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Encyclopedia > Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Grand Duchy of Lithuania


(Seal of Vytautas the Great)
Timeline
1009 Lithuania for the first time was mentioned in written sources, the Quedlinburg Chronicle.
1202 Establishment of Livonian Order, which posed a significant threat to pagan Lithuanians in the region.
1219 For the first time was mentioned a group of Lithuanian and Samogitian dukes, conducting peace treaty.
1251
Christianization of Lithuanian ruler Mindaugas in Catholic rite. According to several accounts, Mindaugas apostatized from Catholicism, back to pagan during later times.
1253 Mindaugas was proclaimed as King of Lithuania.
1253-1263 Period of Kingdom of Lithuania.
1263 Assassination of King Mindaugas by his nephew Treniota and Daumantas. Temporary disorder in state.
1323 Vilnius was mentioned as the capital city of Lithuania by Gediminas.
1368-1372 Three military campaigns lead by Algirdas towards Moscow.
1377-1392 Power struggle between Jogaila and Kęstutis, and later between Jogaila and Vytautas the Great. Eventually Vytautas obtained supreme power in the state.
1386 Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila was proclaimed as King of Poland.
1387 Christianization of Lithuania
1410 Battle of Grunwald. Decisive Lithuanian and Polish victory over the Teutonic Order, ending Order's military leadership in the region.
1413 Christianization of Samogitia.
1539 Beginning of Reformation in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
1563 Privilege of Sigismund Augustus equaling rights of Catholic and Orthodox noblemen in the state.
1569 Union of Lublin. Creation of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland.
1572 Death of Sigismund II Augustus. Last ruler from the Gediminids dynasty.
1579 Establishment of Vilnius University.
1655 Union of Kėdainiai. Short-lived union of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Sweden was proclaimed, abolishing Lithuania's union with Kingdom of Poland.
1772-1795 Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the third partition in 1795 state ceased to exist.

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Żamojckaje, Belarusian: Вялікае Княства Літоўскае, Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське, Welyke Knjaziwstwo Lytowśke, Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie, Latin: Magnus Ducatus Lituaniae) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. Founded by Lithuanians, one of the pagan Baltic tribes, whose initial lands covered the eastern part of Lithuania, Aukštaitija.[2][3][4] Later on territory expanded, acquiring large parts of former Kievan Rus. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania covered the territory of present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Transnistria and parts of Poland and Russia during the period of its greatest extent in the 15th century and was the largest state in Europe.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Vytauto_Didžiojo_antspaudas. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Mindaugas King of Lithuania Mindaugas monument in Vilnius Mindaugas (approximate English transcription [ˈmın. ... King of Lithuania was the title of the ruler of Lithuania. ... Grand Duchy of Lithuania Treniota (Troniata) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania from 1263 to 1264, Prince of Black Ruthenia. ... Dovmont Town in Pskov. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... Columns of Gediminas Algirdas (approximate English transcription [ˈaːl(É™).gır. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1351–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... Pillars of Giedymin Castle of Trakai KÄ™stutis (approximate English transcription [kæs. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1351–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Moldavia Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great, Alexandru cel Bun Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 (2/3 was Polish Knights) 27,000 Casualties... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Reign From April 1, 1548 until July 6, 1572 Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Zygmunt I the Old Bona Sforza Consorts Elżbieta Habsburzanka Barbara RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Katarzyna Austriaczka Barbara Giżycka Children with Barbara Giżycka Barbara Date of... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sigismund II Augustus (Polish: , Lithuanian: ; 1 August 1520 — 7 July 1572) was the only son of Sigismund I the Old, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. ... Columns of Gediminas, symbol of the Gediminids. ... Vilnius University (also known as Vilnius State University, The University of Vilnius, Lithuanian: , formerly Stefan Batory University and before that Almae Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Jesu), is one of the oldest Universities in Eastern Europe and the largest University in Lithuania. ... Union of KÄ—dainiai (or Agreement of KÄ—dainiai, Lithuanian KÄ—dainių unija or KÄ—dainių sutartis; Polish Umowa KiejdaÅ„ska) was a controversial agreement between several of the Commonwealth magnates and the king of Sweden, signed in 1655 during The Deluge. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Lithuanian mythology is an example of pagan mythology containing archaic elements. ... http://www. ... AukÅ¡taitija (litterally Highlands) is the name of one of five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Consolidation of Lithuanian lands started in the 12th century, as marked by extensive raids of Lithuanians towards wealthy cities such as Novgorod and Pskov. Lithuanians plundered territories of other Baltic tribes as well. The 13th century signified the beginning of the wars with the Teutonic Knights, the Livonian Order and the rise of Mindaugas, who was crowned as King of Lithuania in 1253. Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Hermann von Salza (c. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... Mindaugas King of Lithuania Mindaugas monument in Vilnius Mindaugas (approximate English transcription [ˈmın. ... King of Lithuania was the title of the ruler of Lithuania. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...


The title Grand Duchy to Lithuania was consistently applied from the 14th century on,[6] multi-ethnic and multi-confessional shape of the state emerged only at late reign of Gediminas.[7] Gediminas not only continued to expand state lands, but also tried to neutralize the Christian military orders by diplomatic means, negotiating with the Holy See. During his reign the state capital became Vilnius in 1323. After the death of Gediminas and short reign of Jaunutis, Grand Duke title captured Algirdas, but shared his power with Kęstutis. Algirdas continued his father’s policy in the East, trying to gain more influence in Slavic regions, which led to military conflicts with Moscow.[8] Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius... Events Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Pharos of Alexandira Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world) is destroyed by a series of earthquakes... Pillars of Giedymin Jaunutis (known as Jewnut in Ruthenian; in Polish as Jewnuta and in Belarusian as Jaunut (Яўнут); Iwan; ca 1300 – after 1366) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania 1341 – 1345 (from his father Gediminass death in 1341 until he was deposed by his elder brothers Algirdas and K... Columns of Gediminas Algirdas (approximate English transcription [ˈaːl(É™).gır. ... Pillars of Giedymin Castle of Trakai KÄ™stutis (approximate English transcription [kæs. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ...


Algirdas` successor was Jogaila(polish name "Jagiełło") and according to Krėva agreement, which was signed in 1386, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania made a personal union with the Kingdom of Poland as Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila married Queen Jadwiga (english name Hedwig). Jogaila started Christianization of Lithuania in 1387, which marked the conversion of Lithuanians, the last pagans in Europe,[9] to the Catholic faith. Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1351–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... The Union of Krewo[1], also known as KrÄ—va Act[2] (other names Union of Krevo, Act of Kreva) was a set of promises of Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania for marriage between him and the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... This article is about the 14th-century queen and saint. ...

Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th century
Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th century

Soon afterwards, Vytautas the Great acquired supreme power in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Vytautas led the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, which signified the downfall of the Teutonic Order. After Vytautas' death, the relationship with the Kingdom of Poland greatly deteriorated.[10] In 1432 internal fights erupted as two pretenders, Švitrigaila and Žygimantas Kęstutaitis, were rivals for the throne. Žygimantas Kęstutaitis emerged victorious after the Battle of Pabaiskas.[10] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1010x1411, 983 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Lithuania Mindaugas Grand Duchy of Lithuania User:Electionworld/Atlas:Lithuania User:M.K/Laikinas2 Muscovite-Lithuanian... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1010x1411, 983 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Lithuania Mindaugas Grand Duchy of Lithuania User:Electionworld/Atlas:Lithuania User:M.K/Laikinas2 Muscovite-Lithuanian... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Moldavia Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great, Alexandru cel Bun Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 (2/3 was Polish Knights) 27,000 Casualties... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... Pillars of Giedymin (Gedimino stulpai) Å vitrigaila (alternative spellings: ÅšwidrygieÅ‚Å‚o, Svitrigaylo, Svidryhajla, Svidrigailo, Swidrigailo; BolesÅ‚aw; ca 1370 – 10 February 1452 Łuck) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania during 1430 - 1432, Prince of Witebsk 1392 – 1393, 1430 – 1436, Podolia 1400 – 1402, Novhorod-Siversky 1404 – 1408, 1420 – 1438, Czernichow 1419 – 1430... Columns of Gediminas Trakai Island Castle Sigismund I Kestutian (Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Polish: ; born after 1350, murdered 20 March 1440 in Trakai) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania from 1432 to 1440. ... The Battle of Pabaiskas, also known as the Battle of Vilkomir, took place on September 1, 1435 near UkmergÄ— in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. ...


After the assassination of Grand Duke Žygimantas Kęstutaitis, noblemen of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania tried to break the personal union with the Kingdom of Poland.[11] Only unsuccessful wars with Muscovy forced to revive the union, despite the opposition from some noble families like the Radvilos. Several attempts were made to restore and strengthen broken union ties in the 16th century, and after the Lublin Union in 1569, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined the Kingdom of Poland, creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In this federation, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had a separate government, laws, army, and treasury.[12] The death of Sigismund II Augustus, who mediated creation of Lublin Union, marked an end of the era of the Gediminids, whose representatives ruled Lithuania from the late 13th century. Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ (Lithuanian: ; Belarusian: ; Latin: ) is a family of high nobility which has been powerful and important for centuries, first in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Sigismund II Augustus (Polish: , Lithuanian: ; 1 August 1520 — 7 July 1572) was the only son of Sigismund I the Old, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. ... Columns of Gediminas, symbol of the Gediminids. ...


During Commonwealth times, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was involved in many wars, like the Livonian War, the Northern War and others. Despite military gains and losses cultural life flourished in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, signified by the opening of Vilnius University, increased publishing of books, and the construction of new palaces and churches. The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... The Northern War can mean: Northern Wars (1655-1660) Great Northern War (1700-1721) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Vilnius University (also known as Vilnius State University, The University of Vilnius, Lithuanian: , formerly Stefan Batory University and before that Almae Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Jesu), is one of the oldest Universities in Eastern Europe and the largest University in Lithuania. ...


Union with Kingdom of Poland did not prevent territorial losses of the state to the rising power of Muscovy and finally in 1795, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was destroyed by the partitions among Imperial Russia, Prussia and Austria. 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2...

Contents

Establishment of the state

Rise to power

Balts in the 12th century
Balts in the 12th century

The first written reference to Lithuania is found in the Quedlinburg Chronicle, which dates from 1009.[13] This contemporary account mentions little of the state or its social structure, except that Lithuania bordered Rus and that there were active pagans in the region.[14] Image File history File links Baltic_Tribes_c_1200. ... Image File history File links Baltic_Tribes_c_1200. ... http://www. ... Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ...


References to Lithuania appear and in Slavic chronicles, as one of the areas that the Rus' attacked; apparently their initial raid was unsuccessful, but the grand dukes of Kiev continued to mount forays into Lithuanian territory. Pagan Lithuanians in the early 12th century paid tribute to Polatsk, including the Semigallians, the Curonians and the Lettigallians. In 1131 Lithuania suffered a major attack by Mstislav the Great. However, as Mstislav's army was returning home, laden with plunder, Lithuanians were able to beat the regiments which had lagged behind the main Mstislav's army. It was not a major victory for Lithuanians, but it did indicate that Lithuania was gaining strength. Rus’ (Русь, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular but by no means the only theory, took its name from its ruling warrior class with Scandinavian roots. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк, also spelt as Polacak; Polish: PoÅ‚ock; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... The Semigallians (Latvian Zemgaļi, also Zemgalians, Semigalls, Semigalians) are one of the Baltic tribes that lived in the southern middle part of Latvia, Zemgale. ... The Curonians (also called Kursi, Latvian KurÅ¡i) are one of the extinct Baltic tribes that later formed the Latvian nation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great (Russian: ) (June 1, 1076 – April 14, 1132), was the Velikiy Kniaz (Grand Prince) of Kiev (1125-1132), the eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh by Gytha of Wessex. ...


During this time Lithuanians usually constructed alliances with one or another Rurikid ruler and apparently did not initiate full-scale attacks towards the principalities of Rus. At some point between 1180 and 1183 the situation began to change, and the Lithuanians started to organize sustainable military raids on the Slavic provinces, raiding the Polatsk duchy as well as Pskov, and even threatening Novgorod.[15] After a successful Lithuanian raid of Livonia in 1185, the local inhabitants built several castles in the region, trying to protect the population. From the twelfth century on, the Lithuanians represented a real threat to their western neighbours and missions as well as to their Slavic neighbors.[15] Rurik Dynasty ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк, also spelt as Polacak; Polish: Połock; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ...

Lithuanian ancient hill fort mounds in Kernavė, now listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Lithuanian ancient hill fort mounds in Kernavė, now listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The sudden spark of military raids marked state consolidation process of Lithuanian lands confederation around twelfth century in Aukštaitija (Upper Lithuania),[16] possibly by the end of the 12th century the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was already formed in these lands.[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3076x686, 424 KB) Hills around Kernave File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hill fort ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3076x686, 424 KB) Hills around Kernave File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hill fort ... Birds eye view of KernavÄ— KernavÄ— is a tourist and archeological resort in southeast Lithuania, and was once the medieval capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... AukÅ¡taitija (litterally Highlands) is the name of one of five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ...


The year 1202 marked another development that galvanized the formation of the state – the establishment of a Christian militia, the Livonian Order, which posed a significant threat to pagan powers in the region. This threat was reinforced by the formation of other rivals, such as the Halych-Volhynia and Teutonic Order, established in 1226. Eventually the most important signs of mutual cooperation and consolidation between Lithuanians and Samogitians of southeastern Lithuania was the treaty with Halych-Volhynia of 1219. It is the earliest documented evidence of cooperation among a large group of Lithuanian dukes. This treaty lists 21 Lithuanian dukes among its signatories, including five senior Lithuanian dukes from Aukštaitija – Živinbudas, Daujotas, Vilikaila, Dausprungas and Mindaugas. Probably Živinbudas was the superior among others[15] and at least senior Lithuanian dukes were related with each other by one family ties.[17] The treaty was also signed by dukes from Samogitia, which showed increasing levels of cooperation among the Lithuanians. Although they had battled in the past, the Lithuanians and the Samogitians spoke a similar dialect and now faced a common enemy.[18] The formal acknowledgment of common interests, and the establishment of a hierarchy among the participants of the treaty, foreshadowed the emergence of the state. // Events August 1 - Arthur of Brittany captured in Mirebeau, north of Poitiers Beginning of the Fourth Crusade. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... Halych-Volhynia, or Halych-Volodymyr, was a large state in Ruthenia (Rus ) which existed in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Halych-Volhynia, or Halych-Volodymyr, was a large state in Ruthenia (Rus ) which existed in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... This article lists rulers of lands attributed to Lithuania (including Samogitia) before the country was unified by Mindaugas in 13th centrury. ... AukÅ¡taitija (litterally Highlands) is the name of one of five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Živinbudas – one of the five senior Lithuanian dukes mentioned in treaty with Halych-Volhynia in 1219. ... Daujotas was one of the 5 elder Lithuanian dukes mentioned in the peace treaty with Halych-Volhynia in 1219. ... Vilikaila or Viligaila was one of the 5 elder Lithuanian dukes mentioned in the peace treaty with Halych-Volhynia in 1219. ... Dausprungas (died after 1219) was older brother of Mindaugas. ... Mindaugas King of Lithuania Mindaugas monument in Vilnius Mindaugas (approximate English transcription [ˈmın. ... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ...


