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Encyclopedia > Grammatical conjugation

In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, or other grammatical categories. All the different forms of the same verb constitute a lexeme and the form of the verb that is conventionally used to represent the canonical form of the verb is a lemma. Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In language learning, the principal parts of a verb are the series of key forms which the student has to learn by heart in order to be able to conjugate the verb through all its forms. ... In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) to reflect grammatical (that is, relational) information, such as gender, tense, number or person. ... Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Narrator. ... In linguistics, the term grammatical number refers to ways of expressing quantity by inflecting words. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... Definition A lexeme is an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of words that are the same in basic meaning. ... In linguistics, and particularly in morphology, a lemma is the canonical form of a lexeme. ...


Conjugated forms of a verb which show a given person, number, tense, etc. are called finite forms. In many languages there are also one or more several non-finite forms, such as the infinitive or the gerund. A table giving all the conjugated variants of a verb in a given language is called a conjugation table or a verb paradigm. In grammar, the infinitive is the form of a verb that has no inflection to indicate person, number, mood or tense. ... In linguistics, a gerund is a kind of verbal noun that exists in some languages. ...


A regular verb has a paradigm of conjugation that derives all forms from a few specific forms or principal parts (maybe only one, such as the infinitive in English). When a verb cannot be conjugated straightforwardly like this, it is said to be irregular. Typically the principal parts are the root and/or several modifications of it (stems). A regular verb is a verb whose conjugation can be predicted given a few verb forms (principal parts) and a few rules. ... In language learning, the principal parts of a verb are the series of key forms which the student has to learn by heart in order to be able to conjugate the verb through all its forms. ... In contrast to regular verbs, irregular verbs are those verbs that fall outside the standard patterns of conjugation in the languages in which they occur. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Conjugation is also the traditional name of a group of verbs that share a similar conjugation pattern in a particular language (a verb class). This is the sense in which teachers say that Latin has four conjugations of verbs. This means that any regular Latin verb can be conjugated in any person, number, tense, mood, and voice by knowing which of the four conjugation groups it belongs to, and its principal parts. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

Contents

Examples of conjugation

Indo-European languages usually inflect verbs for several grammatical categories in complex paradigms, although some, like English, have simplified verb conjugation to a large extent. Below is the conjugation of the verb to be in the present tense, indicative mood, active voice, in English, German, Swedish, French, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish, Latvian, Polish, Hindi, and Persian. This is usually the most irregular verb. You may notice the similarities in corresponding verb forms; only the infinitives of Swedish and Hindi diverge from those of other languages. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) to reflect grammatical (that is, relational) information, such as gender, tense, number or person. ... An inflectional paradigm is a table illustrating the forms of an inflected word. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...

To be in several Indo-European languages
Language Family Germanic Italic Baltic Slavic Indo-Iranian
Form / Person English German Swedish French Italian Spanish Portuguese Latin Latvian Polish Bulgarian Hindi Persian
infinitive to be sein vara être essere ser ser esse būt być бити* hona budan
1st singular I am ich bin jag är je suis (io) sono (yo) soy (eu) sou (ego) sum es esmu (ja) jestem (аз) съм main hoon (man) hastam
2nd singular thou art (archaic) du bist
Sie sind [formal]
du är tu es (tu) sei (tú) eres
(usted) es [formal]
(tu) és [informal]
(você) é
(tū) es tu esi (ty) jesteś (ти) си aap hai
tum ho [informal]
(to) hasti
3rd singular he/she/it is er/sie/es ist han / hon / den / det är il / elle est (egli / essa) è (él / ella) es (ele / ela) é (is / ea / id) est viņš / viņa ir (on / ona / ono) jest (той / тя / то) е woh hai
ve hain [formal]
(u) hast
1st plural we are wir sind vi är nous sommes (noi) siamo (nosotros / nosotras) somos (nós) somos (nōs) sumus mēs esam (my) jesteśmy (ние) сме ham hain (mâ) hastim
2nd plural you are ihr seid ni är vous êtes (voi) siete (vosotros / vosotras) sois
(ustedes) son [formal]
(vós) sois
(vocês) são
(vōs) estis jūs esat (wy) jesteście (вие) сте tum log ho / aap log ho / aap log hain (šomâ) hastid
3rd plural they are sie sind de är ils / elles sont (essi) sono (ellos / ellas) son (eles / elas) são (eī / eae / ea) sunt viņi, viņas ir (oni / one) są (те) са ve hain (ânhâ) hastand
Formal ~ Sie sind ~ vous êtes (lei) è / (loro) sono (usted) es / (ustedes) son (o senhor / a senhora) é
(os senhores / as senhoras) são
~ ~ ~ (Вие) сте ve hain 2nd person
(šomâ) hastid

3rd person
(išân) hastand

*Archaic, no infinitive in the modern language.


Common conjugation categories

Common grammatical categories according to which verbs can be conjugated are the following: A grammatical category is a general term. ...

Other factors which may affect conjugation are: A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages it occurs in. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Narrator. ... In linguistics, the term grammatical number refers to ways of expressing quantity by inflecting words. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... A non-finite verb is not limited by the person, tense and number of the subject. ...

In sociolinguistics, a T-V distinction describes the situation wherein a language has second-person pronouns that distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, or insult toward the addressee. ... Inclusive we is a pronoun or verb conjugation that indicates the inclusion of the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to exclusive we, which specifically excludes the addressee. ... In linguistics, valency or valence refers to the capacity of a verb to take a specific number and type of arguments (noun phrase positions). ...

Conjugations by language

A verbs conjugation is determined by its third-person singular present tense form, so in this article this form will be called conjugation determiner. The stress is also a very important factor in the conjugation. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Main article: French verbs French verbs are divided into three conjugations (conjugaisons) by the ending of their infinitives: -er verbs, -ir verbs, and -re verbs. ... This is a paradigm of German verbs, that is, a set of conjugation tables, for the model regular verbs and for some of the most common irregular verbs. ... Conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from one basic form. ... Main article: Spanish verbs This is a paradigm of Spanish verbs, that is, a set of conjugation tables, for the model regular verbs and for some of the most common irregular verbs (see the article on Spanish irregular verbs for common patterns of irregularity that may help understanding this paradigm). ...

See also

In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) to reflect grammatical (that is, relational) information, such as gender, tense, number or person. ... This list of Latin verbs includes all four principal parts (three in the case of deponent verbs, semi-deponent verbs, and certain passives) of the verbs in this order (all are 1st person, singular, active, indicative): 1- present 2- infinitive 3- past perfect 4- passive perfect participle. ... In grammar, a part of speech or word class is defined as the role that a word (or sometimes a phrase) plays in a sentence. ... A screeve is a tense/aspect/mood form of a verb. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
grammatical - Search Results - MSN Encarta (171 words)
Early grammatical study appears to have gone hand in hand with efforts to understand archaic writings.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar).
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