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Encyclopedia > Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia
Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna
Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Imperial Russia at right, Czar Nicholas II (center), and their mother (at left).
Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Imperial Russia at right, Czar Nicholas II (center), and their mother (at left).
Incumbency 1882-1948
Predecessor Olga Konstantinovna of Russia
Spouse Colonel Nikolai Alexandrovich Kulikovsky
Issue Tikhon Nikolaevich Kulikovsky
Juri Nikolaevich Kulikovsky
Royal House Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Father Alexander III
Mother Maria Fyodorovna
Born July 13, 1882
Died November 24, 1960
The flag of the House of Romanov
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The flag of the House of Romanov

Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (Russian: О́льга Алекса́ндровна Рома́нова; Olga Alexandrovna Romanova) (June 13, 1882November 24, 1960) was the last Grand Duchess of Imperial Russia under the reign of her elder brother, Czar Nicholas II. Her father was the reformer of 19th century Russia, Alexander III of Russia; her mother the daughter of Christian IX of Denmark, Maria Fyodorovna. Raised at the Gatchina Palace of St. Petersburg, Russia, the young Grand Duchess was closest to her brother, "Misha", Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia. Image File history File links OlgaCards7. ... Image File history File links OlgaCards7. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Olga, Queen of Greece Olga Constantinovna of Russia (in Russian Великая Герцогиня Ольга Константиновна) (3 September 1851 - 18 June 1926), born Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess of Russia, was the queen consort of King George I of Greece and in 1920, Regent of Greece. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced Ro-MAH-nof), the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) III (Russian: Александр III Александрович) (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 – October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian IX of Denmark. ... Insert non-formatted text here July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Image File history File links Romanov_Flag. ... Image File history File links Romanov_Flag. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) III (Russian: Александр III Александрович) (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 – October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian IX of Denmark. ... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаил Александрович Романов), sometimes mistakenly called Tsar Michael II (November 22, 1878 (O.S.) - about June 12, 1918). ...


The Grand Duchess was an accomplished painter and was responsible for the creation of over 2,000 works of art. She was the last direct, remaining heir to the House of Romanov until her death in late 1960. During her incumbency, she was styled, Her Imperial Highness (HIH), Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna Romanov of Imperial Russia. The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


After the downfall of the Romanovs, she, her mother, and other relatives, were imprisoned in the Republic of Crimea. During a political upheaval within the ad interim, revolutionary government, the remaining family escaped to Copenhagen, Denmark. Upon the death of her mother in 1928, the Grand Duchess and her husband, Nikolai Kulikovsky, moved to a farm near Copenhagen. During spring of 1948, the family evacuated to rural Cooksville, Ontario near Toronto, Canada, due to threats from the regime of Josef Stalin in Russia. While she lived in Canada, due to security concerns and for the sake of privacy, she was styled, Olga Alexandrovna Kulikovsky. However, her Canadian descendants have revived the Romanov surname and are now addressed, Kulikovsky-Romanoff. The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Ad interim (ad int) is Latin for temporarily or in the meantime. It also refers to a diplomatic officer who acts in place of an ambassador, as in the term chargé daffaires ad interim. Examples from classic literature: No; but she has become queen of Paris, ad interim, and... This article needs cleanup. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Cooksville The former town of Cooksville was amalgamated into the City of Mississauga in 1967. ... (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...

Contents


Early life

Born on June 13, 1882 in Peterhof, Russia, she was the youngest daughter of Tsar Alexander III and his spouse, Empress Maria Fyodorovna, formerly Princess Dagmar of Denmark. Because she was born during her father's reign, she is described as a porphyrogenite child, a Greek term used in the Russian Orthodox Church. The Grand Duchess was raised at Gatchina Palace, within the environs of the Imperial Palaces of St. Petersburg, Russia. The Gatchina was her childhood home and throughout her life the Grand Duchess would reflect on those memories as the "best" time of her life.[1] However, Olga Alexandrovna and her siblings were not accustomed to a lavish early lifestyle, as modest, Spartan living and the strictest of discipline was required by their tutors, governesses, and parents. The Gatchina Palace Organization's reference best described the living conditions of the young Romanovs: June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Peterhof: the Samson Fountain and Sea Channel Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally Piterhof, Dutch for Peters Court) is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south... Alexander (Aleksandr) III (Russian: Александр III Александрович) (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 - October 13, 1928), who was known as Maria Fyodorovna (in Russian Мария Фёдоровна) after her marriage to Tsar Alexander III was the mother of the last Russian Tsar Nicholas II of the Romanov Dynasty. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... Spartan may refer to: Spartan, an inhabitant of Sparta, a city in ancient (and modern) Greece Spartan, the supposed qualities of those inhabitants: ascetic, simple, and self-disciplined Spartan, a 2004 movie by David Mamet The Spartan II class of supersoldiers in the Halo video games, named for the Spartans... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...