Mindaugas, one of the mentioned senior dukes, raised Lithuania up among Western European states during later years.


Role of Mindaugas

Mindaugas, duke[19] of southern Lithuania[20] was mentioned in the Halych-Volhynia agreement as senior, but he did not had a highest power in Lithuania then. Eventually he became sovereign ruler. Mindaugas was mentioned as the ruler of the whole Lithuania in Livonian Rhymed Chronicle in 1236.[21] How he managed to acquire supreme power in Lithuania is not exactly known. Slavic chronicles mention that he used to murder or expel various dukes, including his relatives.[22] After securing power in Lithuania, Mindaugas turned his sight towards Slavic provinces and regions, annexing Navahradak, Hrodna and other places, which were regarded as part of Rus. These regions came into Mindaugas' possession somewhere between 1239 and 1248.[21] After acquiring several Black Ruthenia provinces Mindaugas appointed his son Vaišvilkas to rule them, who apparently greatly suppressed the local population.[23] An important event took place in 1236, which had an impact in the whole region: an army led by Samogitian ruler Vykintas won the Battle of the Sun, inflicting a catastrophic outcome to the Livonian Order, which never regained its full power and was forced to become a branch of the Teutonic Knights. That meant that Samogitia became the main target of both Orders, because only this land prevented them from physical union. The battle's outcome provided a short break in wars with the Knights and Lithuania exploited this situation, arranging attacks towards Ruthenian provinces. Livlandische Reimchronik: The Old Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, written in Low German by an anonymous writer covers the period 1180 – 1290 and contains a wealth of detail about ‘strange’ Estonia. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Navahradak (Нава́градак in Belarusian; Russian: Novogrudok; Polish: Nowogródek; Lithuanian: Naugardukas) is a city in western Belarus. ... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ) is a city in Belarus. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Black Ruthenia (dark green, north-west). ... VaiÅ¡vilkas (WoyszwiÅ‚k, Vojszalak, VojÅ¡alk, VaiÅ¡elga, VaiÅ¡algas; killed on 9 December 1268 in Volodymyr-Volynskyi) was the Prince of Black Ruthenia (1255 – 1267), and the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1264 – 1267). ... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Depiction of Vykintas from the chronicles of Alexander Guagnini, published in 1578 Vykintas (died ca. ... The Battle of Å iauliai or Battle of the Sun (Lithuanian: SaulÄ—s MÅ«Å¡is) took place on September 22, 1236 near the town of Å iauliai, which today lies in the region of JoniÅ¡kis, Lithuania. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ...

Christianization of Mindaugas (17th century drawing)
Christianization of Mindaugas (17th century drawing)

Around 1248 Mindaugas sent his nephews Tautvilas and Edivydas and Vykintas to conquer Smolensk. But they were unsuccessful. Most likely due to this unsuccessful campaign, Mindaugas tried to seize their lands and the defeated dukes had to flee from Lithuania. Soon afterwards three men formed a powerful coalition with the Livonian Order, Daniel of Halych, Vasilko of Volhynia and partially with Samogitians against Mindaugas, war was inevitable. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tautvilas or Tautvila (died in 1263) was Duke of Polatsk and one of the sons of Dausprungas and nephews of King of Lithuania Mindaugas. ... Edivydas (believed to have died ca. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Monument to King Danylo in Lviv. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ...


The Dukes of Halych and Volhynia managed to get control over Black Ruthenia, lands which were ruled by Vaišvilkas. Tautvilas, seeking support from Knights, went to Riga, where he was baptized by the Archbishop and received military support. Soon afterwards the Order organized two big raids, one to Nalša land and the other to Mindaugas' domain and parts of Samogitia that still supported him.[24] Mindaugas facing extremely difficult position managed to take advantage of Livonian Order and Archbishop of Riga conflicts – he bribed Andreas von Stierland, the master of the Order, who was still angry on Vykintas for the defeat in 1236.[24] Andreas von Stierland agreed to support Mindaugas and promised help, but he also raised the condition, that pagan Mindaugas must take the Catholic faith. Mindaugas agreed to baptize and also give to the Order some lands in the western part of Lithuania for the Royal crown in return. He alongside with wife and sons was baptized in the Catholic rite in 1251. On July 17, 1251 Pope Innocent IV issued a papal bull proclaiming Lithuania as Kingdom and the state was placed under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome. The Archbishops of Riga (1202) 1255-1561 were the secular rulers of Riga, the capital of Livonia (now known as Latvia). ... Heathen redirects here. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... The Kingdom of Lithuania was the Lithuanian Monarchy, which existed in the 13th century, and was temporarily re-established in the 20th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ...


In 1252, Tautvilas and the remaining allies attacked Mindaugas in Voruta. The attack failed and the allies had to defend themselves in Tverai Castle. After Vykintas death Tautvilas was forced to go back to Daniel of Halych. These developments signified the collapse of the coalition, and Daniel with Tautvilas reconciled with Mindaugas soon afterwards. When the fights were finished, there were no obstacles to Mindaugas holding his royal crown and in 1253 he was crowned as King of Lithuania most likely in Vilnius, where Mindaugas had his court and newly built Cathedral.[25] Voruta may have been a capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania established in the time of king Mindaugas in the 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... King of Lithuania was the title of the ruler of Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius... Cathedral of Vilnius Vilnius Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. ...

First bishop of Lithuania – St. Vito (17th century drawing)
First bishop of Lithuania – St. Vito (17th century drawing)

Pope Innocent IV supported Mindaugas, because he hoped the new Catholic state could stop the raids of Mongols-Tatars.[21] To strengthen Christianity in the state there was appointed Bishop of Lithuania, firstly was introduced Dominican Vito and in 1254, Christian. However, as later events showed, Lithuanians were not prepared to accept Christianity. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...


