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Encyclopedia > Gramophone record
A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above)
A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above)
Two 7" singles (left), two colored 7" singles (middle), and two 7" singles with large spindle holes (right).

A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound storage medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove starting near the periphery and ending near the center of the disc. Gramophone records were the primary medium used for commercial music reproduction for most of the 20th century. They replaced the phonograph cylinder as the most popular recording medium in the 1900s, and although they were supplanted in popularity in the late 1980s by digital media, they continue to be manufactured and sold as of 2007. Gramophone records remain the medium of choice for some audiophiles, and specialist areas such as electronica. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gramophone record. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1004x684, 91 KB) Summary A 12 record, a 7″ record, and a CD-ROM. Un disque 30cm, un disque 17cm et un CD-ROM Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Talk:Please Please Me Talk:Bookends Talk... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1004x684, 91 KB) Summary A 12 record, a 7″ record, and a CD-ROM. Un disque 30cm, un disque 17cm et un CD-ROM Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Talk:Please Please Me Talk:Bookends Talk... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 487 pixels Full resolution (928 × 565 pixel, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) My records. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 487 pixels Full resolution (928 × 565 pixel, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) My records. ... An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... The terms storage (U.K.) or memory (U.S.) refer to the parts of a digital computer that retain physical state (data) for some interval of time, possibly even after electrical power to the computer is turned off. ... A disk or disc may be: Look up disc, disk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The earliest method of recording and reproducing sound was on phonograph cylinders. ... Digital audio comprises audio signals stored in a digital format. ... An audiophile, from Latin audire[1] to hear and Greek philos[2] loving, can be generally defined as a person dedicated to achieving high fidelity in the recording and playback of music . ... Electronica refers to a wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses, including foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music for other activities; but unlike electronic dance music, is not specifically focused on the dance floor. ...


The terms LP record (LP, 33, or 33⅓ rpm record), EP, 16⅔ rpm record (16), 45 rpm record (45), and 78 rpm record (78) each refer to specific types of gramophone records. Except for the LP and EP (which are acronyms for Long Play and Extended Play respectively), these type designations refer to their rotational speeds in revolutions per minute (rpm). LPs, 45s, and 16s are usually made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and hence may be referred to as vinyl records or simply vinyl. An LP Long playing (LP), either 10 or 12-inch diameter, 33 rpm (actually 33. ... // Extended play (EP) is the name typically given to vinyl records or CDs which contain more than one single but are too short to qualify as albums. ... For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ...

Contents

History

Early history

Edison cylinder phonograph ca. 1899
Edison cylinder phonograph ca. 1899
A 10-inch gramophone blank for self recording with 78 rpm, 1948, brand as material "Decelith" with special surface for hardening
A 10-inch gramophone blank for self recording with 78 rpm, 1948, brand as material "Decelith" with special surface for hardening

A device utilizing a vibrating pen to graphically represent sound on discs of paper, without the idea of playing it back in any manner, was described by Charles Cros of France in 1877, but never built. In 1877, Thomas Edison independently built the first working phonograph, a tinfoil cylinder machine, intending to use it as a voice recording medium, typically for office dictation. The phonograph cylinder dominated the recorded sound market beginning in the 1880s. Lateral-cut disc records were invented by Emile Berliner in 1888 and were used exclusively in toys until 1894, when Berliner began marketing disc records under the Berliner Gramophone label. The Edison "Blue Amberol" cylinder was introduced in 1912, with a longer playing time of around 4 minutes (at 160 rpm) and a more resilient playing surface than its wax predecessor, but the format was doomed due to the difficulty of reproducing recordings. By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity. Disc records would dominate the market until they were supplanted by the Compact Disc, starting from the 1980s. Production of Amberol cylinders ceased in the late 1920s. Edison cylinder phonograph, from de wikipedia GFDL according to de wikipedia. ... Edison cylinder phonograph, from de wikipedia GFDL according to de wikipedia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 708 pixel, file size: 447 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Template:Ccs-by-2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 708 pixel, file size: 447 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Template:Ccs-by-2. ... Charles Cros (October 1, 1842 - August 9, 1888) was a French poet and inventor. ... “Edison” redirects here. ... The earliest method of recording and reproducing sound was on phonograph cylinders. ... Emile Berliner with disc record gramophone. ... 1897 Berliner Gramophone Record by George W. Johnson A more detailed description of this record Berliner Gramophone was an early record label, the first company to produce disc gramophone records (as opposed to the earlier phonograph cylinder records). ... CD redirects here. ...


Materials

Early disc records were made of various materials including hard rubber. From 1897 onwards, earlier materials were largely replaced by a rather brittle formula of 25% "shellac" (a material obtained from the secretion of a southeast Asian beetle), a filler of a cotton compound similar to manila paper, powdered slate, and a small amount of a wax lubricant. The mass production of shellac records began in 1898 in Hanover, Germany. Shellac records were the most common until the 1950s. Unbreakable records, usually of celluloid (an early form of plastic) on a pasteboard base, were made from 1904 onwards, but they suffered from an exceptionally high level of surface noise. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up shellac in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A strong paper or thin cardboard with a smooth finish, usually buff in color, made from Manila hemp or wood fibers similar to it. ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ... The clipboard is a software program that is used for short-term storage of data as it is transferred between documents or applications, via copy and paste operations. ...


In the 1890s the early recording formats of discs were usually seven inches (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter. By 1910 the 10-inch (25.4cm) record was by far the most popular standard, holding about three minutes of music or entertainment on a side. From 1903 onwards, 12-inch records (30.5cm) were also commercially sold, mostly of classical music or operatic selections, with four to five minutes of music per side. Historically there have beem hundreds of recording media and formats. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an event, performance, or activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although, for example, in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ...


Such records were usually sold separately, in plain paper or cardboard sleeves that may have been printed to show the producer or the retailer's name and, starting in the 1930s, in collections held in paper sleeves in a cardboard or leather book, similar to a photograph album, and called record albums. Empty record albums were also sold that customers could use to store their records in. Cardboard is a generic non-specific term for a heavy duty paper based product. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ...


While a 78 rpm record is brittle and relatively easily broken, both the microgroove LP 33⅓ rpm record and the 45 rpm single records are made from vinyl plastic that is flexible and unbreakable in normal use. However, the vinyl records are easier to scratch or gouge, and much more prone to warpage. 78s come in a variety of sizes, the most common being 10 inches (25 cm), and 12 inches (30 cm) in diameter (sometimes 6–8 inches in the UK), and these were originally sold in either paper or card covers, generally with a circular cutout allowing the record label to be seen. The Long-Playing records (LPs) usually come in a paper sleeve within a colour printed card jacket which also provides a track listing. 45 rpm singles and EPs (Extended Play) are of a 7-inch (17.5 cm) diameter, the earlier copies being sold in paper covers. For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ...


In 1930, RCA Victor launched the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as "Program Transcription" discs. These revolutionary discs were designed for playback at 33⅓ rpm and pressed on a 30 cm diameter flexible plastic disc. In Roland Gelatt's book The Fabulous Phonograph, the author notes that RCA Victor's early introduction of a long-play disc was a commercial failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, reliable consumer playback equipment and consumer wariness during the Great Depression.[1] RCA Records is one of the flagship labels of Sony BMG Music Entertainment. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


However, vinyl's lower surface noise level than shellac was not forgotten, nor was its durability. In the late 30's, radio commercials and prerecorded radio programs being sent to disc jockeys started being stamped in vinyl, so they would not break in the mail. In the mid-40's, special DJ copies of records started being made of vinyl also, for the same reason. These were all 78 RPM. During and after World War II when shellac supplies were extremely limited, some 78 rpm records were pressed in vinyl instead of shellac (wax), particularly the six-minute 12" (30 cm) 78 rpm records produced by V-Disc for distribution to US troops in World War II. In the 40's, radio transcriptions, which were usually on 16 inch records, but sometimes 12 inch, were always made of vinyl, but cut at 33 1/3 rpm. Shorter transcriptions were often cut at 78 rpm. Look up shellac in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A radio commercial (often called an advert in the United Kingdom) is a form of advertising in which goods, services, organizations, ideas, etc. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... V-Disc was a record label produced during the World War II era by special arrangement between the United States government and various private U.S. record companies. ...


Beginning in 1939, Columbia Records continued development of this technology. Dr. Peter Goldmark and his staff undertook exhaustive efforts to address problems of recording and playing back narrow grooves and developing an inexpensive, reliable consumer playback system. In 1948, the 12" (30 cm) Long Play (LP) 33⅓ rpm microgroove record album was introduced by the Columbia Record at a dramatic New York press conference. In 1949, RCA Victor released the first 45 RPM single, 7" in diameter, with a large center hole to accommodate an automatic play mechanism on the changer, so a stack of singles would drop down one record at a time automatically after each play. Early 45 RPM records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene. Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... Peter Carl Goldmark (December 2, 1906 – December 7, 1977) was a Hungarian-born, American engineer who, during his time with Columbia Records, was instrumental in developing the long-playing (LP) microgroove 33-1/3 rpm vinyl phonograph discs which defined home audio for two generations. ... Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... Polystyrene (IPA: ) is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. ...


During the reign of the Communist Party in the former USSR, records were commonly homemade using discarded medical x-rays. These records, nicknamed "Bones", were usually inscribed with illegal copies of popular music banned by the government. They also became a popular means of distribution among Soviet punk bands; in addition to the high cost and low availability of vinyl, punk music was politically suppressed, and publishing outlets were limited. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ...