   
The magnificence of the imperial suites did not, however, trickle down to the children's quarters. The Tsar's children slept on a firm bed with a hard, flat pillow and a very narrow mattress. A modest rug covered the floor. Straight-backed wicker chairs, the most ordinary of tables and bookshelves, needlework and toys, made up the only furnishings. A single precious object sat in the beautiful corner (icon corner): a silver-framed icon of the Blessed Mother of God, studded with pearls and other precious stones.[1]
   
Breakfast in the Children's Room (1898), drawing by the Grand Duchess at the age of 16
Breakfast in the Children's Room (1898), drawing by the Grand Duchess at the age of 16

Many of these implementations were commenced by the chidrens' fraternal grandmother, Marie of Hesse and by Rhine, whom also introduced English customs to the Russian court, including the obligatory cold water bath in the morning, oatmeal porridge for breakfast, and an essential fresh air constitutional. The education system taught to the Grand Duchess and her siblings was one of highest educational standards. Royal tutors taught in depth the core subjects, such as the Russian language, Literature, Mathematics, History, and Languages. Although her siblings were taught in the same room, the "Children's" room (above right), her older brother, Nicholas, was being taught a different level of skills. The customary and traditional skills Nicholas was required to learn as Heir Apparent to the Throne were more urgent and necessary to learn than the lessons the other siblings were taught. Physical activities such as Equestrianism were also taught at an early age, eventually making the young Romanovs riding experts. Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Image File history File links Childrensroom. ... Image File history File links Childrensroom. ... Marie of Hesse Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and the Rhine (8 August 1824-8 June 1880) was a princess of Grand Ducal Hesse and, as Marie Alexandrovna, Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... A court is an official, public forum which a sovereign establishes by lawful authority to adjudicate disputes, and to dispense civil, labour, administrative and criminal justice under the law. ... Russian (Russian: русский язык, russkiy yazyk, ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Euclid, a famous Greek mathematician known as the father of geometry, is shown here in detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... For other senses of this word, see history (disambiguation). ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... A junior horse riding event at the Melbourne Show Equestrianism relates to the riding of horses. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...

The Grand Duchess in her early years at the Gatchina Palace in St. Petersburg, Russia
The Grand Duchess in her early years at the Gatchina Palace in St. Petersburg, Russia

The young Grand Duchess vacationed at Olgino, her estate in the province of Voronezh, southwestern Russia. There she practiced and exemplified her faith, the Russian Orthodox Church, by creating religious icons and blessing the village buildings and people. There she painted and drew many of her original works, later to be sold to neighbors and friends in rural Ontario, Canada. Equestrianism, hiking, and swimming were also main activities at Olgino. The Grand Duchess developed a close relationship with the people of the village, adjacent to her estate, but the relationship withered during the events leading to the Russian Revolution. Image File history File links Duchessolgachild. ... Image File history File links Duchessolgachild. ... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... Voronezh (Воро́неж) is a large city in the south of Central Russia, not far from Ukraine. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Christ the Redeemer (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) For other senses of this word, see icon (disambiguation). ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (French has some legal status but is not fully co-official) Flower White trillium Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats... A junior horse riding event at the Melbourne Show Equestrianism relates to the riding of horses. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle_Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Swimming is a technique that humans, and other animals, use to move through water using only movements of the body. ... Russian Revolution can refer to the following events in the history of Russia: The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a series of strikes and anti-government violence against Tsar Nicholas II The Russian Revolution of 1917, which included: February Revolution, which resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia...


The Grand Duchess was described as being indifferent to the fine gemstones and expensive jewellery which remains identifiable with the House of Romanov during the reign of both her brother and father. Throughout her early life, the young Romanov amassed a near priceless collection of gems and jewellery, which were soonafter confiscated by the Russian revolutionaries. The fondness between the Grand Duchess and her father were also a defining chapter in the life of the last reigning Romanov, as the two of them along with her brother, Mikhail, held close relationships. Together, the three proved to be camping enthusiasts and would frequently go on hikes within the Gatchina Palace and the area forests.[2] But on March 14, 1881, the Grand Duchess' father, Alexander III of Russia, died at the untimely age of 49. The emotional impact the young Romanov experienced at the age of only 12 was tragic, as the family began to encounter the political ordeal which quickly ensued. Jewellery (Jewelry in American English) is literally any piece of fine material used to adorn one’s self. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... A Priceless painting. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Car camping is camping in a tent, but nearby the car for easier access and for supply storage Camping is an outdoor recreational activity, in which the campers get away from civilization and enjoy nature by spending one or more nights at a campsite. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle_Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) III (Russian: Александр III Александрович) (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Events Rome Emperor Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the younger (approximate date). ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...


Painter and philanthropist

Village Church in Autumn (1920), watercolor painting by the Grand Duchess
Village Church in Autumn (1920), watercolor painting by the Grand Duchess

The Grand Duchess began drawing and painting at a young age, however, it was not until her later teenage years when her artistic abilities began to prosper. She also had a philanthropist side of her, founding charity programs in the village of Olgino, adjacent to her estate, and improved basic medical and educational options for the local citizenry. She also protected and was the patroness of many charitable organizations and establishments from an early age. She was, for the most part, benefactress to orphanages, hospitals, poorhouses and schools for girls. She gave considerable help to poor, but talented artists, and many destitute Russians sought help from her personally. Her benefaction in rural Olgino sparked many foundations to begin humanitarian support for the poor of the Russian Empire. At Olgino, she subsidized the village school out of her own pocket, established and visited the National Hospital in the village, and continued smaller, but considerable contributions to the most povertous of the regional townships. At the hospital, she learned how to administer medical treatment and proper care of the ill from the local doctor. Through further medical training, the Grand Duchess was able to become a nurse, a capability which would later in life be extremely valuable. The Grand Duchess continued support for the Russian Orthodox Church and the church services held at Olgino. Even at Olgino, she was required to complete her daily educational lessons, which were usually intertwined with drawing or painting. Image File history File links Villageautumn. ... Image File history File links Villageautumn. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... A village is a human residential settlement commonly found in rural areas. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... A region can be any area that has some unifying feature. ... Ill can refer to one of these things: Ill, France is a river north-eastern France Ill, Austria is a river western Austria To be ill: to suffer from an illness or disease Ill (I will) The apostrophe may have been omitted, often found in internet slang. ... It has been suggested that Nursing be merged into this article or section. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ...

