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Encyclopedia > Grand Duchy

A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... A Grand Duchess is the wife of a Grand Duke or a woman who rules a Grand Duchy in her own right. ...


The only grand duchy in existence today is Luxembourg. It has been a grand duchy since 1815, when the Netherlands became an independent kingdom and Luxembourg was handed over to the King of the Netherlands, William I. Luxembourg remained a Dutch dominion until 1890, when William III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg, died without leaving a male heir, so that in the Netherlands he was succeeded by a female and in the Luxembourgish Grand Duchy by a distant male cousin, Duke Adolf of Nassau who became HRH Grand Duke Adolphe - an arrangement necessitated by the Salic law being applicable to Luxembourg but not to the Netherlands. The present Grand Duke of Luxembourg is Henri. King William I of the Netherlands, born William Frederik of Orange-Nassau (The Hague, 24 August 1772 - Berlin, 12 December 1843), was the second King of the Netherlands (the first king was Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... William III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis of Orange-Nassau) (Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk van Oranje-Nassau, Koning der Nederlanden en Groothertog van Luxemburg in Dutch) (February 19, 1817 – November 23, 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke... Grand Duke Adolphe of Luxembourg, Adolph Wilhelm August Karl Friedrich of Nassau-Weilburg (July 24, 1817 – November 17, 1905) was the last Duke of Nassau, and the fourth Grand Duke of Luxembourg. ... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy whose Head of State is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (or Grand Duchess of Luxembourg in the exceptional but twice occurred event of the sovereign being female). ... His Royal Highness Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Henri Albért Gabriel Félix Marie Guillaume (born April 6, 1955) is the hereditary ruler of Luxembourg. ...


However there are other houses of Europe that style themselves as Grand Dukes even if not wholly recognised by the rest of society.


The contemporary independent republics of Finland and Lithuania, and the Dutch province Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) have been Grand Duchies during certain eras of their history. Capital Maastricht Queens Commissioner L.J.P.M. (Leon) Frissen Religion (1999) Roman Catholic 80% Protestant 3% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   2,153 km² (9th) 56 km² Population (2005)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 1,135,962 (6th) 528/km² (4th) Inclusion 1839 Anthem In t Bronsgroen Eikenhout ISO NL-LI Official website... The Duchy of Limburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, located between the river Meuse and the city of Aachen. ...

Contents

The title and origins of grand duchies

The title Grand Duke (Latin: Magnus Dux, German: Großherzog, Italian: Gran Duca, French: Grand-Duc, Swedish: Storhertig, Lithuanian:Didysis kunigaikštis, Polish: Wielki książę, Czech: Velkovévoda) ranks in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). Grand Duchy is the appellation of the territory of a sovereign Grand Duke's territory. A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A duke is a nobleman, historically of highest rank and usually controlling a duchy or dukedom. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for the member of the highest aristocracy. ... Fürst (plural Fürsten) is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince; however this translation can be misleading, since a Fürst usually ranks below a Duke. ...


Grand Duke is also the usual and established translation of sovereign Grand Prince in languages which do not have separate words meaning prince for (1) the non-ruling relatives of a monarch, and (2) monarch (sovereign or like) princes. English and French use Grand Duke in this way. Grand Duke is also the usual and established translation in English and French of the Russian courtesy title Velikiy Knjaz (grand prince) of Russia, which from 17th century belonged to members of the family of the Russian tsar, although those Grand dukes were not sovereigns. The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikštis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for the member of the highest aristocracy. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a list of those members of the Russian Imperial Family who bore the title Velikiy Knjaz (usually translated into English as Grand Duke, but more accurately Grand Prince). ...


The title of sovereign Grand Duke and it as translation of Grand Prince thus have clearly different meanings.


Western Grand Dukes and their sovereignties

The proper term of "Grand Duchy" was a later invention, probably originating in Western Europe, to denote lands of a particularly mighty duke, as the duchy had around the end of Middle Ages inflated to belong to rulers of a middle-sized town or a shire or similar relatively small fiefs, instead of the big provinces it once belonged to. See Grand Duke. A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ...


One of the first examples was the unofficial use of Grand Duke by the Dukes of Burgundy during the 15th century, when they ruled a vast tract of modern-day eastern France as well as most of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. The first monarchy ever officially titled "Grand Duchy" was the Medici sovereignty of Tuscany under overlordship of the Holy Roman Emperors. They received the title in 1569. Tuscany remained a grand duchy until 1860, when it was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia as part of Italy's reunification. région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... The Medici coat of arms The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont, with Savoia upper left (pink) and Nizza (Nice) lower left (brown) both now French, and Sardinia in the inset. ...