On a small number of early phonograph systems and radio transcription discs, as well as some entire albums, such as Goodbye Blue and White by Less Than Jake, the direction of the groove is reversed, beginning near the centre of the disc and leading to the outside. A small number of records (such as Jeff Mills' Apollo EP or the Hidden In Plainsight EP from Detroit's Underground Resistance) were manufactured with multiple separate grooves to differentiate the tracks (usually called 'NSC-X2'). X2 was pioneered by Ron Murphy and Heath Brunner from Sound Enterprises (formerly National Sound Corporation), a record mastering company in Detroit. Goodbye Blue and White, album by Less Than Jake I Think I Love You 2:04 Losing Streak 1:56 Mixology of Tom Collins 2:06 Modern World 2:03 Yo-Yo Ninja Boy 1:05 Dopeman (Remix) 2:32 Rock-N-Roll Pizzeria [7 Version) 1:54 Were... Less Than Jake is an American ska punk band from Gainesville, Florida. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Underground Resistance (commonly abbreviated to UR) are a musical collective from Detroit, Michigan, in the United States of America. ... Ronald Ron Murphy (born April 10, 1933 in Hamilton, Ontario) is a retired former professional ice hockey player who played for the New York Rangers, Chicago Black Hawks, Detroit Red Wings and Boston Bruins over the course of an 889-game NHL career. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor...


Speeds

The earliest rotation speeds varied widely. Most records made in 1900–1925 were recorded at 74–82 revolutions per minute (RPM). However a few unusual systems were deployed. The Dutch Philips company introduced records whose rotational speed varied such that the reproducing "needle" ran at a constant linear velocity (CLV) in the groove. These records also, unusually, played from the inside to the outside. Both of these features were to be emulated by the modern day Compact Disc. The London Science Museum displays a Philips record marked as "Speed D". It is one of these CLV disks. For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Constant Linear Velocity (CLV) refers to how information is written to or read from a rotating data disk. ... CD redirects here. ...


In 1925, 78.26 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered synchronous turntable motor. This motor ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio which produced 78.26 rpm. In parts of the world that used 50 Hz current, the standard was 77.92 RPM (3000 rpm with a 38.5:1 ratio), which was also the speed at which a strobe disc with 77 lines would "stand still" in 50 Hz light (92 lines for 60Hz). Thus these records became known as 78s (or "seventy-eights"). This term did not come into use until after World War II when a need developed to distinguish the 78 from other newer disc record formats, an example of a retronym. Earlier they were just called records, or when there was a need to distinguish them from cylinders, disc records. Standard records was also used, although the same term had also been used earlier for two-minute cylinders. Gears on a piece of farm equipment, gear ratio 1:1. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A retronym is a type of neologism coined for an old object or concept whose original name has come to be used for something else, is no longer unique, or is otherwise inappropriate or misleading. ... The earliest method of recording and reproducing sound was on phonograph cylinders. ...

Columbia and RCA's competition extended to equipment. Some turntables included spindle size adapters, but other turntables required snap-in inserts like this one to adapt RCA's larger 45 rpm spindle size to the smaller spindle size available on nearly all turntables.
Columbia and RCA's competition extended to equipment. Some turntables included spindle size adapters, but other turntables required snap-in inserts like this one to adapt RCA's larger 45 rpm spindle size to the smaller spindle size available on nearly all turntables.

After World War II, two new competing formats came on to the market and gradually replaced the standard "78": the 33⅓ rpm (often just referred to as the 33 rpm), and the 45 rpm. The 33⅓ rpm LP (for "long play") format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in 1948. RCA Victor developed the 45 rpm format and marketed it in 1949, in response to Columbia. Both types of new disc used narrower grooves, intended to be played with a smaller stylus—typically 0.001" (25 µm) wide, compared to 0.003" (76 µm) for a 78—so the new records were sometimes called Microgroove. In the mid-1950s all record companies agreed to a common recording standard called RIAA equalization. Prior to the establishment of the standard each company used its own preferred standard, requiring discriminating listeners to use preamplifiers with multiple selectable equalization curves. 45 rpm record insert Image copyright ©2004 by Daniel P. B. Smith and released under the terms of the Wikipedia license. ... 45 rpm record insert Image copyright ©2004 by Daniel P. B. Smith and released under the terms of the Wikipedia license. ... RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... The record industry is the part of the music industry that earns profit by selling sound recordings of music. ... The RIAA equalization curve for playback of vinyl records. ...


A number of recordings were pressed at 16⅔ RPM, but these were mostly used for radio transcription discs or narrated publications for the blind and visually impaired, and were never widely commercially available, although it was common to see turntables with a 16 RPM speed setting produced as late as the 1970s.


The older 78 format continued to be mass produced alongside the newer formats into the 1950s, and in a few countries, such as India, into the 1960s. As late as the 1970s, some children's records were released at the 78 rpm speed.


The commercial rivalry between RCA Victor and Columbia Records led to RCA Victor's introduction of what it had intended to be a competing vinyl format, the 7" (175 mm) /45 rpm disc. For a two-year period from 1948 to 1950, record companies and consumers faced uncertainty over which of these formats would ultimately prevail in what was known as the "War of the Speeds". (See also format war.) A format war describes competition between mutually incompatible data storage devices and recording formats for electronic media, often forcing content publishers to take sides. ...


Eventually the 12" (300 mm) 33⅓ rpm LP prevailed as the predominant format for musical albums, and the 7" (175 mm) 45 rpm disc or "single" established a significant niche for shorter duration discs, typically containing one song on each side. The 45 rpm discs typically emulated the playing time of the former 78 rpm discs, while the LP discs provided up to one half hour of time per side (though typically 15 to 20 minutes). The 45 rpm discs also came in a variety known as Extended play (EP) which achieved up to 10-15 minutes play at the expense of attenuating (and possibly compressing) the sound to reduce the width required by the groove. // Extended play (EP) is the name typically given to vinyl records or CDs which contain more than one single but are too short to qualify as albums. ...


From the mid-1950s through the 1960s, in the U.S. the common home "record player" or "stereo" would typically have had these features: a three- or four-speed player with changer (78, 45, 33⅓, and sometimes 16⅔ rpm); a combination cartridge with both 78 and microgroove styluses; and some kind of adapter for playing the 45s with their larger center hole. The large center hole on 45s allows for easier handling by jukebox mechanisms. RCA 45s can also be adapted to the smaller spindle of an LP player with a plastic snap-in insert known as a "spider"; such inserts were prevalent starting in the 1960s. A Zodiac jukebox A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that can play specially selected songs from self-contained media. ...


Deliberately playing or recording records at the wrong speed was a common amusement. For example, playing the song "I'm on Fire" from Bruce Springsteen's 33⅓ LP at a 45 speed gives the singer a falsetto singing voice that sounds very much like Dolly Parton. Conversely, playing a 45 rpm recording of Dolly Parton at 33⅓ gives her a voice a husky, almost masculine tone. Im on Fire is a song written and performed by American rock singer Bruce Springsteen. ... Springsteen redirects here. ... Falsetto is a singing technique that produces sounds that are pitched higher than the singers normal range, in the treble range. ... Dolly Rebecca Parton (born January 19, 1946) is a Grammy-winning and Academy Award-nominated American country singer, songwriter, composer, musician, author, actress, and philanthropist. ...


This effect was used in 1966 by Cork Marcheschi of California group the Ethix (and later of Fifty Foot Hose), who issued an experimental single, "Bad Trip", which could be played at any speed. Canadian musician Nash the Slash also took advantage of this speed/tonal effect with his 1981 12" disc Decomposing, which featured four instrumental tracks that were engineered to play at any speed (with the playing times listed for 33⅓, 45 and 78 rpm playback). Faster playback made the tracks sound like punk rock or power pop, while slower speeds gave the songs a thick, heavy metal effect. Cauldron album cover Fifty Foot Hose were a psychedelic rock band that formed in San Fransisco in the late 1960s. ... Nash the Slash Nash the Slash is a Canadian progressive rock, classical, and alternative musician. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Power pop is a long-standing musical genre that draws its inspiration from 1960s British and American pop music. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ...


Sound enhancements

In 1958 the first stereo two-channel records were issued—by Audio Fidelity in the USA and Pye in Britain, using the Westrex "45/45" single-groove system. While the stylus moves horizontally when reproducing a monophonic disk recording, on stereo records the stylus moves vertically as well as horizontally. Label for 2. ... Company Masthead Logo Logo until circa 1969, also current logo on company web site Logo 1969-1983 Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was a U.S. electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995 . ...

rill with sound only on left channel
rill with sound only on left channel

One could envision a system in which the left channel was recorded laterally, as on a monophonic recording, with the right channel information recorded with a "hill-and-dale" vertical motion; such systems were proposed but not adopted, due to their incompatibility with existing phono pickup designs (see below). In the Westrex system, each channel drives the cutting head at a 45 degree angle to the vertical. During playback the combined signal is sensed by a left channel coil mounted diagonally opposite the inner side of the groove, and a right channel coil mounted diagonally opposite the outer side of the groove.[2] Image File history File links Plattenschrift_en. ... Image File history File links Plattenschrift_en. ...


It is helpful to think of the combined stylus motion in terms of the vector sum and difference of the two stereo channels. Effectively, all horizontal stylus motion conveys the L+R sum signal, and vertical stylus motion carries the L-R difference signal. The advantages of the 45/45 system are:

  • greater compatibility with monophonic recording and playback systems. A monophonic cartridge will reproduce an equal blend of the left and right channels instead of reproducing only one channel. Conversely, a stereo cartridge reproduces the lateral grooves of monophonic recording equally through both channels, rather than one channel.
  • a more balanced sound, because the two channels have equal fidelity (rather than providing one higher-fidelity laterally recorded channel and one lower-fidelity vertically recorded channel);
  • higher fidelity in general, because the "difference" signal is usually of low power and thus less affected by the intrinsic distortion of hill-and-dale recording.

This system was invented by Alan Blumlein of EMI in 1931 and patented the same year. EMI cut the first stereo test discs using the system in 1933. It was not used commercially until a quarter of a century later. Alan Dower Blumlein was an electronics engineer who made a great many inventions in telecommunications, sound recording, stereo, television and radar. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ...


Stereo sound provides a more natural listening experience where the spatial location of the source of a sound is, at least in part, reproduced.