Apple Blossoms (1935), the Grand Duchess' painting with a consistent medium of flowers and scenery
Apple Blossoms (1935), the Grand Duchess' painting with a consistent medium of flowers and scenery
   
Even during my geography and arithmetic lessons, I was allowed to sit with a pencil in my hand. I could listen much better when I was drawing corn or wild flowers.[3]
   

Throughout her life, she created a vast collection of artwork developed in Russia, Denmark, and later Canada, which soon amassed to a collection of over 2,000 pieces. In Russia and Denmark, her preferred art medium, scenery and landscape, continued to be prominently depicted in almost every one of her paintings created in Canada. The Grand Duchess also found her paintings to be a profitable source of income, selling many of her works upon completion in Copenhagen, Denmark. The young Romanov also praised the landscape of her Canadian surroundings, expressing them in a series of letters to her Danish friend, Alexandra Mikhailovna Iskra: Image File history File links Appleblossoms. ... Image File history File links Appleblossoms. ... Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Theatrical scenery is things that are used as setting for a theatrical production. ... Photograph of a landscape A landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including physical elements such as landforms, living elements of flora and fauna, abstract elements such as lighting and weather conditions, and human elements, for instance human activity or the built environment. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...

   
It was a wonderful evening, everything smelled so sweet. In the forests, it smelled just like in Russia with the birch and all kinds of trees in bloom. Then, when we were driving by homes and gardens of some friends, we saw them and got out of the car. What a beautiful garden they have! Lily of the valley, lilac and all kinds of plants scented the air. We walked through the gardens surrounding the house and on the other side we saw a deep ravine all covered with forest. We could see far off into the distance.[4]
   

Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ...

Tsarskoye Selo

The Grand Duchess and her then husband, Peter Oldenburg, in 1901
The Grand Duchess and her then husband, Peter Oldenburg, in 1901

At the age of nineteen, on August 9, 1901, the Grand Duchess married into the famed European aristocracy of the House of Oldenburg, marrying Peter Friedrich Georg, Duke of Oldenburg. The matrimony between the two royals was unconsummated, but the union continued and Oldenburg, with his newlywed, was thereafter assigned to live in Tsarskoye Selo, an epic complex of palaces south of St. Petersburg, Russia. The Grand Duchess was very agreeable to the relocation, as her good friend and brother, Nicholas, and his spouse, Alexandra, would be living at the Alexander Palace in close proximity to their own residence. As of 1901, the Grand Duchess was appointed as honorary Commander-in-Chief of the 12th Akhtyrsky Hussar Regiment of the Imperial Russian Forces. The Akhtyrsky Hussar, famous for its coalesced victory over Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Kulm in 1813, is the only Russian force with the right to forever wear the distinguished Brown Doloman uniform. Image File history File links Romanovrussia. ... Image File history File links Romanovrussia. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the continent. ... -1... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ... Marriage is a relationship that plays a key role in the definition of many families. ... Catherine Palace and Park Tsarskoye Selo (Russian: ; may be translated as Tsar’s Village) is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... View of the corps de logis from the cour dhonneur. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... The Battle of Kulm was a battle of the Napoleonic Wars. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In the year 1903, she was introduced to Colonel Nikolai Alexandrovich Kulikovsky by her beloved brother, Mikhail ("Misha"), during a royal military review at Pavlovsk. Soonafter, an open love affair between the Grand Duchess and the Army Colonel emanated. The same year, at the age of 22, she confronted her arranged spouse and asked for an immediate divorce. Her brother, Czar Nicholas II, believed the relationship with Kulikovsky to be a fleeting romance and agreed to allow Divorce within seven years. However, Oldenberg appointed Kulikovsky as an aide-de-camp and allowed him to abide in the same residence of the Grand Duchess on the prestigious Sergievskaya street of Tsarskoye Selo. For those who knew, the relationship between Kulikovsky and the Grand Duchess was a guarded secret, especially from the Romanov family patriarchs. However, many influential members of the family were informed of the secret relationship, yet did nothing to show disapproval. In living at Tsarskoye Selo, the Grand Duchess also became very close with her neices and nephew, the daughters and son of her venerated brother, the Czar. She especially took a liking to the youngest of Nicholas' daughters, Anastasia, whom she and other family members called "Shvibzik" (imp), a mischievous child. 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Pavlovsk (Russian: Павловск) is a town situated in the Leningrad oblast, Russia, 30 km from St. ... Colonel is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... For other uses, see number 22. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse, which can be contrasted with an annulment, which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse, which can be contrasted with an annulment, which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... Catherine Palace and Park Tsarskoye Selo (Russian: ; may be translated as Tsar’s Village) is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Catherine Palace and Park Tsarskoye Selo (Russian: ; may be translated as Tsar’s Village) is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ...

