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Encyclopedia > Grand Duchy of Moscow
Великое Княжество Московское
Grand Duchy of Moscow

1340 – 1547

Coat of arms of Muscovy Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Moscow_oblast. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Romanov_Flag. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Coat of arms Coat of Arms of Russian Federation. ...

Location of Muscovy
The growth of Muscovy-Russia.
Capital Moscow
Language(s) Russian
Religion Russian Orthodox
Government Monarchy
Grand Duke of Moscow
 - 1340 - 1353 Simeon Gordyi (first)
 - 1533 - 1547 Ivan IV "the terrible" (last)
History
 - Established 1340
 - Tsardom proclaimed 22 October1547
Currency Ruble

The Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое княжество Московское) was a medieval Russian polity centred on Moscow between 1340 and 1547. The Grand Duchy of Moscow, as the state is known in Russian records, has been referred to by many Western sources as Muscovy, however, this term is also sometimes applied to the Tsardom of Moscow. The Grand Duchy of Moscow was the successor of The Principality of Moscow and the predecessor of the Tsardom of Moscow. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (517 × 636 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Muscovy/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ... Simeon Ivanovich Gordyi (the Proud) (Семён Иванович Гордый in Russian;) (1316 - 1353), Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir, oldest son of Ivan Kalita. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow – March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Tsar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The ruble or rouble is a unit of currency. ... Muscovy (also Moscovia, Moscovie, Moskovia; in Russian: ) is a historical European term for the Principality of Moscow and the Grand Duchy of Moscow. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ... The term Western World or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ...

Contents

Origin

When the Mongols invaded the lands of Kievan Rus', Moscow was an insignificant trading outpost in the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal'. Though Mongols burnt down Moscow in the winter of 1238 and pillaged it in 1293, the outpost's remote, forested location offered some security from Mongol attack and occupation, and a number of rivers provided access to the Baltic and Black Seas and to the Caucasus region. The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су&#769... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


More important to Moscow's development into what became the state of Moscow, however, was its rule by a series of princes who were ambitious, determined, and lucky. The first ruler of the principality of Moscow, Daniel I (d. 1303), was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky of Vladimir-Suzdal. He started to expand his principality by seizing Kolomna and securing the bequest of Pereslavl-Zalessky to his family. Daniel's son George controlled the entire basin of the Moskva River and expanded westward by capturing Mozhaisk. He then forged an alliance with the overlord of the Russian principalities, Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde, and married his sister. He was allowed by the khan to claim the title of Grand Duke of Vladimir-Suzdal, a position which allowed him to interfere into the affairs of the Novgorod Republic to the north-west. The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for the member of the highest aristocracy. ... Daniil (Daniel) Aleksandrovich (Даниил Александрович in Russian) (1261 - March 4/5, 1303), the first Grand Prince of Moscow, the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod, forefather of all the princes of Moscow. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... Statue in Pereslavl, just in front of the cathedral Alexander was baptised in. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Kolomna (Russian: Коломна) is an ancient Russian city, founded in 1177 on the Moskva River and Oka River. ... Pereslavls most famous ruler, Alexander Nevsky, was baptized at the Saviour Cathedral (1152-57). ... Yuriy Danilovich, also known as Georgiy Danilovich (Юрий Данилович in Russian)(unknown - November 21, 1325) was Prince of Moscow (1303 - 1325) and Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1317). ... Moskva River near the Moscow Kremlin in 19th century. ... Mozhaysk (Можа́йск) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, 110 km to the west from the Russian capital, on the historic road leading to Smolensk and then to Belarus. ... Mikhail of Tver before Uzbeg Khan, by Vasili Vereshchagin. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ...

During the reign of Daniel, Moscow was little more than a small timber fort lost in the forests of Central Russia.
During the reign of Daniel, Moscow was little more than a small timber fort lost in the forests of Central Russia.