Under the direction of C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records initiated a minimalist single microphone monaural recording technique in 1951. The first record, Kubelik/Chicago's performance of "Pictures at an Exhibition" was described as "being in the living presence of the orchestra" by The New York Times music critic. The series of records was then named “Mercury Living Presence”. In 1955 Mercury began three-channel stereo recordings, still based on the principle of the single microphone. The center (single) microphone was of paramount importance, with the two side mics adding depth and space. Record masters were cut directly from a three-track to two-track mixdown console, with all editing of the master tapes done on the original three-tracks. In 1961 Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings using 35mm magnetic film instead of half-inch tape for recording. The greater thickness and width of 35mm magnetic film prevented tape layer print-through and pre-echo and gained extended frequency range and transient response. The Mercury Living Presence recordings were remastered to CD in the 1990s by the original producer, using the same method of 3-to-2 mix directly to the master recorder. Mercury Records was a record label founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1945 by Irving Green, Berle Adams and Arthur Talmadge. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... A music critic is someone who reviews music (including printed music, performances and recorded music) and publishes writing on them in books or journals (or on the internet). ... Pre-echo is a psychoacoustic phenomenon where an unusually noticeable artifact is heard in a sound recording from the energy of time domain transients smeared backwards in time after processing in the frequency domain due to the Gibbs phenomenon. ... The frequency range is defined as the range of frequencies in which the device is allowed to operate. ... In electrical engineering, a transient response or natural response is the electrical reponse of a system to a change from equillibrium. ...

Image:LP200x.jpg
200× 33 rpm vinyl record.

The development of quadraphonic records was announced in 1971. These recorded four separate sound signals. This was achieved on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing, where the additional channels were combined into the main signal. When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels. There were two main systems of matrixed quadraphonic records produced, confusingly named SQ (by CBS) and QS (by Sansui). They proved commercially unsuccessful, but were an important precursor to later "surround sound" systems, as seen in SACD and home cinema today. A different format, CD-4 (not to be confused with compact disc), by RCA, encoded rear channel information on an ultrasonic carrier, which required a special wideband cartridge to capture it on carefully-calibrated pickup arm/turntable combinations. Typically the high frequency information inscribed onto these LPs wore off after only a few playings, and CD-4 was even less successful than the two matrixed formats. 4 channels quadraphonic label Quadraphonic sound uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at all four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of each other. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Sansui Electric Co. ... Multichannel audio is the name for a variety of techniques for expanding and enriching the sound of audio playback by recording additional sound channels that can be reproduced on additional speakers. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the compact disc. ... A 3 metres/119 inch projection screen with a high-definition television image. ... 4 channels quadraphonic label Quadraphonic sound uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at all four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of each other. ... CD redirects here. ...


In the late 1970s and 1980s, a method to improve the dynamic range of mass produced records involved highly advanced disc cutting equipment. These techniques, marketed as the CBS DisComputer and Teldec Direct Metal Mastering, were used to reduce inner-groove distortion. For other uses, see Dynamic range (disambiguation). ... CBS Labs in Stamford, CT CBS Laboratories or CBS Labs (later known as the CBS Technology Center) was the technology research and development organization of CBS. Innovations developed at the labs included many groundbreaking broadcast, industrial, and consumer technologies. ...


Also in the late 1970s, "direct-to-disc" records were produced, aimed at an audiophile niche market. These completely bypassed the use of magnetic tape in favor of a "purist" transcription directly to the master lacquer disc. Also during this period, "half-speed mastered" and "original master" records were released, using expensive state-of-the-art technology. A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued(TM) system used mainly on Motown 12" singles released between 1978 and 1980. The introduction, drum-breaks or choruses of a track were indicated by widely separated grooves, giving a visual clue to DJs mixing the records. The appearance of these records is similar to an LP, but they only contain one track each side. In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Motown Records, Inc. ...


The early 1980s saw the introduction of "dbx-encoded" records, again for the audiophile niche market. These were completely incompatible with standard record playback preamplifiers, relying on the dbx compandor encoding/decoding scheme to greatly increase dynamic range (dbx encoded disks were recorded with the dynamic range compressed by a factor of two in dB: quiet sounds were meant to be played back at low gain and loud sounds were meant to be played back at high gain, via automatic gain control in the playback equipment; this reduced the effect of surface noise on quiet passages). A similar and very short lived scheme involved using the CBS-developed "CX" noise reduction encoding/decoding scheme. The logo represents both the company and its noise reduction system dbx is a noise reduction system for analog tape recording, North American TV broadcasting, and, less commonly, vinyl LPs. ... A compandor is an electronic circuit to compress or expand the dynamic range of an analog electronic signal such as sound. ... Automatic gain control (AGC) is an electronic system found in many types of devices. ... CX is a form of noise reduction for recorded audio in the analog domain. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


ELPJ, a Japanese-based company, has developed a player that uses a laser instead of a stylus to read vinyl discs. In theory the laser turntable eliminates the possibility of scratches and attendant degradation of the sound, but its expense limits use primarily to digital archiving of analog records. Various other laser-based turntables were tried during the 1990s, but while a laser reads the groove very accurately, since it does not touch the record, the dust that vinyl naturally attracts due to static charge is not cleaned from the groove, worsening sound quality in casual use compared to conventional stylus playback. ELPJ is a Japanese audio equipment company started by Sanju Chiba. ... A laser turntable is a phonograph that plays gramophone records using a laser beam as the pickup, rather than a stylus in mechanical contact with the disc. ...


Formats

The protective cover of the Voyager Golden Record, containing abstract information on how it is to be played.
A 7" 45 rpm EP.
A 7" 45 rpm EP.

Download high resolution version (893x817, 393 KB)NASA picture of the Golden Record that was attached to Voyager from: http://voyager. ... Download high resolution version (893x817, 393 KB)NASA picture of the Golden Record that was attached to Voyager from: http://voyager. ... The Voyager Golden Record. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Common formats

Diameter Revolutions per minute Time duration
12 in. (30 cm) 33⅓ rpm Long play (LP)
12 in. (30 cm) 45 rpm 12-inch single, Maxi Single, and Extended play (EP)
12 in. (30 cm) 78 rpm 4-5 minutes
10 in. (25 cm) 33 rpm Long play (LP)
10 in. (25 cm) 78 rpm 3 minutes
7 in. (17.5 cm) 45 rpm Single
7 in. (17.5 cm) 45 rpm Extended play (EP)
7 in. (17.5 cm) 33⅓ rpm Often used for children's records in the 1960s and 1970s.

Note: Before the mid-1950s, the 33⅓ rpm LP was most commonly found in a 10" (25 cm) format. The 10" LP remained a common format in some markets until the mid-1960s. For the record label, see 12 Inch Records. ... // Extended play (EP) is the name typically given to vinyl records or CDs which contain more than one single but are too short to qualify as albums. ... A collection of various CD singles In music, a single is a short recording of one or more separate tracks. ... // Extended play (EP) is the name typically given to vinyl records or CDs which contain more than one single but are too short to qualify as albums. ...


Less common formats

The overwhelming majority of records manufactured have been of certain sizes (7, 10, or 12 inches), playback speeds (33â…“, 45, or 78 RPM), and appearance (round black discs). ...

Structure

The normal commercial disc is engraved with two sound bearing concentric spiral grooves, one on each side of the disc, running from the outside edge towards the centre. Since the late 1910s, both sides of the record have been used to carry the grooves. The recording is played back by rotating the disc clockwise at a constant rotational speed with a stylus (needle) placed in the groove, converting the vibrations of the stylus into an electric signal (see magnetic cartridge), and sending this signal through an amplifier to loudspeakers. The Clockwise direction A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... Rotational speed (sometimes called speed of revolution) indicates for example how fast the motor is running. ... Modern stylus, used for touch-screen enabled devices such as the Nintendo DS and personal digital assistants Styli used in writing in the Fourteenth Century. ... A magnetic cartridge is a device used for the playback of gramophone records on a turntable or phonograph. ... Mission Cyrus 1 Hi Fi integrated audio amplifier An audio amplifier is an electronic amplifier that amplifies low-power audio signals (signals composed primarily of frequencies between 20 hertz to 20,000 hertz, the human range of hearing) to a level suitable for driving loudspeakers and is the final stage... For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ...


The majority of records are pressed on black vinyl. The colouring material used to blacken the transparent PVC plastic mix is carbon black, the generic name for the finely divided carbon particles produced by the incomplete burning of a mineral oil based hydrocarbon. Carbon black increases the strength of the disc and renders it opaque. Chemical structure of the vinyl functional group. ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... Carbon black is a material, today usually produced by the incomplete combustion of petroleum products. ... Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ...


Some records are pressed on coloured vinyl or with paper pictures embedded in them ("picture discs"). These discs can become collectors' items in some cases. Certain 45-rpm RCA or RCA Victor "Red Seal" records used red translucent vinyl for extra "Red Seal" effect. During the 1980s there was a trend for releasing singles on coloured vinyl — sometimes with large inserts that could be used as posters. This trend has been revived recently and has succeeded in keeping 7" singles a viable format. RCA Red Seal Records is a prestigious classical music label and is now part of Sony BMG Masterworks. ...


Vinyl record standards for the United States follow the guidelines of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).[3] The inch dimensions are nominal, not precise diameters. The actual dimension of a 12 inch record is 302 mm (11.89 in), for a 10 inch it is 250 mm (9.84 in), and for a 7 inch it is 175 mm (6.89 in). The RIAA Logo. ...


Records made in other countries are standardized by different organizations, but are very similar in size. The record diameters are typically 300 mm, 250 mm and 175 mm.


There is an area about 6 mm (0.25″) wide at the outer edge of the disk, called the lead-in where the groove is widely spaced and silent. This section allows the stylus to be dropped at the start of the record groove, without damaging the recorded section of the groove.


Between each track on the recorded section of an LP record, there is usually a short gap of around 1 mm (0.04") where the groove is widely spaced. This space is clearly visible, making it easy to find a particular track. For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ...