Neoclassical architecture of Tsarskoye Selo
Neoclassical architecture of Tsarskoye Selo

The connection between the four daughters and the Grand Duchess was prized and even to the point of her taking her neices to parties in St. Petersburg. She was deeply trusted by both the Czar and Czarina, a tribute to the previous notion being the Grand Duchess' forays with her neices to the parties and engagements throughout the palaces of St. Petersburg. As the Czar and Empress were considered overly protective parents and trusted few with the care of their children, the future of Russia. Image File history File links Premazzi. ... Image File history File links Premazzi. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


The Akhtyrsky Hussar Regiment, in the summer of 1914, appeared for an Imperial Review by Czar Nicholas II at the Alexander Palace in Tsarskoye Selo. When World War I erupted the same year, Kulikovsky was commissioned to command the regiment at the frontlines in Southwestern Russia. With the Grand Duchess' prior medical knowledge from the village of Olgino, she signed on as a Sister of Charity with her own regiment in Proskurov, Russia. At the same time, internal tentions of Russia began to mount as the revolutionary call grew louder. During the first year of the war, the Grand Duchess came upon heavy Austrian fire. The Sisters of Charity rarely worked so close to the frontlines and consequently the Grand Duchess was awarded the Order of St. George for heroic actions. 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... View of the corps de logis from the cour dhonneur. ... Catherine Palace and Park Tsarskoye Selo (Russian: ; may be translated as Tsar’s Village) is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was... Khmelnytskyi, (Khmelnitsky in Russian, Chmielnicki in Polish, sometimes spelled Khmelnytskyy) is a city in Ukraine. ... The Order of St. ...


The Fall of the House of Romanov

Photograph of the Russian Imperial Family, 1913. Left to right, seated: Grand Duchess Marie Nicholaevna; Tsaritsa Alexandra Feodorovna; Tsarevitch Alexei Nicholaevitch; Tsar Nicholas II; Grand Duchess Anastasia Nicholaevna Standing: Grand Duchess Tatiana, Grand Duchess Olga (named after Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna)
Photograph of the Russian Imperial Family, 1913. Left to right, seated: Grand Duchess Marie Nicholaevna; Tsaritsa Alexandra Feodorovna; Tsarevitch Alexei Nicholaevitch; Tsar Nicholas II; Grand Duchess Anastasia Nicholaevna Standing: Grand Duchess Tatiana, Grand Duchess Olga (named after Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna)

In 1916, Czar Nicholas II officially annulled the marriage between Prince Peter Oldenburg and the Grand Duchess, allowing her to marry Colonel Nikolai Alexandrovich Kulikovsky on November 14, 1916, in the Church of St. Nicholas in Kiev. Among those in attendance were Dowager Empress Maria Fyodorovna, her older sister, Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia, her sister's husband, Grand Duke Alexander "Sandro", the officers of the Akhtyrsky Regiment, and the Sisters of Charity from the hospital in Kiev founded by the Grand Duchess. When Russian revolutionaries began to gather the family of Czar Nicholas II in contained locations, the Dowager Empress, the Grand Duchess Xenia, and the Grand Duchess Olga were also imprisoned, but in a different locale, the Crimea. On February 12, 1917, her first child and son, Tikhon (Tihon) Nikolaevich Kulikovsky was born into the world as a royal prisoner under the Provisional government of Russia. He was named after the local, venerated Saint near the Grand Duchess' estate at Olgino, Tihon of Zadonsk. Due to the communications blackout the entirety of Russia began to experience and because of the material censorship the Grand Duchess was exposed to, little was known of the fate of her brother and family. Nicholas, Alexandra, and their children, were originally held at their official residence, the Alexander Palace, but fearing a counter-revolution, the Provisional government under Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky relocated the Imperial Family to Tobolsk, Siberia. Image File history File links Romanov. ... Image File history File links Romanov. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 – October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian IX of Denmark. ... Grand Duchess Xenia as a young woman. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... A saint is a term to refer to someone who is a holy person. ... View of the corps de logis from the cour dhonneur. ... Alexander Kerensky Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian: , Aleksandr Fëdorovič Kerenskij; May 2 [O.S. April 22] 1881 – June 11, 1970) was a Russian revolutionary leader who was instrumental in toppling the Russian monarchy. ... View of Tobolsk in the 1910s. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ...

Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (left), Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna (center), and Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia (right); at a Russian beach, 1914
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (left), Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna (center), and Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia (right); at a Russian beach, 1914