During later years Mindaugas tried to expand his influence in the Polatsk, a major center of commerce in the Daugava River basin, and Pinsk.[21] He also conducted peace with Halych-Volhynia, and arranged marriage between his daughter and Svarn, son of Daniel of Volhynia and future ruler of Lithuania. In 1255, Mindaugas got permission from Pope Alexander IV to crown one of his sons as King of Lithuania. Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк, also spelt as Polacak; Polish: PoÅ‚ock; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... Daugava sunset in Riga. ... Pinsk (Belarusian: , Russian: ), a town in Belarus, in the Polesia region, travesed by the river Prypiać, at the confluence of the Strumen and Pina rivers. ... Kingdom of Galicia Grand Duchy of Lithuania Švarn the Lightning (Shvarno, Švarnas, Ioann; +1269, bur. ... Events Königsberg was founded Births Emperor Albert I of Germany, in July Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Categories: 1255 ... Alexander IV, né Rinaldo Conti (Anagni, ca. ...


The Teutonic Order used this period to strengthen its position in parts of Samogitia and Livonia, but in 1259 the Order lost the Battle of Skuodas and in 1260 the Battle of Durbe. The later one encouraged the Prussians, conquered by the Order, to rebel against the Knights. Encouraged by Treniota, his nephew, Mindaugas broke the peace with the Order, took the Samogitians under his own jurisdiction again and tried to use the situation among rebelling Baltic tribes to his favor. Chronicles mention that he also relapsed into his old beliefs. Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Location Ethnographic region Samogitia County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality Skuodas district municipality Elderate Skuodas town elderate Coordinates General Information Capital of Skuodas district municipality Skuodas town elderate Population 7,598 in 2005 (43rd) First mentioned 1259 Granted city rights 1572 Skuodas is a town in Klaipeda County, northwestern Lithuania, on... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Map of the Livonian Confederation in 1260, showing the location of the Battle of Durbe. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... The Prussian uprisings were a number of uprisings by the Old Prussian tribes against the Teutonic Order that took place in the 13th century during and following the Northern Crusades. ... Grand Duchy of Lithuania Treniota (Troniata) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania from 1263 to 1264, Prince of Black Ruthenia. ... Lithuanian mythology is an example of pagan mythology containing archaic elements. ...


Mindaugas made a deal with Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod and marched against the Order. Treniota led the army to Cēsis and against Masovia hoping to encourage conquered Baltic tribes to rebel against the Knights. Nevertheless campaign did not reach its goal in the end and relationships between Mindaugas and Treniota deteriorated, who together with Daumantas assassinated Mindaugas and his two sons, Ruklys and Rupeikis in 1263.[26] Statue in Pereslavl, just in front of the cathedral Alexander was baptised in. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... CÄ“sis (German: Wenden) is a town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Vidzeme Central upland. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Dovmont Town in Pskov. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ...


State lapsed into years of internal fights.


Expansion

Pope Clemens IV
Pope Clemens IV

After Mindaugas' death, Treniota took over the title of Grand Duke. However, his power was fragile and less than a year later, in 1264 he was killed by Mindaugas` son Vaišvilkas and his ally from Volhynia, Svarn. Daumantas ran away to Pskov, was baptized as Timofei and ruled there successfully in 1266-1299. Vaišvilkas, once a fierce pagan who later became devoted Orthodox, after three years or rule transferred Grand Duke title to Svarn. Unstable political situation in Lithuania resulted lack support to the rebelling Balts, which were initially supported by Mindaugas and Treniota, thus Baltic rebellion slowly began to calm down. Image File history File links de: Papst Clemens IV. (Guido Fulcodi), zeitgenössisches Porträt en: Pope Clement IV. (Guido Fulcodi), contemporary portrait File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Clement IV ... Image File history File links de: Papst Clemens IV. (Guido Fulcodi), zeitgenössisches Porträt en: Pope Clement IV. (Guido Fulcodi), contemporary portrait File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Clement IV ... A contemporary monument to the Battle of Lewes, a crucial 1264 battle in the Second Barons War in England. ... VaiÅ¡vilkas (WoyszwiÅ‚k, Vojszalak, VojÅ¡alk, VaiÅ¡elga, VaiÅ¡algas; killed on 9 December 1268 in Volodymyr-Volynskyi) was the Prince of Black Ruthenia (1255 – 1267), and the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1264 – 1267). ... Kingdom of Galicia Grand Duchy of Lithuania Švarn the Lightning (Shvarno, Švarnas, Ioann; +1269, bur. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ...


Svarn took power in 1267. It is likely that he was unable to take control of the entire Lithuania and ruled only southern parts.[21] At the same time Vaišvilkas was killed by Lev Danylovich, brother of Svarn, who was angry on Vaišvilkas, because he did not transfer supreme power to rule Lithuania for him. For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Lev I of Halych in front of his capital, Lviv Lev Danylovich (born ca. ...


In 1268 Pope Clement IV issued a papal bull, which granted permission to King of Bohemia Ottokar II to resurrect Kingdom of Lithuania. In the same year King and soldiers from Bohemia, Austria, through Poland, arrived in Prussia and preparations for the assault on Lithuania started, but due to the bad weather the campaign did not occur. After one year Svarn was removed from the throne by the pagan Traidenis, the illustrious Duke of Kernavė.[26] Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in 1268. ... Clement IV, né Guy Foulques (d. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The Kingdom of Lithuania was the Lithuanian Monarchy, which existed in the 13th century, and was temporarily re-established in the 20th century. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Grand Duchy of Lithuania Traidenis (Ruthenian Troyden; Belarusian Trajdzien, Трайдзень; ? - 1281) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania from 1270 till 1282 (or 1269 till 1281), Prince of Jatwez and Doynowsk. ... Birds eye view of KernavÄ— KernavÄ— is a tourist and archeological resort in southeast Lithuania, and was once the medieval capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. ...


Traidenis began to wage war with Halych-Volhynia in 1274-1276 and he emerged victorious, finally conquering Black Ruthenia. Traidenis was also successful in fighting with the Livonian Order. In 1270 he won the Battle of Karuse, fought on ice near Saaremaa. In 1279 the Order attacked Lithuanian lands and even reached Traidenis` main seat in Kernavė, but on the way back they suffered a great defeat in the Battle of Aizkraukle. After the battle, Semigallians rebelled and acknowledged Lithuania's superiority.[21] Traidenis waged several more campaigns but in 1282 he died. Black Ruthenia (dark green, north-west). ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... This article is about the island. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Birds eye view of KernavÄ— KernavÄ— is a tourist and archeological resort in southeast Lithuania, and was once the medieval capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. ... The Battle of Aizkraukle (Ascheraden, Aizkriaukle ) was fought on March 5, 1279 by Traidenis against the army of the Teutonic Order, which was defeated. ... The Semigallians (Latvian Zemgaļi, also Zemgalians, Semigalls, Semigalians) are one of the Baltic tribes that lived in the southern middle part of Latvia, Zemgale. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...


There is uncertainty as to who were the Grand Dukes of Lithuania after Traidenis' death. In 1285, chronicles mention Daumantas as Grand Duke. He attacked Tver and was severely wounded or even killed.[21] The first Gediminid to rule Lithuania was Butigeidis, who died in 1290 or 1292, and his brother and sub-monarch Butvydas (also known as Pukuveras) inherited the crown. Butvydas was father of Vytenis and Gediminas. He died in 1296, leaving the throne to Vytenis. Daumantas (Ruthenian: Dowmont, Domont; Belarusian: DaÇ”mont; Russian: Довмонт) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1282/1283-1285. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Columns of Gediminas, symbol of the Gediminids. ... Grand Duchy of Lithuania Butigeidis (Budzikid) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania 1285 – 1291. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Grand Duchy of Lithuania Butvydas (Pukuwer 13th century – 1296) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania 1283 – 1293 (or 1291 – 1296). ... Grand Duchy of Lithuania Vytenis (in Belarusian: Ð’iцень or VicieÅ„, in Polish: Witenes, in Russian: Витень; 13th century – 1316) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania 1293 (1296?) – 1316. ... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... Events March 30 - Edward I stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then Scottish border town with much bloodshed. ...


