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Encyclopedia > Grammar
Linguistics
Theoretical linguistics
Phonetics
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
Lexis
Semantics
Lexical semantics
Statistical semantics
Structural semantics
Prototype semantics
Pragmatics
Applied linguistics
Language acquisition
Psycholinguistics
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Linguistic anthropology
Generative linguistics
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Etymology
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Grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of a given natural language, and, as such, is a field of linguistics. Traditionally, grammar included morphology and syntax; in modern linguistics these subfields are complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics. Each language has its own distinct grammar. "English grammar" (uncountable) refers to the rules of the English language itself, while "an English grammar" (countable) refers to a specific study or analysis of these rules. A fully explicit grammar exhaustively describing the grammatical constructions of a language is called a descriptive grammar. Specific types of grammars, or approaches to constructing them, are known as grammatical frameworks. The standard framework of generative grammar is the transformational grammar model developed by Noam Chomsky in the 1950s to 1980s. English grammar is a body of rules specifying how meanings are created in English. ... In computer science and linguistics, a formal grammar, or sometimes simply grammar, is a precise description of a formal language — that is, of a set of strings. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... For the journal, see Theoretical Linguistics (journal). ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, the lexis of a language is the entire store of its lexical items. ... Semantics (Ancient σημαντικός semantikos significant, from semainein to signify, mean, from sema sign, token), is the study of meaning in communication. ... Lexical semantics is a field in computer science and linguistics which deals mainly with word meaning. ... Statistical Semantics is the study of how the statistical patterns of human word usage can be used to figure out what people mean, at least to a level sufficient for information access (Furnas, 2006). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Prototype Theory is a model of graded categorization in Cognitive Science, where some members of a category are more central than others. ... Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... For the academic journal, see Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... Linguistic anthropology is that branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms and processes (on both small and large scales) to the interpretation of sociocultural processes (again on small and large scales). ... Generative linguistics is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. ... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ... In linguistics, prescription can refer both to the codification and the enforcement of rules governing how a language is to be used. ... Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or real world text. ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies linguistics. ... Unsolved problems in : Note: Use the unsolved tag: {{unsolved|F|X}}, where F is any field in the sciences: and X is a concise explanation with or without links. ... Rule has several meanings: A rule in mathematics is something which is always true. ... In the philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a language that is spoken, written, or signed by humans for general-purpose communication, as distinguished from formal languages (such as computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic) and... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Semantics (Ancient σημαντικός semantikos significant, from semainein to signify, mean, from sema sign, token), is the study of meaning in communication. ... Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. ... In theoretical linguistics, grammaticality is the quality of a linguistic utterance of being grammatically correct. ... Grammatical Framework (GF) is a type-theoretic grammar formalism based on Martin-Löf type theory. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Generative linguistics. ... In linguistics, a transformational grammar, or transformational-generative grammar (TGG), is a grammar, especially of a natural language, that has been developed in a Chomskian tradition. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ...

Contents

History

Further information: History of linguistics

The first systematic grammars originate in Iron Age India, with Panini (4th c. BC) and his commentators Pingala (ca. 200 BC), Katyayana and Patanjali (2nd c. BC). In the West, grammar emerges as a discipline in Hellenism from the 3rd c. BC with authors like Rhyanus and Aristarchus of Samothrace, the oldest extant work being the Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική) attributed to Dionysius Thrax (ca. 100 BC). Latin grammar developed following Greek models from the 1st century BC with authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, Aemilius Asper. Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... Pingala (पिङ्गल ) is the supposed author of the Chandas shastra (, also Chandas sutra ), a Sanskrit treatise on prosody considered one of the Vedanga. ... Kātyāyana (c. ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Aristarchus of Samothrace, Gr. ... Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Art of Grammar The Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική) is a treatise on Greek grammar attributed to Dionysius Thrax, and written in the 2nd century BC It is the first work of grammar in Greek, and it sought mainly to help speakers... Dionysius Thrax (Διονύσιος Θράξ) (170 BC‑90 BC) was a Hellenistic era Greek grammarian who lived and is thought by some to have worked in Alexandria and later at Rhodes. ... Latin, like all other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflectional, and so has a very flexible word order. ... Lucius Orbilius Pupillus was a Latin grammarian of the 1st century A.D., who had a school at Rome, where the poet Horace was one of his pupils. ... Quintus Remmius Palaemon, Roman grammarian, a native of Vicentia, lived in the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. ... Marcus Valerius Probus, of Berytus, was a Roman grammarian and critic, who flourished during the reign of Nero. ... Marcus Verrius Flaccus (c. ... Aemilius Asper (fl. ...