While in the Crimea, the Grand Duchess' family had been condemned to death by the Sevastopol and Yalta revolutionary councils. During a mild political upheaval between the two factions, the Central Power of Germany advanced on the Crimea, but upon arrival in November of 1918, the German forces were informed of their nation's loss of the war. Shortly after the brief German occupation of the Crimea, the loyalist White Army temporarily restored the area to an intermediate level of safety, allowing the Grand Duchess and her family to escape. George V of England sent the warship HMS Marlborough to retrieve his aunt, the Dowager Empress Maria Fyodorovna and the Grand Duchesses from the unstable Crimea. An agreement was made between the Dowager Empress and George V to evacuate all Russian citizens who wished to go abroad. The communications blackout the family had experienced at the Crimea was relieved by the English sailors aboard the Marlborough. The Grand Duchess was told of her older brother's confirmed assassination and the assumed deaths of her sister-in-law, neices, and nephew. The fate of her childhood confidant and brother, "Misha", Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia, the one-time unofficial Emperor of Imperial Russia, was also uncertain. It was unknown to the Grand Duchess at the time, but the Grand Duke had been assassinated by the Cheka in Perm Krai, Russia on June 12, 1918, motivated by fears of a Romanov return to power. Image File history File links Anaolgaatatia1914. ... Image File history File links Anaolgaatatia1914. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna (1897-1918) Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaievna of Russia (Tatiana Nikolaievna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Татьяна Николаевна) Tanya, Tatya or Tanushka (May 29 (O.S.)/June 10 (N.S.), 1897 - July 17, 1918) was the second daughter of Nicholas II of Russia and Alexandra Fyodorovna of Hesse. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Sevastopol (Ukrainian and Russian: ; Crimean Tatar: ), formerly known as Sebastopol, is a port city in Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimean peninsula. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... King George V King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House... Six warships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Marlborough after the Duke of Marlborough: The second-rate Saint Michael, renamed Marlborough in 1706, fought in the Seven Years War and foundered at sea in 1762. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 – October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian IX of Denmark. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... The term blackout in peacetime refers to a cessation of electrical energy through electric power transmission systems. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаил Александрович Романов), sometimes mistakenly called Tsar Michael II (November 22, 1878 (O.S.) - about June 12, 1918). ... Cheka-KGB emblem: sword and shield The Cheka (ЧК - чрезвычайная комиссия) was the first of many Soviet secret police organizations, created by decree on December 20, 1917 by Vladimir Lenin and led by Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky. ... Perm Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Permyakia Autonomous District. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...

Grand Duchess Olga with her husband, Nikolai, and her new-born son, Tihon, at the Crimea, 1917
Grand Duchess Olga with her husband, Nikolai, and her new-born son, Tihon, at the Crimea, 1917

The Grand Duchess Olga and her husband, Colonel Kulikovsky, refused to leave Russia at that time. The two decided to leave for the Kuban, then still free of Bolsheviks, to the large Cossack village of Novominskaya, where Timofei Yatchik, bodyguard of the Dowager Empress, was from. In a rented farmhouse around the Spring of 1919, their second son, Juri (also spelled Guri), was born. Named after one of the Grand Duchess' close friends during World War I, Gury Panayev, a proclaimed battle hero who had fallen in 1914 serving in the Akhtyrsky Regiment. Soon after the birth of her second son, inner circles of the monarchist White Army approached the Grand Duchess with offers to officially coronate her as Empress of Imperial Russia, however, she declined. With the Grand Duchess Olga being the last Heir Apparent to the Imperial Throne in Russia, she immediately became targeted by the expedient Red Army. The family set out on what would be their last journey through Russia, they escaped to Rostov-on-Don, taking refuge in the residence of the Danish Consul, Thomas Nikolaevich Schutte, who informed them of the Dowager Empress' safe arrival in Denmark. After a brief stay with the Danish consul, the family then escaped to the island of Büyükada in the Dardanelles Strait near Istanbul, Turkey. Evacuating next to Belgrade in the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs where she was visited by Regent Alexander Karageorgevich, later to become Alexander I of Yugoslavia. The Regent recommended that the Grand Duchess and her family permanently live on one of the royal estates of the former Austro-Hungarian territory, while the Dowager Empress immediately summoned her daughter to live on her royal estate in Denmark. The Grand Duchess immediately complied and the family relocated once again to Denmark. Sadly, the Dowager Empress, Maria Fyodorovna, died there shortly after on October 13, 1928. Image File history File links Romanovfamily. ... Image File history File links Romanovfamily. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Kuban (Russian: ) is a region of Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between Ukraine and the Caucasus. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Look up spring in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Central market and Church in Rostov. ... Consul (abbrev. ... Büyüd Ada (Big Island - Pringipos, Πρίγκιπος in Greek) is the largest of the nine islands consisting the Princes Islands in the Marmara Sea, close to Istanbul. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανελλια), formerly known as the Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд/Beograd ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Serbia. ... Flag of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Croatian: Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba, Serbian: Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba or Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба, Slovenian: Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a short-lived state formed from the southernmost parts of the... Aleksandar I KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević King Alexander I of Yugoslavia also called King Alexander Unificator (Serbian Kralj Aleksandar I KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević, in Cyrillic Краљ Александар I Карађорђевић) (Cetinje, Montenegro, 16 December 1888 – Marseille, France, 9 October 1934) of the Royal House of KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević was the first king of the Kingdom... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts as head of state, especially if not the monarch (who has higher titles). ... Estate may refer to: Estate (law), a term used in common law to signify the total of a persons property, entitlements and obligations Immovable Property, Real Estate or Real Property Estate (house) may mean the grounds surrounding any very large property, such as a country house or mansion Estate... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 – October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian IX of Denmark. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Danish residency and exodus

Knuds-Minde Farm, Denmark, 1930s
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Knuds-Minde Farm, Denmark, 1930s

