to have a specific name, such as a cohors amicorum. ... Look up Count in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Countess redirects here. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the Byzantine Empire the term was also used to describe a military governor (see Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy). ...


Under the later, exclusively Byzantine theme system (the new military circonscriptions, becoming more important than the provinces), the commander of a theme was styled a dux. The themata in 950. ...

  • The title Megas Doux, or in latinized spelling Megas Dux ( Μέγας Δουξ), literally 'Grand duke' (Megas being the Greek for great, used in front of various styles), occasionally anglicised Megaduke, first appears in the Comnenian period, and was conferred upon the commanding admiral of the Byzantine navy, used in the Byzantine Empire during the Palaeologian dynasty (1259-1453). Among the recipients of this honor was Roger de Flor of the Catalan Company, who was given the title for his services against the Turks during the reign of Andronicus II Palaeologus.

By the time Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, the office had become virtual chief minister, heading both civil and military administration. The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus The Comnenus or Komnenos family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ), is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Palaeologus family was the last dynasty ruling the Byzantine Empire. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... The Catalan Company, or in full the Catalan Company of the East (Companyia Catalana dOrient in Catalan) or the Grand Catalan Company of the Almogavars (Gran Compañía Catalana de los Almogávares in Spanish), was a free company of mercenaries founded by Roger de Flor in early 14th... Andronicus II Palaeologus (1260 - February 13, 1332), Byzantine emperor, was the elder son of Michael VIII Palaeologus, whom he succeeded in 1282. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453. ...


Russian Grand Dukes

(for a fuller account, see Grand Prince) The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikštis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ...


"Grand Duke" is the traditional translation of the title Velikiy Kniaz, which from the 11th century was at first the title of the leading Prince of Kievan Rus', then of several princes of the Rus'. From 1328 the Velikii Kniaz of Muscovy appeared as the Grand Duke for "all of Russia" until Ivan IV of Russia in 1547 was crowned as Tsar. Thereafter the title was given to sons and grandsons (through male lines) of the Tsars and Emperors of Russia. The daughters and paternal granddaughters of Russian Emperors, as well as the consorts of Russian Grand Dukes, were generally called "Grand Duchesses" in English. Kniaz’ or knyaz (князь in Russian and Ukrainian; cneaz in Romanian fem. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The term prince (the female form is princess), from the Latin root princeps, when used for a member of the highest aristocracy, has several fundamentally different meanings - one generic, and several types of titles. ... Map of the the extent of Kievan Rus through the 11th century. ... Rus is a term used to describe the ethnic group of eastern Slavs from which modern Russians have descended, as well as the earliest Russian states. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... Crowning (Koronatsiya, or the last of the Romanovs), the historical novel by internationally acclaimed Russian detective story writer Boris Akunin. ... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ...


A more accurate translation of the Russian title would be Great Prince - especially in the pre-Petrine era - but the term is neither standard nor widely used in English. In German, however, a Russian Grand Duke was known as a Großfürst, and in Latin as Magnus Princeps. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


From 1809 to 1917 the Czar of Russia was also the Grand Duke of Finland. 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ...


Styles

Tuscany's sovereign obtained in 17th century the status of Royal Highness. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Most often, a reigning Grand Duke or Duchess was styled Royal Highness. Other members of the families differed in style. Junior members of the Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg are also Royal Highnesses; however, this derives from their status apparently as cadet members of the dethroned royal house of Bourbon-Parma and not from the Grand Ducal title. A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg (House of Nassau-Weilburg) consists of the extended family of the sovereign Grand Duke. ...


In Hesse-Darmstadt and Baden, however, junior members of the dynasty bore the style of Grand Ducal Highness (Großherzogliche Hoheit). For instance, prior to her marriage, Empress Alexandra of Russia was known as "Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Alix of Hesse and by the Rhine" (Ihre Großherzogliche Hoheit Alix Prinzessin von Hessen und bei Rhein).


A Russian Grand Duke or Grand Duchess was an Imperial Highness.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Grand-Duke - LoveToKnow 1911 (423 words)
Grossherzog), a title borne by princes ranking between king and duke.
The dignity was first bestowed in 1567 by Pope Pius V. on Duke Cosimo I. of Florence, his son Francis obtaining the emperor's confirmation in 1576; and the predicate "Royal Highness" was added in 1699.
In 1806 Napoleon created his brother-in-law Joachim Murat, grand-duke of Berg, and in the same year the title was assumed by the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, the elector of Baden, and the new ruler of the secularized bishopric of Wiirzburg (formerly Ferdinand III., grand-duke of Tuscany) on joining the Confederation of the Rhine.
First World War.com - Who's Who - Grand Duke Nikolai (436 words)
Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich (1856-1929) was Commander in Chief of the Russian army during the first year of the First World War and, for the briefest moment, at the end of Tsar Nicholas II's reign.
The Grand Duke was consequently dispatched to the Caucasian front and made Commander in Chief of Russian forces in the region already operating most successfully under the direction of Nikolai Yudenich.
The Tsar's last official act was to re-appoint the Grand Duke as Commander in Chief, an action that was promptly rescinded by Prince Georgy Lvov, the head of the Provisional Government.
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