Yuri's successor, Ivan I (r. 1325-1340), managed to retain the title of Grand Duke by cooperating closely with the Mongols and collecting tribute and taxes from other Russian principalities on their behalf. This relationship enabled Ivan to gain regional ascendancy, particularly over Moscow's chief rival, the northern city of Tver', which rebelled against the Horde in 1327. The uprising was subdued by the joint forces of Mongols and Muscovites. Ivan was reputed to be the richest person in Russia, as his monicker "Kalita" (literally, the "moneybag") testifies. He used his treasures to purchase land in other principalities and to finance construction of stone churches in the Kremlin. In 1327 the Orthodox Metropolitan Peter transferred his residence from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow, further enhancing the prestige of the new principality. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 580 pixel Image in higher resolution (1656 × 1200 pixel, file size: 480 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Apollinari Vasnetsov (1864-1933). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 580 pixel Image in higher resolution (1656 × 1200 pixel, file size: 480 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Apollinari Vasnetsov (1864-1933). ... Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Ivan the Moneybag) (Ива́н I Дани́лович Калита́ in Russian)(1288 - March 31, 1340), Prince of Moscow (since 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1328), son of Daniil... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Tver (Russian: Тверь), formerly (1931_1990) Kalinin (Калинин) after Mikhail Kalinin, is a city in Russia, center of Tver Oblast (region). ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin ( Russian citadel). ... ... Peter (Пётр in Russian) (? — December 20, 1326) was the Russian metropolitan who moved his see from Vladimir to Moscow. ...


Dmitri Donskoi

Ivan's successors continued gathering Russian lands to increase the population and wealth under their rule. In the process, their interests clashed with the expanding Grand Duchy of Lithuania, whose subjects were predominantly East Slavic and Orthodox. Grand Duke Algirdas of Lithuania allied himself by marriage with Tver and undertook three expeditions against Moscow (1368, 1370, 1372) but could not take it. The main bone of contention between Moscow and Vilnius was the large city of Smolensk. The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and Pogoń in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie) was an... Columns of Gediminas Algirdas (approximate English transcription [ˈaːl(ə).gır. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ...

Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitri Donskoi before the Battle of Kulikovo.
Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitri Donskoi before the Battle of Kulikovo.

In the 1350s, the country and the royal family were hit by the Black Death. Dmitry Ivanovich was aged nine, when his parents died and the title of Grand Duke slipped into the hands of his distant relative, Dmitry of Suzdal. Surrounded by pagan Lituanians and Muslim nomads, the ruler of Moscow cultivated an alliance with the Russian Orthodox Church, which experienced a resurgence in influence, due to the monastic reform of St. Sergius of Radonezh. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixel Image in higher resolution (2016 × 1400 pixel, file size: 808 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Эрнст ЛИССНЕР (1874-1941). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixel Image in higher resolution (2016 × 1400 pixel, file size: 808 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Эрнст ЛИССНЕР (1874-1941). ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Statue of Dmitri Donskoi (1862). ... Dmitry Konstantinovich of Suzdal (Russian: ) (1324–June 5, 1383), was a powerful Prince of Suzdal and Nizhny Novgorod who dominated Russian politics during minority of his son-in-law, Dmitri Donskoi. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Venerable Sergii Radonezhsky (Сергий Радонежский) (born Varfolomei – Варфоломей, corresponds to Bartholomew), also translated as Sergey Radonezhsky and Sergius of Radonezh (1322 – 1392), was the...


Educated by Metropolitan Alexis, Dmitri posed as a champion of Orthodoxy and managed to unite the warring principalities of Russia in his struggle against the Horde. He challenged the Khan's authority and defeated his commander Mamai in the epic Battle of Kulikovo (1380). Although political advantages from the battle were nullified during Tokhtamysh's invasion of Russia several years later, Dmitri successfully overcame the stigma of collaborating with the Tatars which had been attached to Moscow for decades. In 1389, he passed the throne to his son Vasily I without bothering to obtain the Khan's sanction. Saint Alexis (Алексей in Russian, (before 1296 – 1378) was a Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia (since 1354), who presided over Muscovite government during Dmitri Donskois minority. ... Mamai (or Mamay) was a powerful military commander of Golden Horde in the 1370s, who resided in the western part of this nomadic state, which is now the Southern Ukrainian Steppes and the Crimean Peninsula. ... Combatants Combined Russian armies The Golden Horde Commanders Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow Mamai Strength About 80,000 About 125,000 Casualties About 40,000 able body men left Unknown The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: ), also called Battle on the Snipes Field (Кулик means snipe), was fought by the Tartaro-Mongols (the... Tokhtamysh (d. ... Basil I (known as the Macedonian, 811 - 886), Byzantine emperor, was born to a family of Armenian (not Slavonic) descent, settled in Macedonia. ...