Colored splatter vinyl, NOFX-HOFX (Fat Wreck Chords)

Towards the label centre, at the end of the groove, there is another wide-pitched section known as the lead-out. At the very end of this section, the groove joins itself to form a complete circle, called the lock groove; when the stylus reaches this point, it circles repeatedly until lifted from the record. On some recordings (for example Spice by Eon), the sound continues on the lock groove, which gives a strange repeating effect. Automatic turntables rely on the position or angular velocity of the arm, as it reaches these more widely spaced grooves, to trigger a mechanism that raises the arm and moves it out of the way of the record. Image File history File links HOFXyellowsplatter3. ... Image File history File links HOFXyellowsplatter3. ... NOFX is an American punk rock band formed in Los Angeles, California (now based in San Francisco), in 1983. ... HOFX is a 12single by NOFX that includes two songs from the Punk in Drublic period. ... Fat Wreck Chords is a San Francisco, California based independent record label, focused on punk rock, which was started by Fat Mike the lead singer and bassist of the punk rock band NOFX and his wife Erin, in 1990. ... The overwhelming majority of records manufactured have been of certain sizes (7, 10, or 12 inches), playback speeds (33â…“, 45, or 78 RPM), and appearance (round black discs). ... // Also known as Ian Loveday this house and techno pioneer released a seminal cd Void Dweller (Sept 1992) with dark and hard driving beats, with samples of Dune and themes from the classic horror movie Basket Case (film). ... Angular velocity describes the speed of rotation and the orientation of the instantaneous axis about which the rotation occurs. ...

Record label area
Record label area

The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record. Sometimes the cutting engineer might add handwritten comments or their signature, if they are particularly pleased with the quality of the cut. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 376 pixels Full resolution (2516 × 1183 pixel, file size: 777 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Detail of vinyl record label area and lead out groove File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 376 pixels Full resolution (2516 × 1183 pixel, file size: 777 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Detail of vinyl record label area and lead out groove File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on...


When auto-changing turntables were commonplace, records were typically pressed with a raised (or ridged) outer edge and label area. This would allow records to be stacked onto each other, gripping each other without the delicate grooves coming into contact, thus reducing the risk of damage. Auto changing turntables included a mechanism to support a stack of several records above the turntable itself, dropping them one at a time onto the active turntable to be played in order. Many longer sound recordings, such as complete operas, were interleaved across several 10-inch or 12-inch discs for use with auto-changing mechanisms, so that the first disk of a three-disk recording would carry sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disk would carry sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, allowing sides 1, 2, and 3 to be played automatically, then the whole stack reversed to play sides 4, 5, and 6. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Vinyl quality

The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of the vinyl. During the early 1970s, as a cost-cutting move towards use of lightweight, flexible vinyl pressings, much of the industry adopted a technique of reducing the thickness and quality of vinyl used in mass-market manufacturing, marketed by RCA Victor as the "Dynaflex" (125 g/m²) process, considered inferior by most record collectors.[4] Most vinyl records are pressed on recycled vinyl. Chemical structure of the vinyl functional group. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


New "virgin" or "heavy" (180-220 g/m²) vinyl is commonly used for modern "audiophile" vinyl releases in all genres. Many collectors prefer to have 180 g/m² vinyl albums, and they have been reported to have a better sound than normal vinyl. These albums tend to withstand the deformation caused by normal play better than regular vinyl[citation needed]. 180 g/m² vinyl is more expensive to produce and requires higher-quality manufacturing processes than regular vinyl. A genre [], (French: kind or sort from Greek: γένος (genos)) is a loose set of criteria for a category of literary composition; the term is also used for any other form of art or utterance. ...


Since most vinyl records are from recycled plastic, impurities can be accumulated in the record, causing a brand new album to have audio artifacts like clicks and pops. Virgin vinyl means that the album is not from recycled plastic, and will theoretically be devoid of these impurities. In practice, this depends on the manufacturer's quality control.


The orange peel effect on vinyl records is caused by worn moulds. Rather than having the proper mirror-like finish, the surface of the record will have what looks like an orange peel texture. This introduces noise into the record, particularly in the lower frequency range. It should be noted that with direct metal mastering (DMM) the master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect. As this "orange peel" originates in the master rather than being introduced in the pressing stage, there is no ill-effect.


While most vinyl records are pressed from metal discs known as 'stampers', a technique known as lathe-cutting is used to create the original discs. A lathe is used to cut microgrooves into an aluminium disc coated with a soft lacquer. This lacquer disc is then electroplated with nickel to form a negative known as a 'master' disc, which has a protrusion rather than a groove. The lacquer disc is destroyed when the nickel impression is separated. This master disc is then electroplated with nickel to form a a positive disc known as a 'mother'. Many mothers can be grown from a single master before the master deteriorates beyond use. In their own turn the mothers are nickel plated to produce more negative discs known as 'stampers'. Again a single mother can grow many stampers before they deteriorate beyond use. It is these stampers that are then used to mould the final vinyl discs. [5] In this way several million vinyl discs can be produced from a single lacquer original. For production of discs where a relatively small quantity is required, the first nickel negative grown from the lacquer original is used directly as a stamper. Production by this latter process (known as the 'half process') is limited to a few hundred vinyl discs.


Limitations

Shellac

Shellac 78s are brittle, and must be handled carefully. In the event of a 78 breaking, the pieces might remain loosely connected by the label and still be playable if the label holds them together, although there is a loud 'pop' with each pass over the crack, and breaking of the stylus is likely. Look up shellac in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Breakage was very common in the shellac era. In the 1934 novel, Appointment in Samarra, the protagonist "broke one of his most favorites, Whiteman's Lady of the Evening ... He wanted to cry but could not." A poignant moment in J. D. Salinger's 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye occurs after the adolescent protagonist buys a record for his younger sister but drops it and "it broke into pieces ... I damn near cried, it made me feel so terrible." A sequence where a school teacher's collection of 78 RPM jazz records is smashed by a group of rebellious students is a key moment in the film Blackboard Jungle. Appointment in Samarra, published in 1934, is the first novel by John OHara. ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... Jerome David Salinger (born January 1, 1919) is an American author best known for his 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye, as well as his reclusive nature; he has not published any new work since 1965 and has not granted a formal interview since 1980. ... The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Blackboard Jungle is a 1955 social commentary film about teachers in an inner-city school. ...


Vinyl

Single-Record (45 rpm)
Single-Record (45 rpm)

Vinyl records do not break easily, but the soft material is easily scratched. Vinyl readily acquires a static charge, attracting dust that is difficult to remove completely. Dust and scratches cause audio clicks and pops. In extreme cases, they can cause the needle to skip over a series of grooves, or worse yet, cause the needle to skip backwards, creating a "locked groove" that repeats the same 1.8 seconds of track (at 33⅓ rpm) over and over. Locked grooves were not uncommon and were even heard occasionally in broadcasts. ImageMetadata File history File links Record. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Record. ... Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Vinyl records can be warped by heat, improper storage, or manufacturing defects such as excessively tight plastic shrinkwrap on the album cover. A small degree of warp was common, and allowing for it was part of the art of turntable and tonearm design. "Wow" (once-per-revolution pitch variation) could result from warp, or from a spindle hole that was not precisely centered. For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Shrinkwrap is a material made up of polymer plastic, usually PVC with a mix of polyesters. ... Wow is a relatively slow form of flutter (pitch variation) which can affect both gramophone records and audio cassettes. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... The word spindle might (or might not) have several meanings: A spindle (shrub), a poisonous shrub or small tree of the genus Euonymus. ...


As a practical matter, records provide excellent sound quality when treated with care [citation needed]. They were the music source of choice for radio stations for decades, and the switch to digital music libraries by radio stations has not produced a noticeable improvement in sound quality [citation needed] (note that most radio stations severely reduce the dynamic range in their broadcasts). Casual ears cannot detect a difference in quality between a CD and a clean new LP played in a casual environment with background noise [citation needed]. There is controversy about the relative quality of CD sound and LP sound when the latter is heard under the very best conditions (see Analog vs. Digital sound argument). The limitations of recording and mastering techniques had a greater impact on sound quality than the limitations of the record itself, at least until the 1980s [citation needed]. A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... Electronic music is a loose term for music created using electronic equipment. ... Alternative meanings: Library (computer science), Library (biology) Modern-style library In its traditional sense, a library is a collection of books and periodicals. ... Dynamic range compression also called DRC (often seen in DVD player settings), audio level compression, volume compression, compression, or limiting, is a process that manipulates the dynamic range of an audio signal. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


A further limitation of the record is that with a constant rotational speed, the quality of the sound may differ across the width of the record because the inner groove modulations are more compressed than those of the outer tracks. The result is that inner tracks have distortion that can be noticeable at higher recording levels.


7" singles were typically poorer quality for a variety of the reasons mentioned above, and in the 1970s the 12" single, played at 45 rpm, became popular for DJ use and for fans and collectors.


Another problem arises because of the geometry of the tonearm. Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe, where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw. Most turntables use a pivoting tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth errors, and thus distortion in the playback signal. Various mechanisms were devised in attempts to compensate, with varying degrees of success. See more at phonograph. Azimuth is the horizontal component of a direction (compass direction), measured around the horizon, from the north toward the east (i. ... Tonearm redirects here. ...


Frequency response and noise

In 1925, electric recording extended the recorded frequency range from acoustic recording (168-2000 Hz) by 2½ octaves to 100-5000 Hz. Even so, these early electronically recorded records used the exponential-horn phonograph (see Orthophonic Victrola) for reproduction. Victor logo with the famous Nipper dog. ...


The frequency response of vinyl records may be degraded by frequent playback if the cartridge is set to track too heavily, or the stylus is not compliant enough to trace the high frequency grooves accurately, or the cartridge/tonearm is not properly aligned. The best cartridges and styli have response up to 76 kHz.[citation needed] The RIAA has suggested the following acceptable losses: down to 20 kHz after one play, 18 kHz after three plays, 17 kHz after five, 16 kHz after eight, 14 kHz after fifteen, 13 kHz after twenty five, 10 kHz after thirty five, and 8 kHz after eighty plays. While this degradation is possible if the record is played on improperly set up equipment, many collectors of LPs report excellent sound quality on LPs played many more times when using care and high quality equipment.[citation needed]CD-4 LPs contain a frequency modulated carrier that extends up to 30 kHz. Many record collectors report that the CD-4 carrier is still playable, even though the records have been played extensively and are in excess of 30 years old.[citation needed] It should be noted that many of these records were only played with super-compliant styli.[citation needed] The RIAA Logo. ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... 4 channels quadraphonic label Quadraphonic sound uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at all four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of each other. ... Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation which represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ...