The Grand Duchess and her family left the Royal Estate of her late mother, moving to Knuds-Minde Farm, several miles outside of Copenhagen, Denmark. Her farm-estate became the center of the Russian monarchist community in Denmark and the place of visitation for many Russian emmigrants. She maintained a high level of correspondence with officers of the Equipage of the Guard, escorts, cuirassiers, members of the Akhtyrsky Regiment, Rifles of the Imperial Family, and the Danish monarchy, her cousins. She began to sell her collection of art from her childhood in Russia, with exhibition auctions in Copenhagen, London, Paris, and Berlin. A portion of the net income the Grand Duchess received from the auctions were donated to various Russian charities. Image File history File links Knuds-minde. ... Image File history File links Knuds-minde. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Immigration. ... Cuirassiers were mounted cavalry soldiers equipped with armor and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... Copenhagen (IPA: , rhyming with pagan (the way the Danes themselves pronounce the capitals name when saying it in English), or , with a as in spa; Danish IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city (metropolitan population 1,115,035 (2006)), at present made up of... London is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom, and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur Tossed by the waves, she does not founder Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ...


On April 9, 1940, neutral Denmark was invaded by Nazi Germany and consequently became an occupied country throughout World War II. Food shortages, communication censorship, and transportation closures resulted in a large group of povertous Danes. Her sons, Tikhon and Juri, served as officers in the Danish Army before Denmark was invaded, and because of this the two Romanovs were imprisoned in a more liberal form of concentration camp. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United States United Kingdom and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Commanders Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry S. Truman Winston Churchill Adolf Hitler Hideki Tojo Benito Mussolini Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military... The Royal Danish Army is the army of Denmark. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ...

Royal Danish Guard (1935). The Grand Duchess' painting of a patrolling guard in the Danish Forces
Royal Danish Guard (1935). The Grand Duchess' painting of a patrolling guard in the Danish Forces

The Romanovs luck changed for the better on May 5, 1945, when Nazi Germany surrendered to The Netherlands, Denmark and Northern Germany. When the economic condition of Denmark refused to improve, General Pyotr Krasnov wrote to the Grand Duchess, detailing the povertous conditions inflicting poor citizens of Russia and Russian immigrants living in Denmark. She immediately corresponded with Prince Axel of Denmark concerning the economic struggle of Russia and he promised to send aid to the poor of Russia, especially the Cossacks. Image File history File links Royaldanishguard. ... Image File history File links Royaldanishguard. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Ataman Pyotr Krasnov Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Петр Николаевич Краснов in Russian) (September 22 (10 O.S.), 1869 — January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counterrevolutionary White movement afterwards. ... Look up Aid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Stalin-controlled Russia proved to be a dangerous neighbor to the Romanov family as a letter was sent to the Danish government accusing the Grand Duchess and a Danish Catholic bishop of conspiracy against the new Soviet government. When Soviet troops built up near the border of Denmark and the possibility of an assassination-attempt against the Romanovs grew, the Grand Duchess decided to evacuate the family to a farm in rural Campbellville, Ontario, Canada. (Russian: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), also spelled Josef Stalin, was the leader (Premier) of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... Look up Conspiracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Conspiracy, as a legal term, is an agreement of two or more people either to commit a crime or to achieve a lawful end by unlawful means: see conspiracy (crime), and conspiracy (civil). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Campbellville, Ontario, Canada is a village in Nassagayewa Township in the Town of Milton, Halton Region on the Niagara Escarpment and is a tourist destination for residents of the Greater Toronto Area. ...


The interview with Anna Anderson

In 1920, Anna Anderson, also known as Anastasia Manahan, jumped into the icy waters of the Landwehr Canal in Berlin, Germany in an assumed suicidal attempt. While the details remain sketchy and at the very least controversial, the 20-year old asserted she was in Berlin to inform Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine (cousin of Czar Nicholas II) of her survival. Shortly after, Anderson was released from a Berlin area mental hospital, and was sent a series of questions from the son of Princess Irene, Sigismund, that only the real Anastasia could possibly know. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). ... Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine (11 July 1866-11 November 1953) was the third child and third daughter of Princess Alice of the United Kingdom and Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...

Anna Anderson
Anna Anderson

Oddly, Anderson answered every question correctly and gained reserved support from relatives of the Romanov family, while others influential to the case strongly opposed Anderson's claim. Finally, in 1925, after many forensic experts, Romanov family friends, tutors, and doctors made clear their conflicting opinions, Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna travelled in secrecy to interview for herself the recently hospitalized Anderson. After initial acceptance of Anderson as her neice, the Grand Duchess and Anastasia's former childhood tutor, Pierre Gilliard, denounced her as a fraud. However, prior to the Grand Duchess' visit, many letters were exchanged between the two women and in some way Anderson somewhat convinced her self-proclaimed aunt that she was in fact, Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia. The Grand Duchess even sent two gifts to Anderson at the Berlin hospital: a personal family album and a knitted shawl. Even though the Grand Duchess and many who personally knew Anastasia disbelieved Anderson's claims, others with close relationships to her heralded that Anderson was in absolute fact, Grand Duchess Anastasia, continually fueling the conspiracy of Anastasia's presumed assassination or possible escape. Image File history File links Annaan. ... Image File history File links Annaan. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... // English secondary schools In English Secondary Schools the Form Tutor is similar to an American Home Room Teacher. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Assassination is the deliberate killing of an important person, usually a political figure or other strategically important individual. ...


