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Encyclopedia > Grammatical mood
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In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. Many languages express distinctions of mood through morphology, by changing (inflecting) the form of the verb. Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Theoretical linguistics is that branch of linguistics that is most concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, the lexis of a language is the entire store of its lexical items. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Lexical semantics is a field in computer science and linguistics which deals mainly with word meaning. ... Statistical Semantics is the study of how the statistical patterns of human word usage can be used to figure out what people mean, at least to a level sufficient for information access (Furnas, 2006). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Prototype Theory is a model of graded categorization in Cognitive Science, where some members of a category are more central than others. ... Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Linguistic anthropology is that branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms and processes (on both small and large scales) to the interpretation of sociocultural processes (again on small and large scales). ... Generative linguistics is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. ... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ... In linguistics, prescription can refer both to the codification and the enforcement of rules governing how a language is to be used. ... Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or real world text. ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies linguistics. ... Unsolved problems in : Note: Use the unsolved tag: {{unsolved|F|X}}, where F is any field in the sciences: and X is a concise explanation with or without links. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ...

Contents

Definition

Because modern English does not have all of the moods described below, and has a very simplified system of verb inflection as well, it is not straightforward to explain the moods in English. (The English moods are indicative, subjunctive, and imperative). Note, too, that the exact sense of each mood differs from language to language. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Grammatical mood per se is not the same thing as grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although these concepts are conflated to some degree in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages, insofar as the same word patterns are used to express more than one of these concepts at the same time. Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ...


Currently identified moods include conditional, imperative, indicative, injunctive, negative, optative, potential, subjunctive, and more. Infinitive is a category apart from all these finite forms, and so are gerunds and participles. Some Uralic Samoyedic languages have more than ten moods; Nenets has as many as sixteen. The original Indo-European inventory of moods was indicative, subjunctive, optative, and imperative. Not every Indo-European language has each of these moods, but the most conservative ones such as Avestan, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit have them all. In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages it occurs in. ... In linguistics, a gerund is a non-finite verb form that exists in many languages. ... In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Samoyedic languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by perhaps 30,000 speakers altogether. ... Nenets (autonym: ненёця вада) is a language spoken by the Nenets people in northern Russia. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Yasna 28. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


It should be noted that not all of the moods listed below are clearly conceptually distinct. Individual terminology varies from language to language, and the coverage of (e.g.) the "conditional" mood in one language may largely overlap with that of the "hypothetical" or "potential" mood in another. Even when two different moods exist in the same language, their respective usages may blur, or may be defined by syntactic rather than semantic criteria. For example, the subjunctive and optative moods in Ancient Greek alternate syntactically in many subordinate clauses, depending on the tense of the main verb. The usage of the indicative, subjunctive and jussive moods in Classical Arabic is almost completely controlled by syntactic context; the only possible alternation in the same context is between indicative and jussive following the negative particle . In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... The jussive mood is a grammatical mood that indicates commands, permission or agreement with a request. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Classification

Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... A modal form is a provision of syntax that indicates the predication of an action, attitude, condition, or state other than that of a simple declaration of fact. ...

Realis moods

Main article: Realis

Realis moods are a category of grammatical moods which indicate that something is actually the case, or actually not the case. The most common realis mood is the indicative mood or the declarative mood. Realis moods are a category of grammatical moods which indicate that something is actually the case. ...


Declarative

The declarative mood indicates that the statement is true, without any qualifications being made. It is in many languages equivalent to the indicative mood, although sometimes distinctions between them are drawn. It is closely related with the inferential mood (see below).


Energetic

Found in Classical Arabic and various other Semitic languages, the energetic mood expresses something which is strongly believed or which the speaker wishes to emphasize, e.g. yaktubunn يَكتُبُنَّ ("he certainly writes"). In German, the same effect is obtained by the introduction of a particle; "ja" can be inserted for emphasis. In French, similarly, the negative "point" in place of "pas" indicates strong negation. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ...


Generic

Main article: Generic mood

The generic mood is used to make generalizations about a particular class of things, e.g. in "Rabbits are fast", one is speaking about rabbits in general, rather than about particular fast rabbits. English has no means of morphologically distinguishing generic mood from indicative mood; however, the distinction can easily be understood in context by surrounding words. Compare, for example: rabbits are fast, versus, the rabbits are fast. Use of the definite article the implies specific, particular rabbits, whereas omitting it implies the generic mood simply by default. The generic mood, in linguistics, is a mood used to make generalized comments about a class of thing. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ...