Gramophone sound suffers from rumble, low-frequency (below about 30 Hz) mechanical noise generated by the motor bearings and picked up by the stylus. Equipment of modest quality is relatively unaffected by these issues, as the amplifier and speaker will not reproduce such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable assemblies need careful design to minimize audible rumble. Bearing is the following: Often, bearing is the state of having something as a quality, characteristic, or permanent attribute. ...


Room vibrations will also be picked up if the pedestal - turntable - pickup arm - stylus system is not well damped.


Tonearm skating forces and other perturbations are also picked up by the stylus. This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the "control signal" (restoring force) used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself. Subsonic frequencies below about 20 Hz in the audio signal are dominated by tracking effects, which is one form of unwanted rumble ("tracking noise") and merges with audible frequencies in the deep bass range up to about 100 Hz. High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble. During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as about 0.5 Hz (the frequency at which a 33-1/3 rpm record turns on the turntable). For this reason, many stereo receivers contained a switchable subsonic filer. Some subsonic content is directly out of phase in each channel. If played back on a mono subwoofer system, the noise will cancel, significantly reducing the amount of rumble that is reproduced. In telecommunications, multiplexing (also muxing or MUXing) is the combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission medium using hardware called a multiplexer or (MUX). ... A Sony 9 inch woofer Woofer is the term for a loudspeaker driver that is designed to produce low frequency sounds, typically from around 40 hertz up to a few hundred hertz. ...


At high audible frequencies, hiss is generated as the stylus rubs against the vinyl, and from dirt and dust on the vinyl. Noise can be reduced somewhat by cleaning the record prior to playback. Hiss may be a phonetic element of a sibilant consonant, or of a lisp a verb close in meaning to whisper a noise characteristic of some snakes, or a different noise made for example by a cat an onomatopeic word for some noises, such as the release of air brakes...


Equalization

Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, both high and low frequencies were removed from the first recorded signals by various formulae. With low frequencies, the stylus must swing a long way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up more space and limiting the playing time of the record. At high frequencies noise is significant. These problems can be compensated for by using equalization to an agreed standard. This simply means reducing the amplitude at low-frequencies, thus reducing the groove width required, and increasing the amplitude at high frequencies. The playback equipment boosts bass and cuts treble in a complementary way. The result should be that the sound is perceived to be without change, thus more music will fit the record, and noise is reduced.


The agreed standard has been RIAA equalization since 1952, implemented in 1955. Prior to that, especially from 1940, some 100 formulae were used by the record manufacturers. The RIAA equalization curve for playback of vinyl records. ...


In 1926 it was disclosed by Joseph P. Maxwell and Henry C. Harrison from Bell Telephone Laboratories that the recording pattern of the Western Electric (W. E.) "rubber line" magnetic disc cutter had a constant velocity characteristic. This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording amplitude decreased. Conversely, in the bass as frequency decreased, recording amplitude increased. Therefore, it was necessary to attenuate the bass frequencies below about 250 Hz, the bass turnover point, in the amplified microphone signal fed to the recording head. Otherwise, bass modulation became excessive and overcutting took place into the next record groove. When played back electrically with a magnetic pickup having a smooth response in the bass region, a complementary boost in amplitude at the bass turnover point was necessary. G. H. Miller in 1934 reported that when complementary boost at the turnover point was used in radio broadcasts of records, the reproduction was more realistic and many of the musical instruments stood out in their true form.


West in 1930 and later P. G. H. Voight (1940) showed that the early Wente-style condenser microphones contributed to a 4 to 6 dB midrange brilliance or pre-emphasis in the recording chain. This meant that the electrical recording characteristics of W. E. licensees such as Columbia Records and Victor Talking Machine Company in the 1925 era had a higher amplitude in the midrange region. Brilliance such as this compensated for dullness in many early magnetic pickups having drooping midrange and treble response. As a result, this practice was the empirical beginning of using pre-emphasis above 1,000 Hz in 78 rpm and 33 1/3 rpm records. Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... Victor logo with the famous Nipper dog. ...


Over the years a variety of record equalization practices emerged and there was no industry standard. For example, in Europe recordings for years required playback with a bass turnover setting of 250 - 300 Hz and a treble rolloff at 10,000 Hz ranging from 0 to -5 dB or more. In the United States there were more varied practices and a tendency to use higher bass turnover frequencies such as 500 Hz as well as a greater treble rolloff like -8.5 dB and even more to record generally higher modulation levels on the record.


Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the 1942-1949 period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry. Heretofore, electrical recording technology from company to company was considered a proprietary art all the way back to the 1925 W. E. licensed method used by Columbia and Victor. For example, what Brunswick-Balke-Collender (Brunswick Corporation) did was different from the practices of Victor. The Brunswick Corporation NYSE: BC, formerly known as the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company, is a United States-based corporation that has been involved in manufacturing a wide variety of products since 1845. ...


Broadcasters were faced with having to adapt daily to the varied recording characteristics of many sources: various makers of "home recordings" readily available to the public, European recordings, lateral cut transcriptions, and vertical cut transcriptions. Efforts were started in 1942 to standardize within the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), later known as the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (NARTB). The NAB, among other items, issued recording standards in 1949 for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions. A number of 78 rpm record producers as well as early LP makers also cut their records to the NAB/NARTB lateral standard.


The lateral cut NAB curve was remarkably similar to the NBC Orthacoustic curve which evolved from practices within the National Broadcasting Company since the mid-1930s. Empirically, and not by any formula, it was learned that the bass end of the audio spectrum below 100 Hz could be boosted somewhat to override system hum and turntable rumble noises. Likewise at the treble end beginning at 1,000 Hz, if audio frequencies were boosted by 16 dB at 10,000 Hz the delicate sibilant sounds of speech and high overtones of musical instruments could survive the noise level of cellulose acetate, lacquer/aluminum, and vinyl disc media. When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal to noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more life-like. Cellulose acetate, first prepared in 1865, is the acetate ester of cellulose. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ...


When the Columbia LP was released in June 1948, the developers subsequently published technical information about the 33 1/3 rpm microgroove long playing record. Columbia disclosed a recording characteristic showing that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below 200 Hz. The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve. This was the first such curve based on formulae.


In 1951 at the beginning of the post-World War II high fidelity (hi-fi) popularity, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) developed a standard playback curve. This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers. If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a worthy goal towards standardization. This curve was defined by the time constants of audio filters and had a bass turnover of 400 Hz and a 10,000 Hz rolloff of -12 dB.


RCA Victor and Columbia were in a "market war" concerning which recorded format was going to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc (released in February 1949). Besides also being a battle of disc size and record speed, there was a technical difference in the recording characteristics. RCA Victor was using "New Orthophonic" whereas Columbia was using the LP curve.


Ultimately the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R. C. Moyer of RCA Victor in 1953. He traced RCA Victor characteristics back to the W. E. "rubber line" recorder in 1925 up to the early 1950s laying claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years. The RCA Victor New Orthophonic curve was within the tolerances for the NAB/NARTB, Columbia LP, and AES curves. It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve and superseded all other curves. By the time of the stereo LP in 1958, the RIAA curve, identical to the RCA Victor New Orthophonic curve, became standard throughout the national and international record markets.


Sound fidelity

Overall sound fidelity of records produced acoustically using horns instead of microphones had a distant, hollow tone quality. Some voices and instruments recorded better than others; Enrico Caruso, famous tenor, was one popular recording artist of the acoustic era that was well matched to the recording horn. It has been asked, "Did Caruso make the phonograph or did the phonograph make Caruso?" For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ...


Delicate sounds and fine overtones were mostly lost because it took a lot of sound energy to vibrate the recording horn diaphragm and cutting mechanism. There were acoustic limitations due to mechanical resonances in both the recording and playback system. Some pictures of acoustic recording sessions show horns wrapped with tape to help mute these resonances. Even an acoustic recording played back electrically on modern equipment sounds like it was recorded through a horn, not withstanding a 50% reduction in distortion because of the modern playback. Towards the end of the acoustic era, there were many fine examples of recordings made with horns.


Electric recording which developed during the time that early radio was becoming popular (1925) benefited from the microphones and amplifiers used in radio studios. The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records. This was in spite of some carbon microphones used which had resonances that colored the recorded tone. The double button carbon microphone with stretched diaphragm was a marked improvement. Alternatively, the Wente style condenser microphone used with the Western Electric (W. E.) licensed recording method had a brilliant midrange and was prone to overloading from sibilants in speech, but it was generally better at picking up sounds more accurately than carbon microphones were.


It was not unusual, however, for electric recordings to be played back on acoustic phonographs. The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a prime example where such playback was expected. In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup head was redesigned with lower resonance than the traditional mica type. Also, a folded horn with an exponential taper was constructed inside the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air. As a result, playback of an Orthophonic record sounded like it was coming from a radio.


Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the 1930s and '40s, the overall tone was much like listening to a radio of the era. Magnetic pickups became more common and were better designed as time went on to dampen spurious resonances. Crystal pickups were also introduced as lower cost alternatives. The dynamic or moving coil microphone was introduced around 1930 and the velocity or ribbon microphone in 1932. Both of these high quality microphones became widespread in motion picture, radio, recording, and public address applications.


Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise levels improved to the point that it was harder to tell the difference between a live performance in the studio and the recorded version. This was especially true after the invention of the variable reluctance magnetic pickup cartridge by General Electric in the 1940s when high quality cuts were played on well-designed audio systems. The Capehart radio/phonographs of the era with large diameter electrodynamic loudspeakers, though not ideal, demonstrated this quite well with "home recordings" readily available in the music stores for the public to buy.


There were important quality advances in recordings specifically made for radio broadcast. In the early 1930s Bell Telephone Laboratories and Western Electric announced the total reinvention of disc recording: the Western Electric Wide Range System --- "The New Voice of Action." The intent of the new W. E. system was to improve the overall quality of disc recording and playback. The recording speed was 33 1/3 rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.