Tamil grammatical tradition also began around the 1st century BC with the Tolkāppiyam. The Tolkāppiyam (Tamil: ) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature[1]. It is written in the form of sootirams(Skt: sutra) or formulae and comprises of three books - the Ezhuttadikaram, the Solladikaram and the Poruladikaram. ...


A grammar of Irish originated in the 7th century with the Auraicept na n-Éces. fol. ...


Arabic grammar emerges from the 8th century with the work of Ibn Abi Ishaq and his students. Arabic is a Semitic language. ... ʿAbd Allāh ibn Abī Isḥāq ,(Arabic,عبد الله بن أبي اسحاق),(died AD 735 / AH 117) an Arab grammarian and is the earliest known grammarian of the Arabic language. ...


Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following authors of Late Antiquity like Priscian. Treatment of vernaculars begins gradually from the High Middle Ages, with isolated works such as the First Grammatical Treatise, but becomes influential only from the Renaissance and Baroque periods. In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and in 1492 the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana . In the 16th century Italian Renaissance, the Questione della lingua was the discussion on the status and ideal form of the Italian language, initiated by Dante's de vulgari eloquentia (Pietro Bembo, Prose della volgar lingua Venice 1525). In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Priscian (Priscianus Caesariensisi), the celebrated Latin grammarian, lived about A.D. 500, i. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... This mysterious work is one of the earliest written works in Icelandic (and actually in any Norse language. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... Statue of Antonio de Nebrija, outside of the Biblioteca Nacional de España, in Madrid. ... Spanish (Español) is a language originating in North-Central Spain which is spoken throughout Spain, most countries in the Americas, the Philippines and Equatorial Guinea. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[4] primarily in Italy. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... De vulgari eloquentia (On Vernacular Speech) is the title of an important essay by Dante Alighieri, written in Latin and initially meant to consist in four books, but aborted after the second. ... Pietro Bembo (May 20, 1470 - 18 January 1547), Italian cardinal and scholar. ...


Grammars of non-European languages began to be compiled from the 16th century for the purpose of evangelization and Bible translation from the 16th century, such as Grammatica o Arte de la Lengua General de los Indios de los Reynos del Perú (1560), a Quechua grammar by Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás. In 1643 appeared Ivan Uzhevych's Grammatica sclavonica, in 1762 the Short Introduction to English Grammar of Robert Lowth. The Grammatisch-Kritisches Wörterbuch der hochdeutschen Mundart, a High German grammar in five volumes by Johann Christoph Adelung, appeared from 1774. Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás (born 1499, died 28 February 1570 in Lima) was a Spanish Dominican and grammarian who compiled the first Quechua grammar. ... Ivan Petrovych UZHEVYCH (Ukrainian Іван Ужевич [Ivan Uževyč], Belarusian Іван Ужэвіч [Ivan Užėvič], Polish Jan Użewicz; he himself wrote his name Іωаннъ Ужевичъ Словянинъ, Ioannes Usevicius Sclavonus, Ioannes Ugevicius Sclavonus, Jan Użewic; in the student register of Cracow University he is written Ioannes Petri Uzewicz) (*1610s, † after 1645), Ruthenian grammarian. ... Robert Lowth, D. D. Lord Bishop of London Robert Lowth (November 27, 1710 – November 3, 1787) was a Bishop of the Church of England, a professor of poetry at Oxford University and the author of one of the most influential textbooks of English grammar. ... Subdivisions Central German Upper German High German (in German, Hochdeutsch) is any of several German dialects spoken in Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg (as well as in neighbouring portions of Belgium, France (Alsace), Italy, Poland, and Romania (Transylvania) and in some areas of former colonial settlement, for example in... Johann Christoph Adelung (8 August 1732 - 10 September 1806) was a German grammarian and philologist. ...


From the later 18th century, grammar came to be understood as a subfield of the emerging subject of modern linguistics. The Serbian grammar by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić appeared in 1814. The Deutsche Grammatik of the Brothers Grimm appeared from 1818. The Comparative Grammar of Franz Bopp, starting point of modern comparative linguistics, in 1833. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serbian linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ... For other uses, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation). ... Franz Bopp (September 14, 1791 - October 23, 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive comparative work on Indo-European languages. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ...