Ancient Greek had a species of generic mood, the so-called gnomic utterance, marked by the aorist indicative (normally reserved for statements about the past). It was used especially to express philosophical truths about the world. Note: This article contains special characters. ... It has been suggested that Gnomic literature be merged into this article or section. ... Aorist (from Greek αοριστος, indefinite) is a term used in certain Indo-European languages to refer to a particular grammatical tense and/or aspect. ...


Indicative (evidential)

Look up indicative in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The indicative mood is used for factual statements and positive beliefs. All intentions that a particular language does not categorize as another mood are classified as indicative. In English, questions are considered indicative. It is the most commonly used mood and is found in all languages. Example: "Paul is reading a book" or "John reads books". Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...


Irrealis moods

Main article: Irrealis

Irrealis moods are the set of grammatical moods that indicate that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking. Irrealis is a type of verb form used when speaking of an event which has not happened, is not likely to happen, or is otherwise far removed from the real course of events. ...


Cohortative

Main article: Cohortative mood

The cohortative mood (alternatively, hortatory) is used to express plea, insistence, imploring, self-encouragement, wish, desire, intent, command, purpose or consequence. It does not exist in English, but phrases such as "let us" are often used to denote it. In Latin, it is interchangeable with the jussive. The cohortative mood (also known as Intentional; cohortative subjunctive is also synonymous with hortatory subjunctive) is a grammatical mood, used to express plea, insistence, imploring, self-encouragement, wish, desire, intent, command, purpose or consequence. ...


Conditional

Main article: Conditional mood

The conditional mood is used to speak of an event whose realization is dependent on a certain condition, particularly, but not exclusively, in conditional sentences. In Modern English, it is a periphrastic construction, with the form would + infinitive, e.g. I would buy. In other languages, such as Spanish or French, verbs have a specific conditional inflection. Thus, the conditional version of "John eats if he is hungry" is: The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ... In grammar, conditional sentences are sentences discussing factual implications or hypothetical situations and their consequences. ... Periphrasis is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is expressed by many or several words. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ...

John would eat if he were hungry, in English;
Jean mangerait s'il avait faim, in French;
Juan comería si tuviera hambre, in Spanish.

In the Romance languages, the conditional form is used primarily in the apodosis (main clause) of conditional clauses, and also in a few set phrases where it expresses courtesy or doubt. The main verb in the protasis (dependent clause) is either in the subjunctive or in the indicative mood. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... An apodosis is a conditional concluding clause. ... A set phrase is an expression (i. ...


This is not a universal trait; in Finnish, for example, the conditional mood is used both in the apodosis and the protasis. An example is the sentence "I would buy a house if I earned a lot of money", where in Finnish both clauses have the conditional marker -isi-: Ostaisin talon, jos ansaitsisin paljon rahaa.


In English, too, the would + infinitive construct can be employed in main clauses, with a subjunctive sense: "If you would only tell me what's troubling you, I might be able to help". In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ...


Dubitative

Main article: Dubitative mood

The dubitative mood is used in Ojibwe, Turkish, and other languages. It expresses the speaker's doubt or uncertainty about the event denoted by the verb. For example, in Ojibwe, Baawitigong igo ayaa noongom translates as "he is in California today." When the dubitative suffix -dog is added, this becomes Baawitigong igo ayaadog noongom, "I guess he must be in California.[1] Dubitative mood is a grammatical mood found in some languages, that indicates that the statement is dubious, doubtful, or uncertain. ... Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Eventive

The eventive mood is used in the Finnish epic poem Kalevala. It is a combination of the potential and the conditional. It is also used in dialects of Estonian. In Finnish, there are theoretically forms such as kävelleisin "I would probably walk". The Kalevala is an epic poem which Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish folk lore in the 19th century. ...


Hypothetical

Main article: Hypothetical mood

The hypothetical mood, found in Russian, Lakota, and other languages, expresses a counterfactual but possible event or situation. Hypothetical mood is a grammatical mood found in some languages, which indicates that while a statement is not actually true, it could easily have been. ... Lakota (also Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) is the largest of the three languages of the Sioux, of the Siouan family. ... A counterfactual conditional (sometimes called a subjunctive conditional) is a logical conditional statement whose antecedent is (ordinarily) taken to be contrary to fact by those who utter it. ...


Imperative

The imperative mood expresses direct commands, requests, and prohibitions. In many circumstances, using the imperative mood may sound blunt or even rude, so it is often used with care. Example: "Paul, do your homework now". An imperative is used to tell someone to do something without argument.


Many languages, including English, use the bare verb stem to form the imperative (such as "go", "run", "do"). Other languages, such as Seri and Latin, however, use special imperative forms. Seri (referred to as cmiique iitom by the Seri people) is a language isolate spoken by the Seri people in two villages on the coast of Sonora, Mexico. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


In English, second-person is implied by the imperative except when first-person plural is specified, as in "Let's go" ("Let us go").