The newly invented W. E. moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System. It had a flatter audio response than the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics installed in the microphone housing. Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to help override noise in playback. Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch which could be crowded together resulting in longer playback time. Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion which plagued lateral cuts could be avoided with the vertical cut system. Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing.


Vinyl pressings were made with stampers from master cuts that were electroplated in vacuo by means of gold sputtering. Audio response was claimed out to 8,000 Hz, later 13,000 Hz, using light weight pickups employing jeweled styli. Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels. Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers (AMP) were the dominant licensees of the W. E. wide range system and towards the end of the 1930s were responsible for two thirds of the total radio transcription business. A quantum level of improvement had been achieved, and when these recordings are found today in good condition, it is amazing to hear what high fidelity sound was like in that era. Playback of these recordings works well using a bass turnover of 300 Hz and a 10,000 Hz rolloff of -8.5 dB.


Developmentally, much of the technology of the long playing record, successfully released by Columbia in 1948, came from wide range radio transcription practices. The use of vinyl pressings, increased length of programming, and general improvement in audio quality over 78 rpm records were the major selling points.


The complete technical disclosure of the Columbia LP by Peter C. Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and William S. Bachman in 1949 made it possible for a great variety of record companies to get into the business of making long playing records. The business grew like "wild fire" as did the widespread interest in high fidelity sound and the do-it-yourself market for pickups, turntables, amplifier kits, loudspeaker enclosure plans, and AM/FM radio tuners. The LP record for longer works, 45 rpm for pop songs, and FM radio became high fidelity program sources in demand. Radio listeners heard recordings broadcasted and this in turn generated more record sales. The industry flourished.


Evolutionary steps

Technology used in making recordings also developed and prospered. Basically there were ten major evolutionary steps that perfected LP production and quality during a period of approximately forty years.

  1. Electrical transcriptions and 78s were first used as sources to master LP lacquer/aluminum cuts in 1948. This was before magnetic tape was commonly employed for mastering. Variable pitch groove spacing helped enable greater recorded dynamic levels. The heated stylus improved the cutting of high frequencies. Gold sputtering in vacuo became increasingly used to make high quality matrices from the cuts to stamp vinyl records.
  2. Decca in England employed high quality wide range microphones (condensers) for the Full Frequency Range Recording (FFRR) system ca. 1949. Wax mastering was employed to produce Decca/London LPs. This created quite a bit of interest in the United States and raised overall quality expectations by customers for microgroove records.
  3. Tape recording with condenser microphones became a long used standard operating procedure in mastering lacquer/aluminum cuts. This improved the overall pickup of high quality sound and enabled tape editing. Over the years there were variations in the kinds of tape recorders used such as the width and number of tracks employed, including 35 mm magnetic film technology.
  4. Production of stereo tape masters and the stereo LP in 1958 were quantum level improvements in recording technology.
  5. Limitations in the disc cutting part of the process generated the idea of half-speed mastering in which the source tape was played at half-speed and the lacquer/aluminum disc cut at 16 2/3 rpm rather than 33 1/3 rpm.
  6. Some 12 inch LPs were cut at 45 rpm claiming better quality sound, but this practice was short-lived.
  7. Efforts were made in the 1970s to record as many as four audio channels on an LP by means of matrix and modulated carrier methods. This development, though another quantum level improvement, was not a widespread success nor long lasting.
  8. There were approaches to simplify the chain of equipment in the recording process and return to live recording directly to the disc master.
  9. Some records were produced employing noise reduction systems in the tape mastering as well as in the LP itself.
  10. As video recorders became perfected technically it became possible to modify them and use analog to digital converters (codecs) for digital sound recording. This enabled tape mastering with greater dynamic range, low noise and distortion, and freedom from drop outs as well as pre- and post-echo. The digital recording was played back providing a high quality analog signal to master the lacquer/aluminum cut.

Shortcomings

At the time of the introduction of the compact disc (CD) in the mid-1980s, the stereo LP pressed in vinyl was at the high point of its development. Still, it suffered from a variety of limitations: CD redirects here. ...

  • The stereo image was not made up of fully discrete Left and Right channels; each channel's signal coming out of the magnetic cartridge contained approximately 20% of the signal from the other channel. The lack of pure channel separation made for a sense of diminished soundstage.
  • Thin, closely-spaced spiral groove walls that allowed for increased playing time on a 33 rpm microgroove LP led to a tinny pre-echo warning of upcoming loud sounds. The hot tip of the cutting lathe unintentionally transferred some of the subsequent groove wall's impulse signal into the previous groove wall. It was discernable by some listeners throughout certain recordings but a quiet passage followed by a loud sound would allow anyone to hear a faint pre-echo of the loud sound occurring 1.8 seconds ahead of time.[6] This problem could also appear as "post"-echo, with a tinny ghost of the sound arriving 1.8 seconds after its main impulse.
  • Fidelity steadily dropped as the recording progressed; there was more vinyl per second available for fine reproduction of high frequencies at the large-diameter beginning of the music groove than on the smaller diameter inner grooves closer to the center. The beginning of the music groove on an LP gave 510 mm of vinyl per second traveling past the stylus while the ending of the music groove gave 200-210 mm of vinyl per second—less than half the linear resolution.[7]
  • Factory problems involving incomplete hot vinyl flow within the stamper could fail to accurately recreate a small section of one side of the groove, a problem called non-fill. It usually appeared on the first song of a side if it was present at all. Non-fill made itself known as a tearing, grating or ripping sound.
  • Poor vinyl quality control could put bits of foreign material in the path of the stylus, creating a permanent 'pop' or 'tick'.
  • The user setting the stylus down in the middle of a recording could cut into the groove and create a permanent 'pop' or 'tick'.
  • Dust or foreign matter collected on the record, making for multiple 'pops' and 'ticks' if not carefully cleaned.
  • A static electric charge could build up on the surface of the spinning record and discharge into the stylus, making a loud 'pop'. In very dry climates, this could happen several times per minute. Subsequent plays of the same record would not have pops in the same places in the music as the static buildup wasn't tied to variations in the groove.
  • An off-center stamping applied a slow 0.56 Hz modulation to the playback, affecting pitch due to a greater amount of vinyl per second on one side of the record than the other. It also affected tonality because the stylus is pressed alternately into one groove wall and then the other, making the frequency response change in each channel. This problem is often called "wow", though turntable and motor problems can also cause pitch-only "wow".
  • Motor problems or belt slippage could cause momentary pitch changes. If these repeated regularly, they could be called "flutter"; if they happened slowly they could be called "wow".
  • Turntable surface slickness, or the slickness of a stack of LPs could allow the top record to slip, causing momentary lowering of pitch in the playback.
  • Tracking force of the stylus was not always the same from beginning to end of the groove. Stereo balance could shift as the recording progressed.
  • Outside electrical interference could be amplified by the magnetic cartridge. Common household wallplate SCR dimmers sharing AC lines could put noise into the playback, as could poorly shielded electronics and strong radio transmitters.
  • Loud sounds in the environment could be transmitted mechanically from the turntable's sympathetic vibration into the stylus. Heavy footfalls could bounce the needle out of the groove.
  • Heat could warp the disk, causing pitch and tone problems if minor; tracking problems if major. Badly warped records would be rendered unplayable.
  • The LP was delicate. Any accidental fumbling with the stylus or dropping of the record onto a sharp corner could scratch the record permanently, creating a series of 'ticks' and 'pops' heard at subsequent playback. Heavier accidents could cause the stylus to break through the groove wall as it was playing, creating a permanent skip that would cause the stylus to either skip ahead to the next groove or skip back to the previous groove. A skip going to the previous groove was called a broken record, as the same section of 1.8 seconds of LP music would repeat over and over until the stylus was lifted off the record.

A sound stage is a hangar-like structure, building or room, that is soundproof for the production of theatrical motion pictures and television, usually inside a movie studio. ... SCR schematic symbol A silicon-controlled rectifier (or semiconductor-controlled rectifier) is a 4-layer solid state device that controls current flow. ...

LP versus CD

In the early days of compact discs, vinyl records were still prized by audiophiles because of better reproduction of analog recordings; however, the drawback was greater sensitivity to scratches and dust. Early compact discs were perceived by many as thin and sharp—distorting sounds on the high end. In some cases, this was the result of record companies issuing CDs produced from master recordings that were compressed and equalized for vinyl. Early consumer compact disc players may have contained 14-bit digital-to-analog converters, instead of the correct 16-bit type, as a cost-cutting measure. Some players were only linear to 10- or 12-bits.[8] CD redirects here. ...


Though digital audio technology has improved over the years, some audiophiles (according to one poll, 28 percent[9]) still prefer what they perceive as the sound of vinyl over CDs. Digital audio comprises audio signals stored in a digital format. ...


Proponents of digital audio state these differences are generally inaudible to normal human hearing, and the lack of clicks, hiss and pops from analog recordings greatly improved sound fidelity. Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling systems used in digital recordings have reduced the problems observed with early CDs.


The "warmer" sound of analog records is generally believed on both sides of the argument to be an artifact of harmonic distortion and signal compression. This phenomenon of a preference for the sound of a beloved lower-fidelity technology is not new; a 1963 review of RCA Dynagroove recordings notes that "some listeners object to the ultra-smooth sound as … sterile … such distortion-forming sounds as those produced by loud brasses are eliminated at the expense of fidelity. They prefer for a climactic fortissimo to blast their machines …" The total harmonic distortion, or THD, of a signal is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental. ... This should probably be merged with Audio level compression or Companding In telecommunication, the term signal compression has the following meanings: In analog (usually audio) systems, reduction of the dynamic range of a signal by controlling it as a function of the inverse relationship of its instantaneous value relative to... Dynagroove is a recording system introduced in 1963 exclusive to RCA Victor that utilized electronic brains (computers) to control devices and processes used in disc recording (the phonograph record). ...


Production

Recording

For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the master disc (also called the matrix, sometimes just the master) at the recording studio. From about 1950 on (earlier for some large record companies, later for some small ones) it became usual to have the performance first recorded on audio tape, which could then be processed and/or edited, and then dubbed on to the master disc. Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... In sound recording, dubbing is the transfer of recorded audio material from one medium to another of the same or a different type. ...