Vytenis was the first ruler from the Gediminids dynasty who ruled Lithuania for considerably long time.[27] Vytenis was mentioned as king and overlord of Lithuania in 1296. Under his reign, the construction of castles network alongside Nemunas begun in end of the 13th century. Gradually this network of castles developed into the main outpost and defensive structures against the Teutonic Order. Columns of Gediminas, symbol of the Gediminids. ... Events March 30 - Edward I stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then Scottish border town with much bloodshed. ... External links Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: Neman Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Rivers of Belarus | Rivers of Lithuania | Russian rivers ...


Vytenis' reign saw constant warfare with the surrounding lands, particularly with the Order, the Kingdom of Poland, and Ruthenian provinces. In 1295 an army led by Vytenis plundered Polish lands. These attacks on Polish lands continued until 1306. At the 13th century the Kingdom of Poland existed only in the hearts and memories of various Polish noblemen as these years witnessed disintegration of the Kingdom. Vytenis used this situation to his state needs and later on he supported Polish pretender to the Kingdom's throne. Vytenis also intervened into Duchy of Masovia affairs, as Duke of Masovia Boleslaw II has been married to Lithuanian princes Gaudemunda. Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ... Events March 25 - Robert the Bruce becomes King of Scotland June 19 - Forces of Earl of Pembroke defeat Bruces Scottish rebels at the Battle of Methven Philip IV of France exiles all the Jews from France and confiscates their property In London, a city ordinance degrees that heating with... Seal of the Duchy of Masovia. ... Gaudemunda or Gaudimantė (baptized as Sophia) (1260 (?) – 1288) was Lithuanian princess, daughter of Traidenis, Duke of Kernavė, later Grand Duke of Lithuania. ...

Trakai Island Castle. Trakai was one of the main centers of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Trakai Island Castle. Trakai was one of the main centers of Grand Duchy of Lithuania

In the late 13th century conflict between Riga citizens and Teutonic Knights arose and Vytenis offered aid to citizens of the city by sending a Lithuanian garrison to them in 1298. The Lithuanian garrison had duty to protect city from the Knights. Lithuanians remained in the city until 1313.[28] Securing positions in Riga provided fordable situation to strengthen trade routes in the region and organize military campaigns towards the Teutonic Order and Ruthenian provinces. Between 1298 and 1313 Vytenis arranged around eleven military campaigns into Prussian lands controlled by the Order, inflicting a series of defeats to the foe.[29] Around 1307, Polatsk was annexed by military force.[30] Annexation of Polatsk led to securing important trade route which enabled consistent trade in the region and also increased Lithuania`s influence on remaining Ruthenian provinces. Download high resolution version (1022x582, 427 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1022x582, 427 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Trakai Island Castle today The bridge to the main castle gatehouse The inner yard of the palace and its wooden stair galleries The Ducal Palace and its donjon Side view of the Ducal Palace Trakai Island Castle in ruins (1877) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Trakai Island Castle Trakai... Coordinates: Founded 1201 Government  - Mayor Jānis Birks Area  - City 307. ... Events July 2 - The Battle of Göllheim is fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. ... Events Siege of Rostock ends Foundation year of the Order of the Rose Cross (Rosicrucian Order), according to the Rosicrucian Fellowship. ... Events July - The Knights Hospitaller begin their conquest of Rhodes. ...


Vytenis arranged several more military raids into lands ruled by the Teutonic Order until 1315 and for the last time he went into contemporary writing sources at the end of 1315. Further faith of Vytenis is unknown; nevertheless Grand Duke title passed to his brother Gediminas,[31] the sub-monarch reigning in Samogitia and probably in Trakai while Vytenis was still alive. As sovereign ruler Gediminas exchanged Trakai seat to Vilnius.[32][33] Events August 13 - Louis X of France marries Clemence dAnjou. ... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Vilnius County Municipality Trakai district municipality Elderate Trakai elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Trakai district municipality Trakai elderate Population (rank) 5,504 in 2005 (56th) First mentioned 1337 Granted city rights 1409 The reconstructed Trakai Island Castle Trakai (Polish: ) is... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius...

The expansion reached its heights under Gediminas, who created a strong central government and established an empire, which later spread from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea. In 1320, most of the principalities of Western Rus' were either vassalized or annexed by Lithuania. In 1321 Gediminas captured Kiev sending Stanislav, the last Rurikid to ever rule Kiev, into exile. Gediminas also re-established the permanent capital of Lithuania in Vilnius, which was moved from Trakai in 1323. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1836 KB) Kaunas castle, Lithuania. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1836 KB) Kaunas castle, Lithuania. ... The round tower and the bastion of the Castle Kaunas Castle is located in Kaunas, Lithuania. ... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Battle on the Irpen River (as referred to in historic chronicles) occurred in 1321 between the armies of Gediminas (Gedimin), the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and knyaz (prince) Stanislav of Kiev, allied with knyaz Oleg of Pereyaslavl and knyaz Roman of Bryansk. ... Knyaz Stanislav of Kiev was the last Kiev ruler of the Rurik Dynasty. ... Rurik Dynasty ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Trakai district municipality Elderate Trakai elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Trakai district municipality Trakai elderate Population (rank) 5,504 in 2005 (56th) First mentioned 1337 Granted city rights 1409 The reconstructed Trakai Island Castle Trakai (Polish: ) is...


Lithuania was in an ideal position to inherit west and south part of Kievan Rus'. While almost every other state around it had been plundered or defeated by the Mongols, their hordes never reached as far north as Lithuania and its territory was left untouched. The expansion of Lithuania was also accelerated because of the weak control the Mongols had over the areas they had conquered. (Rus' principalities were never incorporated directly into the Golden Horde. Instead, they were always vassal states with a fair degree of independence.) The rise of Lithuania occurred at the ideal time when they could expand while meeting very little resistance in the territories populated by East Slavs and only limited opposition from the Mongols. Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Redirect page ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day...


The Lithuanian state was not built only on military aggression. Its existence always depended on diplomacy just as much as on arms. Most, while not all, cities it annexed were never defeated in battle but agreed to be vassals of Lithuania. Since most of them were already vassals of the Golden Horde or of Grand Prince of Moscow, such decision was not one of giving up independence but rather of exchanging one master for another. This can be seen in the case of Novgorod, which was often brought into the Lithuanian sphere of influence and became an occasional dependency of Lithuania.[34] Rather, Lithuanian control was the result of internal frictions within the city, which attempted to escape submission to Russia. This method of building the state was, however, unstable. The change of internal politics within a city could pull it out of Lithuania's control, as happened on a number of occasions with Novgorod and other Russian cities. This is a list of Princes and Grand Princes of Russian principality Moscow. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ...