The End of Imperial Russia

The Last Grand Duchess, one of the the last photos taken of her, Canada
The Last Grand Duchess, one of the the last photos taken of her, Canada

When the farm became a hassle for the aging Romanov and her husband, the family moved to Cooksville, Ontario, Canada, a small suburb of Toronto. Neighbors and visitors to the region took interest in the rumors of the Last Romanov living in Canada, and visited her often. Foreign dignitaries and royal family members also frequently visited the Kulikovsky-Romanoffs in Cooksville. Such visitors included Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent, the daughter of Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia who evacuated to Athens, Greece before the Revolution. Other notable guests included Princess Tatiana Konstantinovna of Russia, His Highness Prince Vassily Alexandrovich, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, and his wife, Edwina Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma. One of the more grander visitations occurred when Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and Charles, Prince of Wales visited the Grand Duchess, her husband, and sons. The Queen later invited the Kulikovsky-Romanoff family to vacation aboard HMY Britannia, the Royal Yacht. In 1951, former officers and members of the famed Akhtyrsky Regiment gathered at the home of the Grand Duchess to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the founding of the Royal Regiment. Thereafter, she became the patroness of the Association of Russian Cadets of Toronto. Image File history File links Romanov82. ... Image File history File links Romanov82. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Cooksville The former town of Cooksville was amalgamated into the City of Mississauga in 1967. ... Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... HRH Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent (née Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark), (13 December 1906 - 27 August 1968) was a member of the British Royal Family; the wife of Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George V and Queen... Her Imperial Highness the Grand Duchess Helena Vladimirovna of Russia (Her Imperial & Royal Highness the Princess Nicholas of Greece & Denmark) was born on the 17 January 1882 at Tsarskoie Selo and Died 8 February 1938, in Athens. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Princess Tatiana of Russia be merged into this article or section. ... Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, KStJ, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Honourable Edwina Cynthia Annette Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma, CI, GBE, DCVO (28 November 1901 – 21 February 1960) was an English heiress, socialite, relief-worker and the wife of the 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor) (born 21 April 1926) is Queen of 16 independent nations known as the Commonwealth Realms. ... The Duke of Edinburgh The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten, formerly Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark) (born 10 June 1921, Greece) is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... HM Yacht Britannia was the 83rd Royal Yacht since the restoration of King Charles II in 1660. ... Britannia HM Yacht Britannia was the 83rd Royal Yacht since the restoration of King Charles II in 1660 (Charles II himself had 25 Royal Yachts, while five were simultaneously in service in 1831). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ...


When her husband died in 1958, she moved to an apartment above a hairdressing salon in Toronto where she died on November 24, 1960, at the age of 78. The Grand Duchess is interred next to her husband in York Cemetery, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The funeral for the last Grand Duchess of Russia was attended by numerous Russian immigrants to Canada who arranged a dignified guard of honor. Newspapers described her death as The End of Imperial Russia and the entirety of the Romanov family gathered to pay their respects to the last Grand Duchess. 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... For other uses, see number 78. ... York Cemetery is a cemetery located in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...


Legacy

The Russian Orthodox monument to memorialize the last Grand Duchess of Imperial Russia in York Cemetery, Toronto.
The Russian Orthodox monument to memorialize the last Grand Duchess of Imperial Russia in York Cemetery, Toronto.

Far before the Grand Duchess died, her philanthropic tradition, which began at her estate in Olgino, sparked the birth of numerous humanitarian missions. Through agreements with her relatives, the monarchs of neighboring countries, she was able to provide support for thousands of Russian refugees fleeing the conflict of the Russian revolution, World War I, and eventually World War II. Her level of benefaction surpassed the contributing attempts of her ancestors, but the tradition to contribute was passed to her descendants. The Russian Relief Program was founded in honor of the late Grand Duchess, organized by her grandchildren and great-grandchildren. The Program has written agreements with many of Europe's monarchies to continue a high level of contribution to the poor of Russia and the outerlying Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The Grand Duchess, Olga Alexandrovna Romanov, was presumably the most notable and powerful of Russia's great benefactors, with a legacy of philanthropy that continues to this day. Image File history File links Romanovmemorial. ... Image File history File links Romanovmemorial. ... York Cemetery is a cemetery located in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United States United Kingdom and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Commanders Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry S. Truman Winston Churchill Adolf Hitler Hideki Tojo Benito Mussolini Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... CIS is an abbreviation of: Commonwealth of Independent States Canadian Interuniversity Sport Contact Image Sensor CompuServe Information Service Chinese International School Confederacy of Independent Systems (Star Wars) Continuous injection system Communication Information Services Card Information Structure Cisalpino See also uses of the word cis. ...