A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Early versions of these master discs were soft wax, and later a harder lacquer was used. candle wax This page is about the substance. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ...


The mastering process was originally something of an art as the operator had to manually allow for the changes in sound which affected how wide the space for the groove needed to be on each rotation. Sometimes the engineer would sign his work, or leave humorous or cryptic comments in the run-off groove area, where it was normal to scratch or stamp identifying codes to distinguish each master.


Mass producing

The soft master known as a lacquer would then be silvered using the same process as the silvering of mirrors, commonly the lacquer was sprayed with a saponin mix, rinsed, spraying with Stannous Chloride which sensitized the surface, rinsed again before the finally simultaneously spraying the Silver solution and dextrose reducer. This silver coating provided the conductive layer to carry the current for the subsequent nickel plating electroplated with a metal, commonly a nickel alloy. In the early days (1940-60) the nickel plating was only brief, just an hour or less, before transferring to a copper plating tank. This was due to copper plating being both quicker and simpler to manage at that time. Later with advent of Nickel Sulphamate plating solutions all matrices were solid nickel. Most factories transferred the Master Matrix after an initial flash of Nickel in a slow warm nickel electroplating bath at around 15 ampere to a hot 130 degree Nickel plating bath where the amperage would be raised at regular intervals until the amperage reached between 110A and 200A depending on the standard of the equipment and the skill of the operators. This and all subsequent metal copies were known as matrices. When this metal master was removed from the lacquer (master), it would be a negative master or Master Matrix, since it was a negative copy of the lacquer. (In the UK, this was called the master; note the difference from soft master/lacquer disc above). In the earliest days the negative master was used as a mold to press records sold to the public, but as demand for mass production of records grew, another step was added to the process. Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacture of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale. ...


The metal master was then electroplated (electroformed)to create metal positive matrices, or "mothers". From these positives, stampers (negative) would be formed. Producing mothers was similar to electroforming Masters, except the time allowed to turn-up to full amperage was much shorter and the heavier Mothers could be produced in as little as one hour and stampers (145 grams) could be made in 45 minutes. Prior to plating either the Nickel Master or Nickel Mother it needed to be passified to prevent the next matrix adhering to the previous matrix. There were several methods used, EMI favoured the fairly difficult, Alubmen soaking method where as CBS Records and Phillips used the Electrolytic method. Soaking in a di-chromate solution was another popular method. The electrolytic method was similar to the standard electrolytic cleaning method except the cycles were reversed finishing the process with Matrix as the anode. This also cleaned the surface of the matrix about to be copied. After separating from the Master a new mother was polished with a fine abrasive to remove or at least round-off the microscopic "horns" at the top of the grooves, produced by the cutting lathe. This allowed the vinyl to flow better in the pressing stage and reduced the non-fill problem. Stampers produced from the mothers after separating were chrome plated to provide a hard stain-free surface. Each stamper was next centre punched, methods used included aligning the final locked groove over three pins or tapping the edge while rotating under the punch until the grooves could be seen (through a microscope) to move constantly towards the centre. Either method was quite skilled and took much effort to learn. The centre punch not only punched a hole but formed a lip which would be used to secure the stamper into the press. The stamper was next trimmed to size and the back sanded smooth to ensure a smooth finish to the mouldings and improve contact between the stamper and the press die. The edge was then pressed hydraulically to form another lip to clamp the edge down on the press. The stampers would be used in hydraulic presses to mould the LP discs. The advantages of this system over the earlier more direct system included ability to make a large number of records quickly by using multiple stampers. Also, more records could be produced from each master since molds would eventually wear out.


Since the master was the unique source of the positive, made to produce the stampers, it was considered a library item. Accordingly, copy positives, required to replace worn positives, were made from unused early stampers. These were known as copy shells and were the physical equivalent of the first positive.


The "pedigree" of any record can be traced through the stamper/positive identities used, by reading the lettering found on the record run-out area.


Packaging and distribution

A psychedelically colored record.

Singles are typically sold in plain or label-logo paper sleeves, though EPs are often treated to a cover in similar style to an LP. LPs are universally packaged in cardboard covers with a paper (usually additional artwork, photography, and/or lyrics) or plastic liner protecting the delicate surface of the record. Also, with the advent of long-playing records, the album cover became more than just packaging and protection, and album cover art became an important part of the music marketing and consuming experience. In the 1970s it became more common to have picture covers on singles. Many singles with picture sleeves (especially from the 1960s) are sought out by collectors, and the sleeves alone can go for a high price. LPs can have embossed cover art (with some sections being raised), an effect rarely seen on CD covers. The label area on the disc itself may contain themed or custom artwork rather than the standard record company's logo layout. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1146 KB) Summary A psychedelically coloured record, “The CBS Rock Machine Turns You On” from approximately 1969. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1146 KB) Summary A psychedelically coloured record, “The CBS Rock Machine Turns You On” from approximately 1969. ... Cardboard is a generic non-specific term for a heavy duty paper based product. ... An album cover is a cover used to package commercial audio recordings such as the printed cardboard covers that were typically used to package 12 gramophone records from the 1960s through to the 1980s when the 12 record was the major format for distribution of popular music. ... An album cover is a printed cardboard cover that was typically used to package 12 gramophone records from the 1960s through to the 1980s when the 12 record was the major format for distribution of popular music. ...


Records are made at large manufacturing plants, either owned by the major labels, or run by independent operators to whom smaller operations and independent labels could go for smaller runs. A band starting out might get a few hundred disks stamped, whereas big selling artists need the presses running full time to manufacture the hundreds of thousands of copies needed for the launch of a big album. An independent record label is variously described as a record label operating without the funding (or outside the organizations) of the major record labels, and/or a label that subscribes to indie philosophies such as DIY and anti-corporate art. ...


Records are generally sold through specialist shops, although some big chain stores also have record departments. Many records are sold from stock, but it is normal to place special orders for less common records. Stock is expensive, so only large city center stores can afford to have several copies of a record.


Labels

RCA logo with Nipper, the RCA/HMV dog.

Record companies organised their products into labels. These could either be subsidiary companies, or they could simply be just a brand name. For example, EMI published records under the His Master's Voice (HMV) label which was their classical recording brand, Harvest for their progressive rock brand, home to Pink Floyd. They also had Music for Pleasure and Classics for Pleasure as their economy labels. EMI also used the Parlophone brand in the UK for Beatles records in the early 1960s. Victor Talking Machine Copany logo, from 1921 magazine advertisment This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... Photograph of the original painting of Nipper looking into an Edison Bell cylinder phonograph. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In the music industry, a record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ... His Masters Voice, often abbreviated to HMV, is a famous trademark in the music business, and for many years was the name of a large record company. ... Harvest Records was a record label, formed by EMI in 1969 to promote progressive rock music and to compete with Philips Vertigo label and Deccas Deram labels. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... Music for Pleasure is the second album by the punk rock band The Damned. ... Parlophone is a record label, founded in Germany in 1896 by the Carl Lindström Company. ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ...


In the 1970s successful musicians sought greater control, and one way they achieved this was with their own labels, though normally they were still operated by the large music corporations. Two of the most famous early examples of this were the Beatles' Apple Records and Led Zeppelin's Swan Song Records Apple Records logo, featuring a Granny Smith apple. ... For the bands 1969 self-titled debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... Swan Song Records was a record label launched by Led Zeppelin on May 10, 1974. ...


In the late 1970s the anarchic punk rock movement gave rise to the independent record labels. These were not owned or even distributed by the main corporations. In the UK, examples were Stiff Records who published Ian Dury and the Blockheads and Two Tone Records, label for The Specials. These allowed smaller bands to step onto the ladder without having to conform to the rigid rules of the large corporations. Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Ian Dury (May 12, 1942 - March 27, 2000) was a rock and roll singer, songwriter, and bandleader. ... 2Tone Records was a UK record label which released ska and reggae influenced music with a punk overtone. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Home recording

The record enthusiast has two choices for creating a record. There are still some studios that allow the performer the option of recording a record. A disc cutting lathe is used to transfer a sound recording to a "reference lacquer" (commonly called an acetate or dub-plate). A new form of blank disc the "vinyl blank" has been introduced with varying results.


For someone seeking to make a single record, there is the option of purchasing a recording lathe and suitable record blanks. These machines can be occasionally found on online auctions. They allow the user to cut a record, which is afterwards playable on a turntable.


The first home phonograph disk recorders were introduced by RCA Victor in October 1930. These phonographs featured a large counter-balanced tone arm with horseshoe magnet pick-up. These types of pick-ups could also be "driven" to actually move the needle and RCA took advantage of that by designing a system of home recording that used "pre-grooved" records. The material that the records were made from (advertised as "Victrolac") was soft and it was possible to somewhat modulate the grooves using the pick-up with proper recording needle and a fairly heavy weight placed on the pick-up. The discs were only six inches in diameter so recording time at 78rpm was brief. Larger size Victor blanks were introduced late in 1931, when RCA-Victor introduced the Radiola-Electrola RE-57. These machines were capable of recording at 33 1/3 rpm as well as 78 rpm. One could select to record something from the radio or one could record using the hand-held microphone. The RAE-59 sold for a hefty $350.00 at a time when many manufacturers had trouble finding buyers for $50.00 radios.


The home phonograph disk recorders of the 1930s were expensive machines that few could afford. Cheaper machines, such as the Wilcox-Gay Recordio line, were sold during the late 1940s and early 1950s. They operated at 78 RPM only and were similar in appearance to (and not much larger than) a portable phonograph of the era. One 1941 model that included a radio sold for $39.95, approximately equivalent to $500 in 2005 dollars. The fidelity was adequate for clear voice recordings.