Lithuania was Christianized in 1387. Christianization was led by Jogaila, who personally translated Christian prayers into the Lithuanian language.[35] The state reached a peak under Vytautas the Great, who reigned from 1392 to 1430. Vytautas was one of the most famous rulers of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He was the Grand Duke from 1401-1430, also the Prince of Hrodna (1370-1382) and the Prince of Lutsk (1387-1389). Vytautas was the son of Kęstutis, cousin of Jogaila, who became King of Poland in 1386, and grandfather of Vasili II of Russia. In 1410 Vytautas himself commanded the forces of the Grand Duchy in the Battle of Grunwald (also called the Battle of Tannenberg or Žalgirio mūšis). The battle ended in a decisive Polish-Lithuanian victory. Vytautas backed economic development of his state and introduced many reforms. Under his rule the Grand Duchy of Lithuania slowly became more centralized, as the governors loyal to Vytautas replaced local princes with dynastic ties to the throne. The governors were rich landowners who formed the basis for the Lithuanian nobility. During Vytautas' rule Radziwill and Goštautas families started to gain influence. Image File history File links Christianization of Lithuania in 1387 by Matejko File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Christianization of Lithuania in 1387 by Matejko File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... Royal Castle in Warsaw Royal Castle after the Warsaw Uprising Royal Castle in Warsaw (Polish Zamek Królewski), is the royal palace and official residence of the Polish monarchs, in Warsaw. ... Lithuanian is the official language of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native speakers (Lithuanians). ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... // Events May 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians First use of optical methods in the creation of Art A map of Europe in 1430. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ) is a city in Belarus. ... Lutsk (Ukrainian: Луцьк) is the capital of the Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. ... Pillars of Giedymin Castle of Trakai KÄ™stutis (approximate English transcription [kæs. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1351–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Vasili II Vasiliyevich Tyomniy (Blind) (Василий II Васильевич Тёмный in Russian) (March 10, 1415 – March 27, 1462) was the Grand Prince of Moscow whose long reign (1425-1462) was plagued by the greatest civil war of medieval Russian history. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Moldavia Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great, Alexandru cel Bun Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 (2/3 was Polish Knights) 27,000 Casualties... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Abdank Coat of Arms GoÅ¡tautai was a Lithuanian noble family, one of the most influential families in the 14-16th centuries. ...

"You have made and pronounced a decision over the Samogitian [Lower land] lands that are our inheritance and our fatherland, lawfully passed on by our ancestors. And even now we hold it in our possession; it is and always was one and the same land of Lithuania, because there is one language and one people. As the Samogitian land is lower than the Lithuania land, it is called Samogitia, because in the Lithuanian language lowland is called in this name. Samogitians call Lithuania as Aukštaitija [High land], because looking from the lowland it is a highland. From ancient times Samogitians call themselves as Lithuanians and never as Samogitians; and for this sameness we do not write about Samogitia, because all is one, one land and one people."
Vytautas the Great. Letter to Emperor of Holy Roman Empire Sigismund. 1420.03.11[36]

Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Lithuanian is the official language of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native speakers (Lithuanians). ... AukÅ¡taitija (litterally Highlands) is the name of one of five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s - the only contemporary portrait. ...

Decline

The speedy expansion of Russia soon put it into a position to rival Lithuania, however, and after the annexation of Novgorod in 1478 Russia was unquestionably the preeminent state in Northeast Europe. Between 1492 and 1508 Ivan III, after winning the key Battle of Vedrosha, regained such ancient lands of Rus as Chernigov and Bryansk. The loss of land to Russia and the continued pressure from the expanding Russian state posed a real threat of destroying the state of Lithuania, so it was forced to make closer alliance with Poland, uniting with its western neighbour in the Commonwealth of Two Nations (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) in the Union of Lublin of 1569. According to the Union many of the territories formerly controlled by largely Ruthenized[37] Grand Duchy of Lithuania were transferred to the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, while the gradual Polonization started the slower process of drawing Lithuania itself under Polish domination.[37][38][39] while, the Grand Duchy retained many rights in that federation (including separate government, treasury and army) until the May Constitution of Poland was passed in 1791. Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand... Battle of Vedrosha was one of the greatest battles in the medieval history of Russia. ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ... Historic coat of arms of Bryansk (1781). ... The Commonwealth around 1619 Official languages Polish, Latin Established church Roman Catholic Capital Cracow (until 1596) Warsaw (from 1596) Largest City Gdańsk, later Warsaw Head of state King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania Area about 1 million km² Population about 11 million Existed 1569 - 1795 The Polish... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Languages

The chancellery languages of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were Ruthenian,[40] Latin and Polish. Until 1697, the first one was used to write laws (Statutes of Lithuania) and to correspond with Eastern countries; Latin was used in dealings with Western countries; and, in 1697, Polish replaced Ruthenian as the chancellery language. Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Statutes of Lithuania (Lithuanian Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės statutai, Polish Statuty litewskie in Belarusian: Статуты Вялікага княства Літоўск&#1072...


Although usage of Lithuanian language in ruling the state after Vytautas and Jogaila (sons of Kęstutis and Algirdas, respectively) is disputable, it is stated that King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Alexander I still could understand and speak Lithuanian. After him there are no valid evidences. Also, at the time nationalism was not present, and nobles who migrated from one place to another would adapt to a new locality and take local religion and culture. Therefore those Lithuanian nobles who moved to Slavic areas in generations took up their culture. There is no available information what languages these nobles spoke in their everyday lives. Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1351–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... Pillars of Giedymin Castle of Trakai KÄ™stutis (approximate English transcription [kæs. ... Columns of Gediminas Algirdas (approximate English transcription [ˈaːl(É™).gır. ... Reign December 12, 1501 - August 19, 1506. ...


At the birth of the state, ethnical Lithuanians made 70% of population. With the acquisition of new Slavic territories, this part decreased to 50% and later to 30%. Other important nations were Jews and Tatars. By the time of the late Grand Duchy, Slavs made overall majority, and Slavic languages were used to write laws. This is the reason why the late GDL is often called a Slavic country, among Poland, Russia etc. The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ...


Military

Despite Lithuania's mainly peaceful acquisition of much of its Ruthenian holdings it could call upon military strength if needed and it was the only power in Eastern Europe that could effectively contend with the Golden Horde. When the Golden Horde did try to prevent Lithuanian expansion they were often rebuffed. In 1333 and 1339 Lithuanians defeated large Mongol forces attempting to regain Smolensk from the Lithuanian sphere of influence. By about 1355, the State of Moldavia had formed. The Golden Horde did little if nothing to re-vassalize the area. In 1387, Moldavia became a vassal of Poland and in a broader sense, Lithuania. By this time, Lithuania had conquered territory of the Golden Horde all the way to the Dnieper River. In a crusade against the Golden Horde in 1398, (In an alliance with Tokhtamysh), Lithuania invaded northern Crimea and won a decisive victory. Then in 1399, Lithuania (Intent on placing Tokhtamish on the Golden Horde throne) moved against the Horde. In the Battle of the Vorskla River however, Lithuania was crushed by the Horde and lost the steppe region. This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Kingdom of Moldavia Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders Władysław II Jagiełło, Vytautas the Great, Alexandru cel Bun Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 (2/3 was Polish Knights) 27,000 Casualties... Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ... Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. ... Events Emperor Go-Murakami ascends to the throne of Japan Kashmir is conquered by the muslims Births July 23 - King Louis I of Naples (d. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... Tokhtamysh (d. ... The Battle of the Vorskla River was one of the greatest and bloodiest in the medieval history of Eastern Europe. ...