Family members

Siblings—the children of Alexander III and Maria Fyodorovna

The father and mother of the Grand Duchess Olga: Alexander III of Russia and Maria Fyodorovna.
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The father and mother of the Grand Duchess Olga: Alexander III of Russia and Maria Fyodorovna.
  • Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia (1875-1960), the first daughter of the family and wife of Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich Romanov, a grandson of Nicholas I of Russia. Her family, with seven children, resided in England and ensured the Romanovs' namesake's survival through a long line of grandchildren and great-grandchildren which live in England to this day.
  • Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia (1878-1918), the fourth and last son of the family. Mikhail ("Misha"), was the childhood confidant of Grand Duchess Olga and remained so until his death. Mikhail, upon the abdication of his older brother, Nicholas, unofficially became the Czar of Imperial Russia, but never ruled. On June 12, 1918, he was assassinated along with his secretary by the Cheka in Perm Krai, Russia.
  • Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (1882-1960)

Nicholas II of Russia (6 May (O.S.)/18 May (N.S.) 1868 – 17 July 1918) (Russian: , Nikolaj II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch as a young man in the early 1890s. ... Tuberculosis (commonly abbreviated as TB) is an infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (Miliary tuberculosis), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Image File history File links Alexander-Maria. ... Image File history File links Alexander-Maria. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) III (Russian: Александр III Александрович) (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 – October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian IX of Denmark. ... Grand Duchess Xenia as a young woman. ... Nicholas I of Russia (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855 and king of Poland from 1825 until 1831. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаил Александрович Романов), sometimes mistakenly called Tsar Michael II (November 22, 1878 (O.S.) - about June 12, 1918). ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Cheka-KGB emblem: sword and shield The Cheka (ЧК - чрезвычайная комиссия) was the first of many Soviet secret police organizations, created by decree on December 20, 1917 by Vladimir Lenin and led by Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky. ... Perm Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Permyakia Autonomous District. ...

Grandparents of the Grand Duchess

Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevitch (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born April 17, 1818 in Moscow; died March 13, 1881 in St. ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Marie of Hesse Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and the Rhine (8 August 1824-8 June 1880) was a princess of Grand Ducal Hesse and, as Marie Alexandrovna, Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philipp of Hesse. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevitch (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born April 17, 1818 in Moscow; died March 13, 1881 in St. ... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Frederick V, painting by Carl Gustaf Pilo Statue of Frederick V in the center of Amalienborg by Jacques François Joseph Saly Frederick V (March 31, 1723 – January 13, 1766) was king of Denmark and Norway from 1746, son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalen of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor (formerly known as the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha). ... Louise of Hesse-Cassel, Luise Wilhelmine Friederike Caroline Auguste Julie von Hessen-Kassel (in Danish, Louise Wilhelmine Frederikke Caroline Auguste Julie), b Kassel 7 Sep 1817, d Bernstorff 29 Sep 1898, was a daughter of ancient German princely family, the Landgraves of Hesse, and became Queen of Denmark, being the... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ...

See also

Alexander (Aleksandr) III (Russian: Александр III Александрович) (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 - October 13, 1928), who was known as Maria Fyodorovna (in Russian Мария Фёдоровна) after her marriage to Tsar Alexander III was the mother of the last Russian Tsar Nicholas II of the Romanov Dynasty. ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of...

References

  • The Home of the Last Tsar. (2004). "Biographies." Official Wesbite of the Alexander Palace Organization.
  • Vorres, Ian. The Last Grand Duchess: Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna. Charles Scribners and Sons. New York. 1964.
  • Pleshakov, Konstantin. The Flight of the Romanov: A Family Saga. Basic Books. New York. 1999.
  • Uncredited. The Long Sunset: The Life of Olga Alexandrovna, 'The Last Grand Duchess of Russia'. European Royal History Journal. Issue XVI. 20-25. 2000.
  • Uncredited. The Long Sunset: The Life of Olga Alexandrovna, 'The Last Grand Duchess of Russia' Conclusion. Issue XVIII. 30-34. 2000.
  • Gatchina through the Centuries Magazine. (2002). "The Unfading Light of Charity". Official Website of the Russian Relief Foundation.
  • Ian Vorres. (2000). "After the splendor... The Art of the Last Romanov Grand Duchess of Russia". Official Website of Ian Vorres and Romanov writers.
  • Massie, K. Robert. Nicholas and Alexandra. Atheneum. New York. 1967.
  • Glint of Gold Organization. (2003). "Olga Biography". Organization dedicated to information of past Monarchies and Empires.
  • Descendants. (2001). "Descendants of the Grand Duchess". Lineage of the Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna.
  • Information on family members and Anna Anderson retrieved from Wikipedia.

Wikipedia (IPA: , or , else ) is a Web-based free-content multilingual encyclopedia project. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Atchison, Bob (2004). Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna (HTML). Retrieved on 2006-07-20.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Grand Duchess Olga of Russia (612 words)
Grand Duchess Olga Nicolaievna of Russia, Olga Nicolaievna Romanova (November 15, 1895 - July 16, 1918) was the eldest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, Olga was extremely intelligent and a difficult child.
Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia, Olga Alexandrovna Romanova (June 13, 1882 - November 24, 1960) was a Grand Duchess of Russia during its Imperial Era and was the younger sister of murdered Russian Tsar Nicholas II.
Born on June 13, 1882 in Alexandria Palace, Peterhof, Russia, she was the youngest daughter of Tsar Alexander III and Maria Fyodorovna of Denmark.
Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia at AllExperts (589 words)
She was the oldest sister of the Grand Duchesses Tatiana, Maria, and Anastasia of Russia, and of Tsarevich Alexei of Russia.
Her godparents were The King of Denmark, The Grand Duke of Hesse, Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, The Dowager Empress of Russia, The Queen of England, The Empress of Germany, The Queen of Greece, and Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia.
Olga was murdured by military commissar Peter Ermakov by a single gun shot that broke her jaw and ripped through her brain.
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