The prohibitive mood, the negative imperative, may be grammatically or morphologically different from the imperative mood in some languages. The Prohibitive mood is a grammatical mood, found in some languages, that indicates that the action of the verb is not permitted, e. ...


Inferential

The inferential mood is used in some languages such as Bulgarian and Turkish to convey information about events which were not directly observed or were inferred by the speaker. It is usually impossible to translate in English. For instance, indicative Bulgarian "той отиде" and Turkish o gitti will be translated the same as inferential "той отишъл" and o gitmiş — with the English indicative "he went". Using the first two forms, however, implies very strongly that the speaker either witnessed the event or is very sure that it took place. The second pair implies either that the speaker did not in fact witness it take place, that it occurred in the some past or that there is considerable doubt as to whether it actually happened.


If it is absolutely necessary to make the distinction, then the English construction "he must have gone" would translate a past inferential.


Interrogative

Main article: Interrogative mood

The interrogative mood is used for asking questions. Most languages do not have a special mood for asking questions, but Welsh and Nenets do. In linguistics and grammar, the interrogative mood is a grammatical mood used for asking questions. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Nenets (autonym: ненёця вада) is a language spoken by the Nenets people in northern Russia. ...


Jussive

The jussive mood is similar to the cohortative mood, in that it expresses plea, insistence, imploring, self-encouragement, wish, desire, intent, command, purpose or consequence. In some languages, the two are distinguished in that cohortative occurs in the first person and the jussive in the second or third. It is found in Arabic, where it is called the مجزوم, majzum. The rules governing the jussive in Arabic are somewhat complex. “Arabic” redirects here. ... The Arabic word ( ) designates the system of nominal and adjectival suffixes of Classical Arabic. ...


Negative

The negative mood expresses a negated action. In many languages, rather than inflecting the verb, negation is expressed by adding a particle: Negation (i. ... In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ...

  • Before the verb phrase, as in Spanish No está en casa;
  • Or after it, as in archaic and dialectal English Thou remembrest not or Dutch Ik zie hem niet, or in modern English, I think not;
  • Or both, as in French Je ne sais pas or Afrikaans Hy kan nie Afrikaans praat nie.

Standard English usually adds the auxiliary verb do, and then adds not after it: "I did not go there". In these instances, "do" is known as a dummy auxiliary, because of its zero semantic content. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ...


In Indo-European languages, it is not customary to speak of a negative mood, since in these languages negation is originally a grammatical particle that can be applied to a verb in any of these moods. Nevertheless, in some, like Welsh, verbs have special inflections to be used in negative clauses. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


In other language families, the negative may count as a separate mood. An example is Japanese, which conjugates verbs in the negative after adding the suffix -nai (indicating negation), e.g. tabeta ("ate") and tabenakatta ("did not eat"). It could be argued that Modern English has joined the ranks of these languages, since negation in the indicative mood requires the use of an auxiliary verb and a distinct syntax in most cases. Zwicky and Pullum have shown that n't is an inflectional suffix, not a clitic or a derivational suffix[2]. Contrast, for instance, "He sings" → "He doesn't sing" (where the dummy auxiliary do has to be supplied and inflected to doesn't) with Il chanteIl ne chante pas; French adds the (discontinuous) negative particle ne ... pas, without changing the form of the verb. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Arnold Zwicky is a Visiting Professor of Linguistics at Stanford University, and Distinguished University Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at Ohio State University. ... Professor Geoffrey K. Pullum (born in 1945 in Irvine, Scotland) is a linguist specialising in the study of English. ... In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ...


See also negation (rhetoric). In rhetoric, where the role of the interpreter is taken into consideration as a non-negligible factor, negation bears a much wider range of functions and meanings than it does in logic, where the interpretation of signs for negation is constrained by axioms to a few standard options, typically just...


Optative

Main article: Optative mood

The optative mood expresses hopes, wishes or commands and has other uses that may overlap with the subjunctive mood. Few languages have an optative as a distinct mood; some that do are Albanian, Ancient Greek, Sanskrit, Japanese, Finnish, and all forms of the Persian language (Avestan, Old Persian, Middle Persian, New Persian). The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Yasna 28. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and in Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


In Finnish, the mood may be called an "archaic" or "formal imperative", even if it has other uses; nevertheless, it does express formality at least. For example, the 9th Article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights begins with Älköön ketään pidätettäkö mielivaltaisesti, "Not anyone shall be arrested arbitrarily", where älköön pidätettäkö "shall not be arrested" is the optative of ei pidätetä "is not arrested". (Also, using the conditional mood -isi- in conjunction with the clitic -pa yields an optative meaning, e.g. olisinpa "if I only were". Here, it is evident that the wish is not, and probably will not be fulfilled.) Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ...