Expanded use of the term lapsed until the early nineteenth century, when Napoleon used the title "Grand Duchy" for several territories given to his allies. The elevation of these figures to the title of Grand Duke usually accompanied an expansion of their fiefs with additional lands obtained from defeated powers such as Prussia. Though Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo and his vassal territories like the Grand Duchy of Berg were erased from the European map, the representatives assembled at the Congress of Vienna consented to yet more uses of the title by restored dukes and princes, especially for several of those in the lands that had constituted the Holy Roman Empire. As a result, the 19th century saw a new group of monarchies titled Grand Duchy around Central Europe, such as the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt. Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Combatants France Seventh Coalition: Prussia United Kingdom United Netherlands Hannover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte Michel Ney Duke of Wellington Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 dead or wounded; 7,000 Captured... Map of the duchies of Jülich, Cleves, and Berg circa 1477. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ...


At the same time, the courtesy use of the title "Grand Duke" in Russia expanded because of the births of several male dynasts. The new set of grand dukes afforded the Romanovs a respite from the continued issue of the male succession that plagued it during the 18th century.


Within Germany, use of the title expanded after 1815, but its application was not universal. This is somewhat ironic, given that a Burgundian ruler in what were once Germany's western border regions first adopted the title, and considering that it was a German overlord, the Holy Roman Emperor, who first granted the official title to an Italian prince. However, in the German language (which has separate words for royal prince, "Prinz", and for sovereign prince, "Fürst"), the Grand Dukes of Lithuania and historic Russian states, as well as other Eastern European princes and later Russian dynasts, were referred to with the title "Großfürst", a direct translation, rather than using the version "Großherzog".


The title Magnus Dux or Grand Duke (Didysis kunigaikštis in Lithuanian) is said to have been used by the rulers of Lithuania, and after rulers from the Jagiellon dynasty became kings of Poland, it was later found among the titles used by kings of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish kings of the Swedish Vasa dynasty also used this grand princely title for their non-Polish territories. The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ...


Abundance of grand duchies

Between the Napoleonic Wars and World War I there were at least eight grand duchies in Europe: Combatants Allies: Austrian Empire[1] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Prussia[1] Russian Empire[2] Kingdom of Spain[3] Kingdom of Sweden United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[4] French Empire - Kingdom of Holland - Kingdom of Italy - Kingdom of Naples - Duchy of Warsaw - Kingdom of Bavaria[5] - Kingdom of... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


A consirable number of grand duchies were created in the Napoleonic era and later following the Congress of Vienna and the foundation of the Germanic Confederation. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... The German Confederation (German Deutscher Bund) was a loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ...

Today Luxembourg is the only remaining grand duchy. However some old Grand Duchies still retain the titles granted to them usually in the Vienna Convention. Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Berg was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Baden was a territory in the southwest of what later became unified Germany. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Grand Duchy of Poznan coat of arms Grand Duchy of Poznań (Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie, German: Grossherzogtum Posen) was province of Prussia in the Polish lands commonly known as Great Poland between the years 1815-1918. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Vienna can refer to: Geography Vienna - the capital and a federal state of Austria The River Vienna- a small river meeting the Danube at Vienna. ...


Note that a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess as a translation is not necessarily associated with a Grand Duchy; see the relevant articles for more information. The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... A Grand Duchess is the wife of a Grand Duke or a woman who rules a Grand Duchy in her own right. ...


Styles and forms of address

Most often, a reigning Grand Duke was styled Royal Highness. Other members of the families differed in style. Junior members, for example in Hesse-Darmstadt and Baden, generally bore the style of Grand Ducal Highness. For instance, prior to her marriage, Empress Alexandra of Russia was known as "Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine" Ihre Großherzogliche Hoheit Alix Prinzessin von Hessen und bei Rhein). A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... His/Her Grand Ducal Highness (acronym HGDH). ...


The only current grand ducal family in existence, the Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg styles its junior members as Royal Highnesses, but this is due to their alternative status of Princes of Parma (although this title was relinquished in 1995). The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg (House of Nassau-Weilburg, agnatically a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon) consists of the extended family of the sovereign Grand Duke. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Parma (PR) Mayor Elvio Ubaldi (since May 28, 2002) Elevation 55 m Area 260 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 175,789  - Density 676/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Parmigiani (Parmensi are called the provinces inhabitants) Dialing code...


A Russian Grand Duke or Grand Duchess was an Imperial Highness.