History of Russia
East Slavs
Rus' Khaganate
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
Novgorod Republic
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Tsardom of Russia
Russian Empire
  • 1682-1796
  • 1796-1855
  • 1855-1892
  • 1892-1917
Russian Revolution
Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation

The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... Countries inhabited by Slavs (dark green - East Slavs) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The Rus Khaganate is a poorly-documented period in the history of East Slavs (roughly the late eighth and early to mid ninth centuries CE). ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... // Note on naming The territory ruled by the Romanov dynasty was often called Muscovy in Western Europe until well into the eighteenth century. ... // Catherine II died in 1796, and her son Paul (r. ... // Economic development The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... // During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755...

Vasily I and Vasily II

Vasily I (r. 1389-1425) continued the policies of his father. After the Horde was attacked by Tamerlane, he desisted from paying tribute to the Khan, but was forced to pursue a more conciliatory policy after Edigu's incursion on Moscow in 1408. Married to the only daughter of Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania, he attempted to avoid open conflicts with his powerful father-in-law, even when the latter annexed Smolensk. The peaceful years of his long reign were marked by the continuing expansion to the east (annexation of Nizhny Novgorod and Suzdal, 1392) and to the north (annexation of Vologda, Veliky Ustyug, and Great Perm, 1398). For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Edigu, or Edigey (1352-1419) was an emir of the White Horde who founded the new political entity, which came to be known as the Nogai Horde. ... Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny and also transliterated into English as Nizhniy Novgorod or Nizhni Novgorod or Nizhnii Novgorod, is the fourth largest city of Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... St. ... St. ... Velikiy Ustyug, or Veliki Ustyug (Великий Устюг in Russian) is a city in the Vologda Oblast in Russia. ... Great Perm (Russian: Великая Пермия) was a medieval Komi state in the modern-day Perm Krai of Russia. ...

Cathedral of the Andronikov Monastery in Moscow (ca. 1425).
Cathedral of the Andronikov Monastery in Moscow (ca. 1425).

The reforms of St. Sergius triggered a cultural revival, exemplified by the icons and frescoes of the monk Andrei Rublev. Hundreds of monasteries were founded by St. Sergius's disciples in distant and inhospitable locations, including Beloozero and Solovki. Apart from their cultural function, these monasteries were major landowners, who could control economy of the adjacent region. In effect, they served as outposts of Moscow influence in the neighbouring principalities and republics. Another factor responsible for the expansion of Grand Duchy Moscow was its favourable dynastic situation, when each sovereign was succeeded by his son, while rival principalities were plagued by dynastic strife and splintered into ever smaller polities. The only lateral branch of the House of Moscow, represented by Vladimir of Serpukhov and his descendants, was firmly anchored into Moscow Duchy. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Saviour Cathedral of the Andronikov Monastery. ... Andrei Rublev (Andrey Rublev, Andrey Roublyov, Russian: Андре́й Рублёв) (1360? – 1430?) is considered to be the greatest Russian iconographer. ... Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, properly translated in English as The Assumption monastery of St Cyril, has always rivalled the Solovetsky Monastery as the strongest fortress and the richest landowner of the Russian North. ... Solovetsky Monastery Solovetsky Monastery (Соловецкий монастырь in Russian), a monastery on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. ... Fresco of Vladimir the Bold in one of Serpukhovs cathedrals. ...


The situation changed with the ascension of Vasily I's successor, Vasily II (r. 1425-1462). Before long his uncle, Yuri of Zvenigorod, started to advance his claims to the throne and Monomakh's Cap. A bitter fratricidal conflict erupted and rocked the country during the whole reign. After Yuri's death in 1432, his claims were taken up by his sons, Vasily Kosoy and Dmitry Shemyaka, who pursued the Great Feudal War well into the 1450s. Although he was ousted from Moscow on several occasions, taken prisoner by Olug Moxammat of Kazan, and blinded in 1446, Vasily II eventually managed to triumph over his enemies and pass the throne to his son. At his urging, a native bishop was elected as Metropolitan of Moscow, which was tantamount to declaration of independence of the Russian Orthodox Church from the Patriarch of Constantinople (1448). Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... The Nativity Cathedral built by Yury in Zvenigorod ca. ... Monomakhs Cap (Шапка Мономаха in Russian) is one of the symbols of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars. ... Dmitriy Yurievich Shemyaka (Дмитрий Юрьевич Шемяка in Russian) (1420-1453) was the second son of Yury of Zvenigorod by Anastasia of Smolensk and grandson of Dmitri Donskoi. ... Olug Moxammat (Ulugh Muhammed, Makhmet, Ulu-Makhmet, Tatar: Oluğ Möxämmät) (d. ... Kazan (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan, Казан) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russias largest cities. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Ivan III

