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Encyclopedia > Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others. Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns. It also frequently affects verbs, sometimes nouns, and possessive relationships as well. In literature and storytelling, a point of view is the related experience of the narrator — not that of the author. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... In pragmatics and linguistics, deixis (Greek: δειξις display, demonstration, or reference, the meaning point of reference in contemporary linguistics having been taken over from Chrysippus, Stoica 2,65) is a process whereby words or expressions rely absolutely on context. ... In linguistics, an addressee is an intended direct recipient of the speakers communication. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Grammatical person in English

English distinguishes three grammatical persons: The personal pronoun you is in the second person. It refers to the addressee. You is used in both the singular and plural; thou is the archaic informal second-person singular pronoun. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Thou (disambiguation). ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ...


All other pronouns and all nouns are in the third person. Any person, place, or thing other than the speaker and the addressed is referred to in the third person.


See English personal pronouns, and the following articles on specific grammatical persons, or their corresponding personal pronouns: The personal pronouns of English can have various forms according to gender, number, person, and case. ...

  • I ( 1st. person singular)
  • Thou (2nd. person singular, archaic)
  • You (2nd. person singular/plural)
  • He (3rd. person singular, masculine)
  • She (3rd. person singular, feminine)
  • It (3rd. person singular, neuter)
  • One (morphologically 3rd. person singular, though semantically equivalent to "we")
  • We (1st. person plural)
  • Y'all (2nd. person plural, dialectal)
  • Youse (2nd. person plural, dialectal)
  • Yunz (2nd. person plural, dialectal)
  • Ye (2nd. person plural, archaic)
  • They (3rd. person plural)

Look up I in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Thou (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Modern English personal pronoun. ... Look up he in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The gender-specific pronouns of a language distinguish between male and female people (and often of animals as well). ... For other uses, see She (disambiguation). ... The gender-specific pronouns of a language distinguish between male and female people (and often of animals as well). ... This article is about the Modern English personal pronoun. ... The gender-specific pronouns of a language distinguish between male and female people (and often of animals as well). ... One is a personal pronoun in the English language. ... Look up we in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Water tower in Florence, Kentucky featuring the word yall. ... You is the second person plural pronoun in English. ... Look up ye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up they in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Additional persons

In Indo-European languages, first-, second-, and third-person pronouns are all marked for singular and plural forms, and sometimes dual forms as well (see grammatical number). Some languages, especially European, distinguish degrees of formality and informality. See T-V distinction. For other uses, see Indo-European. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dual is the grammatical number used for two referents. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In sociolinguistics, a T-V distinction describes the situation wherein a language has second-person pronouns that distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, or insult toward the addressee. ...


Other languages use different classifying systems, especially in the plural pronouns. One frequently found difference not present in most Indo-European languages is a contrast between inclusive and exclusive "we", a distinction of first-person pronouns of including or excluding the addressee. Inclusive we is a pronoun or verb conjugation that indicates the inclusion of the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to exclusive we, which specifically excludes the addressee. ...


Other languages have much more elaborate systems of formality that go well beyond the T-V distinction, and use many different pronouns and verb forms that express the speaker's relationship with the people he or she addresses. Many Malayo-Polynesian languages, such as Javanese and Balinese are well known for their complex systems of honorifics; Japanese and Korean also have similar systems to a lesser extent. The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Balinese is the language spoken by people in the island of Bali, Indonesia. ... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ...


In many languages, the verb takes a form dependent on this person and whether it is singular or plural. In English, this happens with the verb to be as follows: It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

  • I am (first-person singular)
  • you are/thou art (second-person singular)
  • he, she, one or it is (third-person singular)
  • we are (first-person plural and all of the above)
  • you are (second-person plural)
  • they are (third-person plural)

By contrast, Interlingua uses a single verb form for the three persons: es for is, am, and are, ha for has and have, and so on. This article is an informal outline of the grammar of Interlingua, an international auxiliary language first publicized by IALA. It follows the usage of the original grammar text (Gode & Blair, 1951), which is accepted today but regarded as conservative. ...


The grammar of some languages divide the semantic space into more than three persons. The extra categories may be termed fourth person, fifth person, etc. Such terms are not absolute but can refer depending on context to any of several phenomena.


Some languages, the best-known examples being Algonquian languages, divide the category of third person into two parts: proximate for a more topical third person, and obviative for a less topical third person. The obviative is sometimes called the fourth person. The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ...


The term fourth person is also sometimes used for the category of indefinite or generic referents, that work like one in English phrases such as "one should be prepared" or people in people say that..., when the grammar treats them differently from ordinary third-person forms. For example, the so-called "passive tense" in Finnish and related languages is actually not a tense, and has the same meaning as a phrase with subjects "one" or "people" in English. Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ...


See also

Look up grammatical person in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... Personal pronouns are pronouns often used as substitutes for proper or common nouns. ... The personal pronouns of English can have various forms according to gender, number, person, and case. ... Gender-neutral, gender-inclusive or epicene pronouns are pronouns that neither reveal nor imply the gender or the sex of a person. ... The gender-specific pronouns of a language distinguish between male and female people (and often of animals as well). ... Generic antecedents are representatives of classes of people, indicated by a reference in ordinary language (most often a pronoun), where gender is typically unknown or irrelevant. ... In English grammar, generic you or indefinite you is the use of the pronoun you to refer to an unspecified person. ... Many traditional and current uses of distributive constructions in English grammar are broadly described by the term singular they, covering uses of the pronoun they (and its inflected forms) when plurality is not required by the context. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ...

External links

  • An alternative formulation to easily recognise first, second and third person.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Person - FrathWiki (649 words)
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is used for the grammatical categories a language uses to describe the relationship between the speaker and the persons or things she is talking about.
The personal pronouns "I" and "we" are said to be in the first person.
This person is traditionally defined to be what is spoken of or anything that is not first or second person.
Article about "Grammatical person" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Jul-2004 (0 words)
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is used for the grammatical categories a language uses to describe the relationship between the speaker and the persons or things she is talking about.
The personal pronouns "I" and "we" are said to be in the first person.
In Indo-European languages, first, second, and third person pronouns are all marked for singular and plural forms, and perhaps dual forms as well.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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