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Encyclopedia > Grand Duchy of Finland

The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 18091917 as part of the Russian Empire. 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...

Storfurstendömet Finland
Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta
Великое княжество Финляндское
Image:GD Finland coa.png
Coat of Arms of Finland
Existed 18091917
Capital Turku (18091812)
Helsinki (1812–)
Administrative capital Saint Petersburg
Head of state Grand Duke of Finland
Area — km² (—)
Population 1,636,900 (1850)
Official languages Swedish and, from 1883, Finnish Russian from 1809 to 1863 and again from 1900 to 1917)
Established church Evangelical Lutheran and Orthodox
Currency

Contents

Edited from former coat of arms on article Grand Duchy of Finland This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Coat of Arms of Finland were granted at the burial of Gustav Vasa in 1560 and still remain the arms of the Republic of Finland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of former countries. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Province Western Finland Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku City manager Mikko Pukkinen Official languages Finnish, Swedish Area  - total  - land ranked 311th 245. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki City manager Jussi Pajunen Official languages Finnish, Swedish Area  - total  - land ranked 342nd 185. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State in many Commonwealth countries including the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand, the Bahamas and many more, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is the Lutheran national church of Finland (The Finnish Orthodox Church is also recognized as a state church). ... The Finnish Orthodox Church is the second official national church of Finland, beside the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Joyce Rollins is a lesbian. ... The ruble or rouble (Russian: рубль, plural рубли; see note on spelling below) is the name of the currencies of the Russian Federation and Belarus (and formerly, of the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... The markka or mark was the currency used in Finland from 1861 until January 1, 1999 (in practice on January 1, 2002), when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... The markka or mark was the currency used in Finland from 1861 until January 1, 1999 (in practice on January 1, 2002), when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


History

An extended Finland Proper was made a titulary Grand Duchy (more correctly, Grand Principality) in 1581, when king John III of Sweden, who as a prince had been royal duke of Finland (15561561/63), extended the list of subsidiary titles to the Kings of Sweden considerably. The new title Grand Duke of Finland did not result in any increase of Finnish autonomy. (During the next two centuries, the title was used by some of John's successors on the throne, but not all (e.g. his brother Charles IX used King of the Finns instead). Usually it was just a subsidiary title of the King, used only at very formal occasions. (However, in 1802 as an indication of resolve to keep Finland within Sweden in face of increased Russian pressure, King Gustav IV Adolf gave the title to his new-born son, Prince Carl Gustaf, who died three years later.) Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi in Finnish, Egentliga Finland in Swedish) is a region in south-western Finland. ... A grand duchy is a form of principality, monarchy which has a Grand Duke or a Grand Duchess as head of state. ... Prince Albert of Monaco on the left represents a principality where he wields administrative authority. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... John III (Johan III) (December 23, 1537 - November 27, 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. ... In Sweden, Duke is considered a royal title, and is only given to members of the Royal House (currently Bernadotte). ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... --69. ... Gustav IV Adolf (November 1, 1778 – February 7, 1837), was King of Sweden from 1800 until his abdication in 1809. ...


During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of occupied Finland were assembled at the Diet of Porvoo on March 29, 1809 to pledge allegiance to Alexander I of Russia. Following the Swedish defeat in the war and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on September 17, 1809, Finland became a true autonomous grand duchy as a part of the Russian Empire. For the foundation of the Grand Duchy as an entity with relatively greater autonomy within the Russian realm, and for the regain of the so called Old Finland, that was lost to Russia in the previous century, the Finland-born Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, councillor to the emperor, was instrumental. The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... The Diet of Finland, Suomen valtiopäivät or Finlands Lantdag, was the legislative assembly, and successor to the Riksdag of the Estates, of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Aleksander I Pavlovich Romanov (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (Freden i Fredrikshamn in Swedish and Haminan rauha in Finnish ) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on September 17, 1809. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... A grand duchy is a form of principality, monarchy which has a Grand Duke or a Grand Duchess as head of state. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Old Finland (Vanha Suomi in Finnish) is a name used for the areas that Sweden lost to Russia in the Great Northern War and in the Hats Russian War. ... Count Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt (March 31, 1757 – August 19, 1814) was a Swedish courtier and diplomat. ...


The history of the Grand Duchy can briefly be characterized as:

  • 1809–1862: fifty years of consolidation, during which the Grand Duchy's authorities succeeded in convincing the Russian court of not only their but of all Finns' loyalty
  • 1863–1898: thirty-five years of increased independence, including the re-establishment of the Diet of Finland and the elevation of Finnish from a language for simple people to a national language equal to Swedish
  • 1899–1917: twenty years of attempted russification, although ultimately unsuccessful, nevertheless detrimental for Finland's relationship with the Soviet Union

The Tsar ruled Finland as a constitutional monarch through his governor and a native Senate appointed by him. The country nevertheless enjoyed a high degree of autonomy, until its independence in 1917. In 1917, after the February Revolution in Russia, Finland's government worked towards securing Finland's autonomy in domestic matters and possibly even its increase. On December 6, 1917, shortly after the October Revolution in Russia, Finland declared its independence. Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse was elected the new monarch as king instead of grand duke, marking the new status of the nation, but he never reigned as a republic was proclaimed. The Diet of Finland, Finnish Suomen maapäivät (later valtiopäivät) or Swedish Finlands Lantdag, was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the successor to the Riksdag of the Estates. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... The Finnish declaration of independence was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on December 6, 1917. ... Prince Frederick of Hesse (May 1, 1868 – May 28, 1940), officially Friedrich Karl Ludwig Konstantin, Prinz und Landgraf von Hessen und Brabant (in German), (Frederick Charles Louis Constantin, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse and Brabant), (Fredrik Kaarle or Fredrik Kaarlo in Finnish), (Fredrik Carl in Swedish), (Frederik Carl in Danish... In a broad definition, a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ...