Outward expansion of the Grand Duchy in the 14th and 15th centuries was accompanied by internal consolidation. By the 15th century, the rulers of Moscow considered the entire Russian territory their collective property. Various semi-independent princes of Rurikid stock still claimed specific territories, but Ivan III (the Great; r. 1462-1505) forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Moscow and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military, judicial, and foreign affairs. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of what is now Belarus, Russia and Ukraine from 862 to 1598. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A scene from the medieval Russian history.
A scene from the medieval Russian history.

Moscow gained full sovereignty over a significant part of the ethnically Russian lands by 1480, when the Tatars' Golden Horde overlordship ended officially after the Great standing on the Ugra river, and by the beginning of the 16th century virtually all those lands were united, including the Novgorod Republic (1478) and the Grand Duchy of Tver (1485). Through inheritance, Ivan was able to control the important Principality of Ryazan, and the princes of Rostov and Yaroslavl' voluntarily subordinated themselves to him. The northwestern city of Pskov remained independent in this period, but Ivan's son, Vasili III (r. 1505-1533), later conquered it. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1736 × 1300 pixel, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Aleksey Maksimov (1870-1921). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1736 × 1300 pixel, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Aleksey Maksimov (1870-1921). ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Kültigin Monument where first mention of Tatar people is inscribed Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Miniature in russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Ryazan Principality existed from 1129 when it was separated from the Murom-Ryazan Principality. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km NE of Moscow at 57°37′ N 39°51′ E The historical part of the city is located at confluence of Volga and Kotorosl. ... Pskov Feudal Republic (Псковская феодальная республика in Russian) was a Russian medieval state between the second half of the 13th century and early 16th century. ... Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479 – December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ...


Having consolidated the core of Russia under his rule, Ivan III became the first Moscow ruler to adopt the titles of tsar and "Ruler of all Rus'". Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival Lithuania for control over some of the semi-independent former principalities of Kievan Rus' in the upper Dnieper and Donets river basins. Through the defections of some princes, border skirmishes, and a long, inconclusive war with Lithuania that ended only in 1503, Ivan III was able to push westward, and Moscow state tripled in size under his rule. The Upper Principalities (Russian: Верховские княжества) is a term traditionally applied in Russian historiography to about dozen tiny and ephemeral polities situated along the upper course of the Oka River at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. ... The Dnieper River (Belarusian: Дняпро/Dnyapro; Russian: Днепр/Dnepr; Ukrainian: Днiпро/Dnipro; Polish: Dniepr; Latin: Borysthenes, Danaper) is a river (2290 km length) which flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. ... The Donets River starts in Central Russia upland, north of Belgorod, in the Russian Federation. ... The Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars (Russian: , Polish: , also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars) [1] were a series of wars between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, allied with the Kingdom of Poland, and Grand Duchy of Moscow. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The reign of the tsars started officially with Ivan IV of Russia (Ivan the Terrible), the first monarch to be crowned Tsar of Russia, but in practice it started with Ivan III, who completed centralisation of the state (traditionally known as the gathering of the Russian lands) at the same time as Louis XI did the same in France. Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow – March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Tsar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Louis XI the Prudent (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), or the Spider King, was King of France (1461–1483). ...


Court

The court of the Moscow princes combined ceremonies and customs inherited from Kievan Rus with those imported from the Byzantine Empire and Golden Horde. Some traditional Russian offices, like that of tysyatsky and veche, were gradually abolished in order to consolidate power in the hands of the ruling prince. A new elaborate system of court precedence, or mestnichestvo, predicated the nobleman's rank and function on the rank and function of his ancestors and other members of his family. The highest echelon of hereditary nobles was composed of boyars. They fell into three categories: Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Tysyatsky (tysiatsky, Russian: ; sometimes translated dux or Heerzog) was a military leader in Ancient Rus, who commanded a peoples volunteer army called тысяча (tysyacha, or a thousand). ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... In Russian history, Mestnichesvo (Russian: Местничество - Mestnichestvo) was a feudal hierarchical system in Russia from 15th till the 17th century. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... A boyar (also spelled bojar) or bolyarin was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. ...