Religion and Culture

(For further information on Lithuanian indigenous religion, see Romuva)
St. Ann's Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius
St. Ann's Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius
St. George church (1487) in Kaunas
St. George church (1487) in Kaunas
Church and Monastery of Pažaislis
Church and Monastery of Pažaislis
Vilnius University and the Church of St. John
Vilnius University and the Church of St. John

After the baptism in 1252 and coronation of King Mindaugas in 1253, Lithuania was recognized as a Christian state until 1260, when Mindaugas supported an uprising in Courland and (according to the German order) renounced Christianity. Up until 1387, Lithuanian nobles professed their own religion, which was a pagan belief based on deification of natural phenomena. Ethnic Lithuanians were very dedicated to their faith. The pagan beliefs needed to be deeply entrenched to survive strong pressure from missionaries and foreign powers. Until the seventeenth century there were relics of old faith, like feeding grass snakes or bringing food to graves of ancestors. The lands of modern-day Belarus and Ukraine, as well as local dukes (princes) in these regions, were firmly Orthodox Christian (Greek Catholic after the Union of Brest), though. While pagan beliefs in Lithuania were strong enough to survive centuries of pressure from military orders and missionaries, they did eventually succumb. In 1387, Lithuania converted to Catholicism, while most of the Ruthenian lands stayed Orthodox. There was an effort to polarize Orthodoxes after the Union of Brest in 1596, by which Orthodox Greek Catholics acknowledged papal authority and Catholic catechism, but preserved Orthodox liturgy. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1985 KB) Summary en: Saint Anns church and Bernardine Monastery, Vilnius, Lithuania pl: Kościół Św. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1985 KB) Summary en: Saint Anns church and Bernardine Monastery, Vilnius, Lithuania pl: Kościół Św. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 937 KB) St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 937 KB) St. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.n... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1917 KB) Church and Monastery of Pažaislis, Kaunas, Lithuania Author: Wojsyl File links The following pages link to this file: Kaunas Talk:Baroque architecture Pažaislis monastery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1917 KB) Church and Monastery of Pažaislis, Kaunas, Lithuania Author: Wojsyl File links The following pages link to this file: Kaunas Talk:Baroque architecture Pažaislis monastery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Church and Monastery of Pažaislis, Kaunas Pažaislis monastery and church (Polish: ) form the largest monastery complex in Lithuania, and one of the most magnificent examples of Italian baroque architecture in Eastern Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x638, 62 KB) Great Courtyard is the biggest yard in the historical Vilnius University. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x638, 62 KB) Great Courtyard is the biggest yard in the historical Vilnius University. ... Vilnius University (also known as Vilnius State University, The University of Vilnius, Lithuanian: , formerly Stefan Batory University and before that Almae Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Jesu), is one of the oldest Universities in Eastern Europe and the largest University in Lithuania. ... Mindaugas King of Lithuania Mindaugas monument in Vilnius Mindaugas (approximate English transcription [ˈmın. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... Heathen redirects here. ... Binomial name Natrix natrix Linnaeus, 1758 The Grass Snake, sometimes called the Ringed Snake or Water Snake (Natrix natrix) is a European non-venomous snake. ... A duke is a nobleman, historically of highest rank and usually controlling a duchy. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская ву́нія) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome, in order to avoid the domination of the newly... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ...



In 1579, Stefan Batory, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, founded Vilnius University, one of the oldest universities in Eastern Europe. Due to the work of the Jesuits during the Counter-Reformation the university soon developed into one of the most important scientific and cultural centers of the region and the most notable scientific center of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.[41] Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... István) see: István Báthory Reign From December 9, 1575 until December 12, 1586 Elected On December 9, 1575 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On May 1, 1576 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Noble Family Bathory Parents Stephen Bathory Catherine Telegdi Consorts Anna... Vilnius University (also known as Vilnius State University, The University of Vilnius, Lithuanian: , formerly Stefan Batory University and before that Almae Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Jesu), is one of the oldest Universities in Eastern Europe and the largest University in Lithuania. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ...


Legacy

The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania

According to some historians (especially in Russia), one of the most crucial effects of Lithuanian rule was ethnic divisions amongst the inhabitants of former Kievan Ruthenia. From this point of view, the creation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania played a major role in the division of Eastern Slavs. After the Mongolian conquest of Ruthenia, Mongols attempted to keep Eastern Slavs unified and succeeded in conquering most of Ruthenian lands. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1884 KB) Summary en: The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania }}} Statut Wielkiego KsiÄ™stwa Litweskiego Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Statute Grand Duchy of Lithuania ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1884 KB) Summary en: The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania }}} Statut Wielkiego KsiÄ™stwa Litweskiego Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Statute Grand Duchy of Lithuania ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of...

The first printed book in Lithuanian language The Simple Words of Catechism (by Martynas Mažvydas). Book was dedicated to Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Prussian tribes (of Baltic origin) were attacking Masovia, and that was the reason Duke Konrad of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights to settle near the Prussian area of settlement. The fighting between Prussians and the Teutonic Knights gave the more distant Lithuanian tribes time to unite. Because of strong enemies in the south and north, the newly formed Lithuanian state concentrated most of its military and diplomatic efforts on expansion eastward. Image File history File links Mazvydo_katekizmas. ... Image File history File links Mazvydo_katekizmas. ... Lithuanian is the official language of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native speakers (Lithuanians). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, were Indo-European Balts inhabiting the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons (i. ... http://www. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | Dukes of Masovia | Polish monarchs | Dukes of Sieradz-Leczyca | Prussian history ... Hermann von Salza (c. ...


The rest of former Ruthenian lands (Belarusian principalities) joined the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the very beginning. Some other lands in Ukraine were vassalized by Lithuania later. The subjugation of Eastern Slavs by two powers created substantial differences that persist to this day. According to this claim, while under Kievan Ruthenia there were certainly substantial regional differences, it was the Lithuanian annexation of much of southern and western Ruthenia that led to the permanent division between Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Russians.


Besides, ethnic and linguistic divisions amongst inhabitants of Ruthenia were not initiated by division of this area between Mongols and Lithuania, and are older than the creation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. And finally, until the twentieth century, ethnic and linguistic frontiers between Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Russians coincided with no political borders. The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ...


Notwithstanding the above, Lithuania was a Kingdom under Mindaugas I, who was conditionally crowned by authority of Pope Innocent IV in 1253. Gediminas and Vytautas the Great also assumed the title of King, although uncrowned. A failed attempt was made in 1918 to restore the Kingdom under German Prince Urach. Mindaugas II of Lithuania (3 March 1864, Monaco - 24 March 1928, Rapallo, Italy) was a King-elect in 1918. ...