In Japanese the verb inflection -tai expresses the speaker's desire, e.g. watashi wa asoko ni ikitai "I want to go there". Oddly enough, this verb form is treated as a pseudo-adjective: the auxiliary verb garu is used by dropping the end -i of an adjective to indicate the outward appearance of another's mental state, in this case the desire of a person other than the speaker (e.g. Jon wa tabetagatte imasu "John wants to eat").


Sometimes this is called a "desiderative mood", since it indicates desires. Occasionally distinctions are made between different optative moods, e.g. a mood to express hopes as opposed to a mood to express desires. (Desires are what we want to be the case; hope generally implies an optimism toward the chances of a desire's fulfillment. If someone desires something but is pessimistic about its chances of occurring, then one desires it but does not hope for it.)


Potential

The potential mood is a mood of probability, indicating that in the opinion of the speaker, the action or occurrence is considered likely. It is used in Persian, Finnish, Japanese, in Sanskrit and in the Sámi languages. (In Japanese it is often called something like tentative, since potential is used to refer to a voice indicating capability to perform the action.) “Farsi” redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ...


In Finnish, it is mostly a literary device, as it has virtually disappeared from daily spoken language in most dialects. Its suffix is -ne-, as in *men + ne + emennee "(s/he/it) will probably go". Some kinds of consonant clusters simplify to geminates. This simplification occurs progressively (*rne → rre) with the resonant consonants L, R, and S, and regressively with stops (*tne → nne) and is meant to prevent the violation of phonotactical rules concerning sonority hierarchy. For example, korjata → *korjat + ne + tkorjannet "you will probably fix", or tulla → *tul + ne + etullee "s/he/it will probably come". The potential mood can be used only in present and perfect tenses. The verb ole- "be" is replaced by lie, so that "(it) is probably" is lienee (not *ollee). Thus, in the perfect tense, which is formed with an auxiliary verb, the auxiliary verb lie is used instead of ole- as liene-, e.g. lienet korjannut "you have probably fixed" (not *ollet korjannut). Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A sonority hierarchy or sonority scale is a way of acting like a moron by using wikipedia. ...


In English, it is formed by means of the auxiliaries may, can, ought and must.


Presumptive

The presumptive mood is used in Romanian to express presupposition or hypothesis regarding the fact denoted by the verb, as well as other more or less similar attitudes: doubt, curiosity, concern, condition, indifference, inevitability. For example, acolo s-o fi dus "he might have gone there" shows the basic presupposition use, while the following excerpt from a poem of Eminescu Mihai Eminescu Mihai Eminescu a. ...

De-o fi una, de-o fi alta... Ce e scris și pentru noi,
Bucuroși le-om duce toate, de e pace, de-i război.
Be it one, be it the other... Whatever fate we have,
We will gladly go through all, be it peace or be it war

shows the use both in a conditional clause de-o fi "suppose it is" and in a main clause showing an attitude of submission to fate le-om duce "we would bear".


Subjunctive

Main article: Subjunctive mood

The subjunctive mood, sometimes called conjunctive mood, has several uses in dependent clauses. Examples include discussing hypothetical or unlikely events, expressing opinions or emotions, or making polite requests (the exact scope is language-specific). A subjunctive mood exists in English, but native English speakers need not use it. Example: "I suggested that Paul read some books", Paul is not in fact reading a book. Contrast this with the sentence "Paul reads books", where the verb "to read" is in the present tense, indicative mood. Another way, especially in British English, of expressing this might be "I suggested that Paul should read some books", derived from "Paul should read some books." In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... A dependent clause (or subordinate clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ...


Other uses of the subjunctive in English, as in "And if he be not able to bring a lamb, then he shall bring for his trespass..." (KJV Leviticus 5:7) have definitely become archaic. Statements such as "I will ensure that he leave immediately" often sound archaic or overly formal, and have been almost completely supplanted by constructions with the indicative, like "I will ensure that he leaves immediately". This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ...


The subjunctive mood figures prominently in the grammar of Persian and the Romance languages, which require this mood for certain types of dependent clauses. This point commonly causes difficulty for English speakers learning these languages. For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


In certain other languages, the dubitative or the conditional moods may be employed instead of the subjunctive in referring to doubtful or unlikely events (see the main article).


Admirative and Renarrative

The admirative mood is used to express surprise, but also doubt, irony, sarcasm, etc. The renarrative mood is used to report a nonwitnessed event without confirming it, but the same forms also function as admiratives in the Balkan languages in which they occur.