A medieval princely estate in Russia.
A medieval princely estate in Russia.

Rurikid and Gediminid boyars, whose fathers and grandfathers were independent princelings, felt that they were kin to the grand prince and hence almost equal to him. During the times of dynastic troubles (such as the years of Ivan IV's minority), boyardom constituted an internal force which was a permanent threat to the throne. An early form of the monarch's conflict with boyarstvo was the oprichnina policy of Ivan the Terrible. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1866 × 1400 pixel, file size: 582 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Aleksey Maksimov (1870-1921). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1866 × 1400 pixel, file size: 582 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Aleksey Maksimov (1870-1921). ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Russia from 862 to 1598. ... The Upper Principalities (Russian: Верховские княжества) is a term traditionally applied in Russian historiography to about dozen tiny and ephemeral polities situated along the upper course of the Oka River at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. ... St. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Shuisky (Шуйские) was a Rurikid family of boyars descending from Grand Dukes of Vladimir-Suzdal. ... Vorotynsky was one of the most eminent Rurikid princely houses of Muscovite Russia. ... Coat of arms of the Repnin family Repnin (Russian: Репнин), the name of an old Russian princely family of Rurikid stock. ... Romodanovsky (Russian: Ромодановские) was a Rurikid princely family descending from sovereign rulers of Starodub-on-the-Klyazma. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Belsky (Russian: Бельский, pl. ... Peter I permitted the Galitzines to take an emblem of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as their coat of arms The Galitzines, more correctly the Golitsyns (Russian: Голицын), are one of the largest and noblest princely houses of Russia. ... Troubetzkoy Coat of Arms PogoÅ„ Litewska Coat of Arms Trubetskoy, or Troubetzkoy, or Trubetsky, or Trubecki, or Trubchevsky , is a typical Ruthenian Gedyminid gentry family of Black Ruthenian stock, like many other princely houses of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later prominent in Russian history, science, and arts. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Boris Petrovich Sheremetyev (Russian: Борис Петрович Шереме́тьев), born 1692, died 1719. ... The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ...


During such conflicts, Ivan, Boris Godunov, and some later monarchs felt the necessity to counterbalance the boyardom by creating a new kind of nobility, based on personal devotion to tsar and merits earned by faithful service, rather than by heredity. Later these new nobles were called dvoryans (singular: dvoryanin). The name comes from the Russian word dvor in the meaning of tsar's dvor, i.e., The Court. Hence the expression pozhalovat ko dvoru, i.e., to be called to (serve) The Court. Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Dvoryanstvo (Russian: дворянство) refers to a category of Russian nobility. ...


Assessment

The development of the Russian state can be traced from Kievan Rus' through Vladimir-Suzdal and Moscow Duchy to Tsardom of Russia, and then, the Russian Empire. Moscow Duchy drew people and wealth to the northeastern part of Kievan Rus'; established trade links to the Baltic Sea, the White Sea, and the Caspian Sea and to Siberia; and created a highly centralized and autocratic political system. Moscow political traditions, therefore, exerted a powerful influence on Russian society. Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ...


See also

At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Muscovy/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ...

References

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Grand duchy - Definition, explanation (1830 words)
Grand Duke is also the usual and established translation of sovereign Grand Prince in languages which do not have separate words meaning prince for (1) the non-ruling relatives of a monarch, and (2) monarch (sovereign or like) princes.
that was suffragan to Hamburg and embraced the Duchy of Lauenburg (Holstein) in the Prussian Province of...
Embassy of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in the Czech Republic, with a...
Grand duchy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1554 words)
Grand Duke is also the usual and established translation of sovereign Grand Prince in languages which do not have separate words meaning prince for (1) the non-ruling relatives of a monarch, and (2) monarch (sovereign or like) princes.
However, a grand prince was usually only primus inter pares within a dynasty, other princes of the dynasty were approximately as entitled to succession as the then ruler (succession was for example through agnatic seniority or rotation), and often other members of the dynasty ruled parts of the same realm as some sort of "sub-princes".
From 1328 the Velikii Kniaz of Muscovy appeared as the Grand Duke for "all of Russia" until Ivan IV of Russia in 1547 was crowned as Tsar.
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