See also

  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Lithuania. ... This article discusses the history of Lithuania and of the Lithuanians. ... Duchy of Lithuania (Latin: ; Lithuanian: ) was a state-territorial formation of ethnic Lithuanians, that existed from the 11th century until 1413. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... Major cities of Great Duchy of Lithuania: Outline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with its major subdivisions as of 1619 superimposed on present-day national borders Capitals (chronologically): Voruta (not certainly known) Kernavė Trakai Vilnius Centers of voivodships (since administrational reform): Lietuvos Brasta (Now Brest, Belarus) Minskas (Minsk) Mstislavlis Naugardukas... History of Belarusian states can be traced far to Principality of Polatsk. ... The following is a list of Lithuanian rulers - kings, grand dukes, governors and presidents of Lithuania or administrative units, that encompassed the territory of Lithuania during the periods of occupations. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b T. Baranauskas. Lietuvos valstybės ištakos. Vilnius, 2000
  2. ^ Rowell S.C. Lithuania Ascending a pagan empire within east-central Europe, 1295-1345. Cambridge, 1994. p.289-290
  3. ^ Ch.Allmand. The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge, 1998 p. 731.
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  5. ^ R. Bideleux. A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Routledge, 1998. p.122
  6. ^ E. Bojtár. Forward to the Past: A Cultural History of the Baltic People. Central European University Press, 1999 p. 179
  7. ^ Lithuania Ascending p.289.
  8. ^ Z. Kiaupa. Algirdas ir LDK rytų politika. Gimtoji istorija 2: Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (Lietuvos istorijos vadovėlis). CD. (2003). Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius.
  9. ^ N. Davies. Europe: A History. Oxford, 1996 p.392
  10. ^ a b J. Kiaupienė. Gediminaičiai ir Jogailaičiai prie Vytauto palikimo. Gimtoji istorija 2: Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (Lietuvos istorijos vadovėlis). CD. (2003) Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius.
  11. ^ J. Kiaupienë Valdžios krizës pabaiga ir Kazimieras Jogailaitis. Gimtoji istorija 2: Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (Lietuvos istorijos vadovėlis). CD. (2003). Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius.
  12. ^ D. Stone. The Polish-Lithuanian state: 1386-1795. University of Washington Press, 2001. p. 63
  13. ^ Encarta.Lithuania. Accessed September 21, 2006.
  14. ^ The Quedlinburg Chronicle relates the tragic fate of the mission of St. Bruno of Querfurt: St. Bruno, an archbishop and monk, who was called Boniface, was struck in the head by Pagans during the 11th year of his conversion at the Rus and Lithuania border, and along with 18 of his followers, entered heaven on March 9th. Boniface's mission had been organised by King Boleslaw I the Brave, who was attempting to extend his influence into Prussian lands.
  15. ^ a b c Encyclopedia Lituanica. Boston, 1970-1978, Vol.5 p.395
  16. ^ Samogitia (Lower Lithuania) is another historical region of Lithuania
  17. ^ A.Bumblauskas. Senosios Lietuvos istorija, 1009 – 1795 (The Early History of Lithuania).Vilnius, 2005, p.33
  18. ^ Lithuania Ascending p.50
  19. ^ By contemporary, Lithuanians their early rulers called kunigas (singular); kunigai (plural), the word, which was borrowed from German languagekuning, konig. Kunigas had a meaning of overlord and king. Later on kunigas had been changed by the word kunigaikštis, which is applied to medieval Lithuanian rulers until present day, while kunigas has another meaning today.
  20. ^ Z.Kiaupa, J. Kiaupienė, A. Kunevičius. The History of Lithuania Before 1795. Vilnius, 2000. p. 43-127
  21. ^ a b c d e f g V. Spečiūnas. Lietuvos valdovai (XIII-XVIII a.): enciklopedinis žinynas. Vilnius, 2004. p. 15-78.
  22. ^ Mindaugas rise to power was described in chnonicale as follows: was a duke in the Lithuanian land, and he killed his brothers and his brothers' sons and banished others from the land and began to rule alone over the entire Lithuanian land. And he started to put on airs and enjoyed glory and might and would not put up with any opposition
  23. ^ As noted in Hypatian Chronicle, Vaišvilkas ordered to kill 4 local people each day.
  24. ^ a b B. Butkevičienė, V. Gricius. Mindaugas – Lietuvos karalius. Accessed September 29, 2006.
  25. ^ Lithuania Ascending p.71
  26. ^ a b Senosios Lietuvos istorija p. 44-45
  27. ^ Lithuania Ascending p.55
  28. ^ M. Jones. The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge, p. 706
  29. ^ Lithuania Ascending p.57
  30. ^ New Cambridge p.706
  31. ^ A. Nikžentaitis. Gediminas. Vilnius, 1989, p.23
  32. ^ Lithuania Ascending p.72
  33. ^ Gediminas p.16
  34. ^ Glenn Hinson. The Church Triumphant: A History of Christianity Up to 1300. 1995, p.438
  35. ^ Jerzy Kloczowski. A History of Polish Christianity. Cambridge University Press, 2000. p.55
  36. ^ Senosios Lietuvos istorija p.53
  37. ^ a b "Within the [Lithuanian] Grand Duchy, the Ruthenian lands initially retained considerable autonomy. The pagan Lithuanians themselves were increasingly converting to Orthodoxy and assimilating into Ruthenian culture. The grand duchy's administrative practices and legal system drew heavily on Slavic customs, and Ruthenian became the official state language. Direct Polish rule in Ukraine since the 1340s and for two centuries thereafter was limited to Galicia. There, changes in such areas as administration, law, and land tenure proceeded more rapidly than in Ukrainian territories under Lithuania. However, Lithuania itself was soon drawn into the orbit of Poland."
    from Ukraine. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica.
  38. ^ "Formally, Poland and Lithuania were to be distinct, equal components of the federation,[...] But Poland, which retained possession of the Lithuanian lands it had seized, had greater representation in the Diet and became the dominant partner.
    from Lublin, Union of (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica
  39. ^ "While Poland and Lithuania would thereafter elect a joint sovereign and have a common parliament, the basic dual state structure was retained. Each continued to be administered separately and had its own law codes and armed forces. The joint commonwealth, however, provided an impetus for cultural Polonization of the Lithuanian nobility. By the end of the 17th century it had virtually become indistinguishable from its Polish counterpart."
    from Lithuania, history in Encyclopædia Britannica
  40. ^ Stone, Daniel. The Polish-Lithuanian state p.4
  41. ^ Vilniaus Universitetas. History of Vilnius University. Retrieved on 2007.04.16
General:
  1. S. C. Rowell. Chartularium Lithuaniae res gestas magni ducis Gedeminne illustrans. Gedimino laiškai. Vilnius, 2003
  2. Norman Davies. God's Playground. Columbia University Press; 2 edition (December 15, 2002) ISBN 0-231-12817-7

Reign 992 — 1025. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... The Hypatian Codex (Hypatian Chronicle, Ipatiev Chronicle, Russian: ) is a compendium of three chronicles: Primary Chronicle, Kiev Chronicle, and Halych-Volhynian Chronicle. ... Vaišvilkas (Woyszwiłk, Vojszalak, Vojšalk, Vaišelga, Vaišalgas; killed on 9 December 1268 in Volodymyr-Volynskyi) was the Prince of Black Ruthenia (1255 – 1267), and the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1264 – 1267). ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Grand Duchy of Lithuania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2409 words)
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie) was an Eastern European state of the 12th-18th centuries.
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