In Indo-European languages, the admirative, unlike the optative, is not one of the original moods, but a later development. Admirative constructs occur in Balkan Slavic (Bulgarian and Macedonian), Albanian, Megleno-Romanian and Ukrainian Tosk Albanian. A form of the admirative, derived from the Albanian pattern, can be found in Frasheriote Arumanian. It seems that the dubitative/inferential patterns of Turkish — a non-Indo-European language — influenced Albanian and Balkan Slavic languages in this regard. Megleno–Romanian is a Romance language, similar to Macedo-Romanian, spoken in the Greek area of Meglen, north of Thessaloniki. ... Tosk is the southern dialect of the Albanian language. ... This article concerns the grammar of the Turkish language. ...


Writing on the typology of evidentiality in Balkan languages, Victor Friedman systematizes the facts in the following way:[3] In linguistics, evidentiality is a modality that allows (or requires) speakers to specify why they believe a given statement—i. ...

"As grammaticalized in the Balkan languages, evidentiality encodes the speaker's evaluation of the narrated event, often, but not always, predicated upon the nature of the available evidence. These evidentials can be of two types: Confirmative (sometimes called 'witnessed') and nonconfirmative (sometimes called 'reported', 'inferential', and/or 'nonwitnessed'). The nonconfirmatives can, in Austin's terms, be felicitous (neutral) or infelicitous. Felicitous nonconfirmatives are used for reports, inferences, etc., for which the speaker chooses not to take responsibility. An infelicitous nonconfirmative expresses either acceptance of a previously unexpected state of affairs (surprise, i.e. something the speaker would not have been willing to confirm prior to discovery, the mirative or admirative) or sarcastic rejection of a previous statement (doubt, irony, etc., the dubitative)."

Ibid., "Illustrative data (interlinear glossing is omitted to save space): [...]

Toj bil bogat! (Macedonian, nonconfirmative past)
Той щял да ме набие. (Bulgarian, doubtful future: He's going to beat me up, but I don't think that would be possible because I think that I am stronger than he)
Ама вие сте били тук. (Bulgarian, present tense: You are/have been here, but I didn't know it, I've just found out and I'm surprised at the fact)
O zenginmiş! (Turkish, nonconfirmative past)
Ai qenka i pasur! (Albanian, nonconfirmative present)
He is rich! (to my surprise; the nonconfirmative refers to discovery of pre-existing state)
Ku qenka mjeshtri? (Albanian, nonconfirmative present)
Kade bil majstorot ? (Macedonian, nonconfirmative past)
Patron neredeymiş? (Turkish, nonconfirmative past)
Where is the boss? (I am surprised at his absence; Albanian can have true present meaning, Balkan Slavic/Turkish cannot)

Present and future tenses also exist for such a mood in the above-mentioned languages, but, with the exception of the Albanian true nonconfirmative present illustrated above, these "nonconfirmatives, (from perfects), always have a past reference to either a real or a putative narrated event, speech event, or state of mind. They cannot be used with true nonpast reference."

Do t'u hapka një universitet privat (Albanian: A private University will be opened - apparently, i.e. as reported by someone & to my surprise.)
Varacakmış (Turkish: He will be arriving - as told by someone)

References

  1. ^ Ontario Curriculum Support Document for the Teaching of Language Patterns
  2. ^ Zwicky, Arnold M. & Geoffrey K. Pullum (1983), "Cliticization vs. Inflection: English n't", Language 59 (3): 502-513, <http://www.stanford.edu/~zwicky/ZPCliticsInfl.pdf>
  3. ^ Language Contact and the Typology of Evidentials in the Balkans, A. Victor Friedman

Arnold Zwicky is a Visiting Professor of Linguistics at Stanford University, and Distinguished University Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at Ohio State University. ... Professor Geoffrey K. Pullum (born in 1945 in Irvine, Scotland) is a linguist specialising in the study of English. ...

See also

Grammatical modality is the mode in which the grammar of a sentence is constructed. ... Some languages distinguish between alethic moods and non-alethic moods. ... It has been suggested that Gnomic literature be merged into this article or section. ... Irrealis is a type of verb form used when speaking of an event which has not happened, is not likely to happen, or is otherwise far removed from the real course of events. ... Realis moods are a category of grammatical moods which indicate that something is actually the case. ... A mirative (or admirative) is a particular grammatical element in some languages that indicates unexpected and new information. ... In linguistics, evidentiality is a modality that allows (or requires) speakers to specify why they believe a given statement—i. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ...

External links

From SIL:


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