Politics

The Russian Emperor ruled as the Grand Duke of Finland and was represented in Finland by the Governor-General of Finland. The Senate of Finland was the highest governing body of the Grand Duchy. In St. Petersburg Finnish matters were represented by the Finnish Minister Secretary of State. From 1863 and onwards the Diet of Finland convened regulalry. Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... The Governor-General of Finland was the head of the Senate of Finland, the government in the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, between 1808 and 1917. ... The Senate of Finland combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland between 1816 to 1917. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The Minister - Secretary of State for Finland represented Finnish interests in the Imperial Court in Saint Petersburg. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... The Diet of Finland, Finnish Suomen maapäivät (later valtiopäivät) or Swedish Finlands Lantdag, was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the successor to the Riksdag of the Estates. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Finland Download high resolution version (351x753, 170 KB)Edited from former map on article File links The following pages link to this file: Grand Duchy of Finland Categories: Images with unknown copyright status ... The Geography of Finland differs from that of other Nordic countries. ...


Counties

Main article: Counties in Finland The Counties of Finland was the administrative division of Finland from 1634 to 1997. ...


The administrative division introduced during the Swedish era in 1634 was continued with little changes. Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement...

  • Uusimaa County Uudenmaan lääni / Nylands län
  • Häme County Hämeen lääni / Tavastehus län
  • Turku and Pori County Turun ja Porin lääni / Åbo och Björneborgs län
  • Viipuri County Viipurin lääni / Viborgs län
  • Mikkeli County Mikkelin lääni / St. Michels län
  • Kuopio County Kuopion lääni / Kuopio län
  • Vaasa County Vaasan lääni / Vaasa län
  • Oulu County Oulun lääni / Uleåborg län

Åbo and Björneborg County, Åbo och Björneborgs län or Turun ja Porin lääni, was a county of Sweden from 1634 to 1808, named after the cities of Åbo and Björneborg. ... Old Finland (Vanha Suomi in Finnish) is a name used for the areas that Sweden lost to Russia in the Great Northern War and in the Hats Russian War. ...

Heraldry

Main articles: Flag of Finland, Coat of Arms of Finland Flag ratio: 11:18 Flag ratio: 11:18 Flag ratio: 11:19 The Flag of Finland or siniristilippu dates from the beginning of the 20th century, and is modelled on the Danish flag, the Dannebrog. ... The Coat of Arms of Finland were granted at the burial of Gustav Vasa in 1560 and still remain the arms of the Republic of Finland. ...


The arms were granted at the burial of Gustav Vasa in 1560 and still remain the arms of the Republic of Finland. Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ...


In the 1860s talk about a Finnish Flag started in the fennoman movement. In 1863 numerous proposals were presented for a national flag. [1] The two main proposals were flags based on red/yellow and blue/white. Unfortunately the flag proposals never had a chance to be presented to the Diet so none of them ever became an official flag. That didn't stop people from using different designs for flags of their own choosing. // Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... The Fennomans were the most important political movement in the 19th century Grand Duchy of Finland. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... The Diet of Finland, Finnish Suomen maapäivät (later valtiopäivät) or Swedish Finlands Lantdag, was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the successor to the Riksdag of the Estates. ...


Miscellaneous topics

The Diet of Finland, Finnish Suomen maapäivät (later valtiopäivät) or Swedish Finlands Lantdag, was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the successor to the Riksdag of the Estates. ... Between 1809 and 1917 Finland was an autonomous part of the Russian Empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland. ...

See also

Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and Pogoń in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie) was an...

External links

  • The text of The Imperial Manifesto of 1811 in German and Finnish


  Results from FactBites:
 
Grand Duchy of Finland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (763 words)
An extended Finland Proper was made a titulary Grand Duchy (more correctly, Grand Principality) in 1581, when king John III of Sweden, who as a prince had been royal duke of Finland (1556–1561/63), extended the list of subsidiary titles to the Kings of Sweden considerably.
For the foundation of the Grand Duchy as an entity with relatively greater autonomy within the Russian realm, and for the regain of the so called Old Finland, that was lost to Russia in the previous century, the Finland-born Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, councillor to the emperor, was instrumental.
The Russian Emperor ruled as the Grand Duke of Finland and was represented in Finland by the Governor-General of Finland.
Grand duchy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1462 words)
Grand Duchy is the appellation of the territory of a sovereign Grand Duke's territory.
Grand Duke is also the usual and established translation of sovereign Grand Prince in languages which do not have separate words meaning prince for (1) the non-ruling relatives of a monarch, and (2) monarch (sovereign or like) princes.
Grand Duke is also the usual and established translation in English and French of the Russian courtesy title Velikiy Knjaz (grand prince) of Russia, which from 17th century belonged to members of the family of the Russian tsar, although those Grand dukes were not sovereigns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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