Grand Prince

Grand Princes were medieval monarchs who ruled a nation or several tribes, and were usually at the time translated as kings. However, a grand prince was usually only primus inter pares within a dynasty, other princes of the dynasty were approximately as entitled to succession as the then ruler (succession was for example through agnatic seniority or rotation), and often other members of the dynasty ruled parts of the same realm as some sort of "sub-princes". Such was usual in Eastern Europe, for example among Russians and Lithuanians. As the position of current ruler was not as elevated as that of Western kings, they have been treated more like great princes than full kings. Velikiy Kniaz was from the 11th century was at first the title of the leading Prince of Kievan Rus' (head of the Rurikid House), then of several princes of the Rus'. From 1328 the Velikii Kniaz of Muscovy appeared as the Grand Duke for "all of Russia" until Ivan IV of Russia in 1547 was crowned as Tsar. Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... First among equals is a phrase which indicates that a person is the most senior of a group of people sharing the same rank or office. ... In hereditary monarchies, particularly in more ancient or in more underdeveloped times, seniority was a much-used principle of order of succession. ... A sphere rotating around its axis. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz (князь in Russian and Ukrainian; cneaz in Romanian fem. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for the member of the highest aristocracy. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Rurik Dynasty ... Rus’ (Русь, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular but by no means the only theory, took its name from its ruling warrior class with Scandinavian roots. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow – March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Tsar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Crowning (Koronatsiya, or the last of the Romanovs), the historical novel by internationally acclaimed Russian detective story writer Boris Akunin. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...


The title Grand Prince was used in Slavic, Baltic, and Russian, Великий князь The Slavic "knjaz" and the Baltic "kunigaitis" (nowadays usually translated as Prince) is actually a cognate of King. Thus, "Veliki Knjaz" was more like high king than "grand duke".  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ...


An established use of the title was in Grand Duchy of Lithuania (since 14th century) and Grand Duchy of Moscow. The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and Pogoń in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie) was an... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ...


These countries moved slowly towards primogeniture or their rulers obtained another Kingdom, whereby the position of the head of the dynasty became more elevated compared to other dynasts. In such situations, those monarchs assumed a higher title, such as Tsar or sole King. This does not cite its references or sources. ...


The title Grand Prince (which in many of those lands already was in later grand princely epochs awarded simultaneously to several rulers in the more expanded dynasty) continued as a courtesy title for all or several members of the dynasty, such as the Grand Duke of Russia (veliki knjaz) in Russia's imperial era. The title Velikiy Kniaz, finally formalized by Alexander III, was given to sons and grandsons (through male lines) of the Tsars and Emperors of Russia. The daughters and paternal granddaughters of Russian Emperors, as well as the consorts of Russian Grand Dukes, were generally called "Grand Duchesses" in English. This is a list of those members of the Russian Imperial Family who bore the title Velikiy Knjaz (usually translated into English as Grand Duke, but more accurately Grand Prince). ... Kniaz’ or knyaz (князь in Russian and Ukrainian; cneaz in Romanian fem. ...


A more accurate translation of the Russian title would be Great Prince — especially in the pre-Petrine era — but the term is neither standard nor widely used in English. In German, however, a Russian Grand Duke was known as a Großfürst, and in Latin as Magnus Princeps. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


In 1582 king John III of Sweden added Grand Prince of Finland to the subsidiary titles of the Swedish kings, however without any factual consequences, Finland already being a part of the Swedish realm. Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... John III (Johan III) (December 23, 1537 – November 17, 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ...


After the Russian conquests, it continued to be used by the Russian Emperor in his role as ruler of Lithuania (1793-1918) and of Grand Duchy of Finland (1809-1917) as well. The Holy Roman Empire ruling house of Habsburg instituted a similar Grand Principality in Transylvania (Großfürst von Siebenbürgen) in 1765. 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko or Transylvánia, Polish: Siedmiogród) forms the western and central parts of Romania. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The title Didysis kunigaikštis (in Lithuanian) was used by the rulers of Lithuania, and after Jagiello also became kings of Poland and was later found among the titles used by kings of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish kings of the Swedish Vasa dynasty also used the grand princely title for their non-Polish territories. It is said that the Latinized translation of Lithuanian rulers was sometimes Magnus Dux or Grand Duke. The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Grand duchy - definition of Grand duchy in Encyclopedia (363 words)
A grand duchy is a form of principality which has a Grand Duke or a Grand Duchess as head of state.
An early use of the title was in Grand Duchy of Lithuania (since 14th century), Grand Duchy of Moscow, and also in Tuscany, which became a grand duchy in 1569, and remained one until 1860, when it was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia.
Luxembourg remained a Dutch dominion until 1890, when King William III of the Netherlands, who was also Grand Duke Guillaume III of Luxembourg, died without leaving a male heir to the Luxembourgian Grand Duchy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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