In the past (approximately from the 1940s through the 1970s), there were booths called Voice-O-Graphs, that let the user record their own voice onto a record when money was inserted. These were often found at arcades and tourist attractions alongside other vending and game machines. The Empire State Building's 86th floor observatory in New York City, Coney Island, NY and Conneaut Lake Park, PA are some of the locations which had such machines. Gem Razors also created thousands of free Voice-O-Graph records during wartime for the troops to send home to their families. The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Coney Island (disambiguation). ... Conneaut Lake Park is an amusement park located in Conneaut Lake, Pennsylvania, USA. It has long served as a regional tourist destination, and is loved by roller coaster enthusiasts for its classic Blue Streak coaster. ...


Currently, two companies (Vestax and Vinylrecorder) offer disk recorders priced in the high four figures which enable "experienced professional users" and enthusiasts to produce high-fidelity stereo vinyl recordings. The Gakken Company in Japan also offers the Emile Berliner Gramophone Kit, and while it does not record actual records, it enables the user to physically inscribe sounds onto a CD (or any flat, smooth surface) with a needle and replay them back on any similar machine. Vestax Logo The Vestax Corporation of Japan began in 1977 as a designer and manufacturer of electronic guitars. ...


Preservation

45 rpm records, like this one from 1955, often held a single - one especially popular tune from a particular artist - with a flip side or b-side, a bonus for owners.
45 rpm records, like this one from 1955, often held a single - one especially popular tune from a particular artist - with a flip side or b-side, a bonus for owners.

Due to the nature of the medium, playback of "hard" records, eg: LPs, causes gradual degradation of the recording. The recordings are best preserved by transferring them onto more stable media and playing the records as rarely as possible. They need to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable. The medium needs to be kept clean — but use alcohol only on PVC or optical media, NOT on 78s. The equipment for playback of certain formats (e.g. 16 and 78 rpm) is manufactured only in small quantities, leading to increased difficulty in finding equipment to play the recordings. (This "gradual degradation" is more noticeable on some discs than others. In fact it is possible to have forty year old records that sound as new and brand new discs with pops and tics. How the records are handled and the equipment on which they are played as well as the manufacturing process and quality of original vinyl have a considerable impact upon their wear.) Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, record companies or archivists play back the disc on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a digital format which can be copied and converted without any further damage to the recording. For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player[10] to transfer 78s. However, anyone can do this using a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp (pre-amplifier) and a typical personal computer. Once a recording has been digitized, it can be manipulated with software to restore and, hopefully, improve the sound, for example by removing the result of scratches. It can also be easily converted to other digital formats such as DVD-A, CD and MP3. 45 rpm record The image itself is copyright ©2004 by Daniel P. B. Smith and released under the terms of the Wikipedia license. ... 45 rpm record The image itself is copyright ©2004 by Daniel P. B. Smith and released under the terms of the Wikipedia license. ... Nimbus Records is a British record company specializing in classical music recordings. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit ÄŒeské Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ...


As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format. This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than playback. This technique also has the potential to allow for reconstruction of damaged or broken disks.[11] In digital recording, the analog signal of a motion-picture/sound is converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes in air pressure (chroma and luminace values in case of video) through time; thus making an abstract template for the original sound. ...


Current status

Green Day's 2004 album "American Idiot" on vinyl.
Green Day's 2004 album "American Idiot" on vinyl.

Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for an impressive amount of time - just about a century - withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tape, the 8-track cartridge and the compact cassette. However, by 1988, the compact disc had surpassed the gramophone record in popularity. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 932 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo I took of my copy of the Green Day album American Idiot on vinyl (phonograph record). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 932 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo I took of my copy of the Green Day album American Idiot on vinyl (phonograph record). ... A Sony TC-630 reel-to-reel recorder, once a common household object. ... The 8-track cartridge or Stereo 8 is a magnetic tape technology for audio storage, popular from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s. ... For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). ... CD redirects here. ...


In spite of their flaws, such as the lack of portability, records still have enthusiastic supporters. Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today, especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophiles, collectors and DJs. Old records and out of print recordings in particular are in much demand by collectors the world over. (See Record collecting.) A niche market also known as a target market is a focused, targetable portion (subset) of a market sector. ... An audiophile, from Latin audire[1] to hear and Greek philos[2] loving, can be generally defined as a person dedicated to achieving high fidelity in the recording and playback of music . ... Collector - in electronics, the amplified terminal on a Bipolar junction transistor (PNP) or (NPN) list of collectors- People with note-worthy collections. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Record collecting is a pastime for millions of music fans the world over. ...


In the UK, sales of new vinyl records (particularly 7 inch singles) have increased significantly in recent years,[12][13] somewhat reversing the downward trend seen during the 1990s.


For disc jockeys ("DJs"), mostly in the electronic dance music or hip hop genres, vinyl has an advantage over the CD — direct manipulation of the medium. DJ techniques such as slip-cueing, beatmatching and scratching originated on turntables. With CDs or compact audio cassettes one normally has only indirect manipulation options, e.g., the play, stop and pause buttons. With a record one can place the stylus a few grooves farther in or out, accelerate or decelerate the turntable, or even reverse its direction, provided the stylus, record player and the record itself are built to withstand it. Most CDJs and DJ software these days have some of these capabilities. For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... Electronic dance music (EDM) is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Slip-cueing is a DJ technique originated by Francis Grasso that consists of holding a record still with his thumb and forefinger while a protective slipmat and the steel platter of the turntable revolved underneath. ... Beatmatching is a disc jockey technique of pitch shifting or timestretching a track to match its tempo to that of the currently playing track. ... Scratching is a DJ or turntablist technique used to produce sounds for some types of music. ... Typical 60-minute Compact Cassette. ... Edison cylinder phonograph from about 1899 The phonograph, or gramophone, was the most common device for playing recorded sound from the 1870s through the 1980s. ... Pioneer CDJ-800 MK1 CDJ is a term used to describe a CD player which operates similarly to a turntable for the purposes of DJing. ...


Recording medium comparison

  • For many years, the Japanese Import pressings were considered to have the most accurate sound. The quality of these versions was due to a different process used to transfer the recording to vinyl.[citation needed]

This article details a comparison of audio recording mediums. ...

See also

Arthur Lintgen (b. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with audio storage. ... Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... CardTalk is an inexpensive player for recordings on vinyl records. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gramophone record. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... A magnetic cartridge is a device used for the playback of gramophone records on a turntable or phonograph. ... Usual types of gramophone record (phonograph record in U.S. English) are discussed in the main article. ... RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A record press is a tool used to form vinyl records from a pair of metal stampers, or master negatives. ... The RIAA equalization curve for playback of vinyl records. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Turntablism is the art ofSubscript text manipulating sounds and creating music using phonograph turntables and an audio mixer. ... The overwhelming majority of records manufactured have been of certain sizes (7, 10, or 12 inches), playback speeds (33â…“, 45, or 78 RPM), and appearance (round black discs). ... The Voyager Golden Record. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Penndorf, Ron. Early Development of the LP. Retrieved on 4 October 2006.
  2. ^ Stereo disc recording. Retrieved on 4 October 2006.
  3. ^ Standards for Stereophonic Disc Records. Record Industry Association of America Inc. (1963-10-16). Retrieved on 4 October 2006.
  4. ^ Record Collectors Guild on Dynaflex. The Record Collectors Guild.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Audacity Team Forum: Pre-echo when recording vinyl record
  7. ^ Comparative tables for 30 cm LP Standards
  8. ^ Nichols, Roger. I Need a Digital Shrink
  9. ^ JapanToday's Poll Of The Week: Which provides the best sound quality: CDs, MP3s or vinyl records? Accessed May 21, 2007.
  10. ^ Prima Voce. Nimbus Records, Accessed 2 November 2006.
  11. ^ Fadeyev, V., and C. Haber (2003). "Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound by image processing". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 51 (December): 1172. 
  12. ^ Tony Glover (2006-05-14). Back in the groove. The Business Online.com. Retrieved on 14 January 2007.
  13. ^ Chris Hastings (2006-09-17). Why singles are top of the pops again. Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved on 4 October 2006.

is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from amongst engineers, scientists, manufacturers and other organisations and individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Fadeyev, V., and C. Haber (2003). "Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound by image processing". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 51 (December): 1172. 
  • Lawrence, Harold; "Mercury Living Presence." Compact disc liner notes. Bartók, Antal Dorati, Mercury 432 017-2. 1991.
  • International standard IEC 60098: Analogue audio disk records and reproducing equipment. Third edition, International Electrotechnical Commission, 1987.
  • College Physics, Sears, Zemansky, Young, 1974, LOC #73-21135, chapter: Acoustic Phenomena
  • Powell, James R., Jr. The Audiophile's Technical Guide to 78 RPM, Transcription, and Microgroove Recordings. 1992; Gramophone Adventures, Portage, MI. ISBN 0-9634921-2-8
  • Powell, James R., Jr. Broadcast Transcription Discs. 2001; Gramophone Adventures, Portage, MI. ISBN 0-9634921-4-4
  • Powell, James R., Jr. and Randall G. Stehle. Playback Equalizer Settings for 78 RPM Recordings. Third Edition. 1993, 2001, 2007; Gramophone Adventures, Portage, MI. ISBN 0-9634921-3-6

Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from amongst engineers, scientists, manufacturers and other organisations and individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ...

Further reading

  • From Tin Foil to Stereo — Evolution of the Phonograph by Oliver Read and Walter L. Welch.
  • Where have all the good times gone? — the rise and fall of the record industry Louis Barfe.
  • Pressing the LP record by Ellingham, Niel, published at 1 Bruach Lane, PH16 5DG, Scotland.

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Phonograph Record History (0 words)
A gramophone record, (also vinyl record, phonograph record or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides.
Analogue audio recording onto a disc was the main technology used for the storing of recorded sound for most of the 20th century.
Such records were usually sold separately, in plain cardboard sleeves that may have been printed to show producer of the retailer's name and sometimes in collections held in paper sleeves in a cardboard or leather book, similar to a photograph album, and called record albums.
Gramophone Record (0 words)
A gramophone record is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove.
Gramophone records were the primary technology used for personal music reproduction for most of the 20th century.
The recording is played back by rotating the disc at a constant rotational speed with a stylus placed in the groove, converting the vibrations of the stylus into an electric signal, and sending this signal through an amplifier to loudspeakers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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