In the USA, the Society for the Promotion of Good Grammar has designated March 4, 2008 as National Grammar Day.[1] Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


Development of grammars

Main article: Historical linguistics

Grammars evolve through usage and also of human population separations. With the advent of written representations, formal rules about language usage tend to appear also. Formal grammars are codifications of usage that are developed by observation. As the rules become established and developed, the prescriptive concept of grammatical correctness can arise. This often creates a gulf between contemporary usage and that which is accepted as correct. Linguists normally consider that prescriptive grammars do not have any justification beyond their authors' aesthetic tastes; however, prescriptions are considered in sociolinguistics as part of the explanation for why some people say "I didn't do nothing", some say "I didn't do anything", and some say one or the other depending on social context. Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Knowledge representation is an issue that arises in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. ... Codification is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ...


The formal study of grammar is an important part of education from a young age through advanced learning, though the rules taught in schools are not a "grammar" in the sense most linguists use the term, as they are often prescriptive rather than descriptive. Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules of the language. ... In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules for a language. ...


Constructed languages (also called planned languages or conlangs) are more common in the modern day. Many have been designed to aid human communication (for example, naturalistic Interlingua, schematic Esperanto, and the highly logic-compatible artificial language Lojban). Each of these languages has its own grammar. A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... This article is about the language. ... Lojban (IPA ) is a constructed human language based on predicate logic. ...


No clear line can be drawn between syntax and morphology. Analytic languages use syntax to convey information that is encoded via inflection in synthetic languages. In other words, word order is not significant and morphology is highly significant in a purely synthetic language, whereas morphology is not significant and syntax is highly significant in an analytic language. Chinese and Afrikaans, for example, are highly analytic and meaning is therefore very context dependent. (Both do have some inflections, and had more in the past; thus, they are becoming even less synthetic and more "purely" analytic over time.) Latin, which is highly synthetic, uses affixes and inflections to convey the same information that Chinese does with syntax. Because Latin words are quite (though not completely) self-contained, an intelligible Latin sentence can be made from elements placed in largely arbitrary order. Latin has a complex affixation and a simple syntax, while Chinese has the opposite. An analytic language (or isolating language) is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and considered to be full-fledged words. By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ...


Grammar frameworks

Main article: Grammar framework

Various "grammar frameworks" have been developed in theoretical linguistics since the mid 20th century, in particular under the influence of the idea of a "Universal grammar" in the USA. Of these, the main divisions are: In theoretical linguistics, the following fundamental approaches towards constructing grammar frameworks for natural languages are distinguished: Generative grammar: algorithmic (phrase structure grammars) Transformational grammar (1960s) Generalised phrase structure grammar (late 1970s) Head-driven phrase structure grammar (1985) Principles and parameters (1980s) Lexical functional grammar Categorial grammar (lambda calculus) Montague grammar... For the journal, see Theoretical Linguistics (journal). ... Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ...

In linguistics, a transformational grammar, or transformational-generative grammar (TGG), is a grammar, especially of a natural language, that has been developed in a Chomskian tradition. ... Principles and parameters refers to a popular framework in generative linguistics. ... Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a reaction to the direction research in the area of transformational grammar began to take in the 1970s. ... Generalised phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages. ... The Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is a non-derivational generative grammar theory developed by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag (1985). ... Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of syntactic theories separate from generative grammar. ... Role and reference grammar (RRG) is a model of grammar developed by William Foley and Robert Van Valin in the 1980s. ...

See also

In computer science, a grammar is said to be an ambiguous grammar if there is some string that it can generate in more than one way (i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Higher-order grammar is a grammar theory based on higher-order logic. ... Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ National Grammar Day
  • American Academic Press, The (ed.). William Strunk, Jr., et al. The Classics of Style: The Fundamentals of Language Style From Our American Craftsmen. Cleveland: The American Academic Press, 2006. ISBN 0978728203.
  • Rundle, Bede. Grammar in Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. ISBN 0198246129.

William Strunk Jr. ...

External links

Look up Grammar in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • English Grammar (Gramática da Língua Inglesa), wikibook in English and Portuguese
  • Online Grammar Practice
  • Grammar and Language Message Board A free online grammar community featuring Q&A, ESL, metalanguage and other forums for anyone with an interest in or questions about grammar.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Portuguese (português) is a Romance language predominantly spoken in Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, and East Timor. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Grammar - MSN Encarta (1609 words)
Grammar to the prescriptivist, historian, comparativist, functionalist, and descriptivist is then the organizational part of language—how speech is put together, how words and sentences are formed, and how messages are communicated.
A structural grammar should describe what the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure referred to by the French word langue—denoting the system underlying a particular language—that is, what members of a speech community speak and hear that will pass as acceptable grammar to other speakers and hearers of that language.
His idea of grammar is that it is a device for producing the structure, not of langue (that is, not of a particular language), but of competence—the ability to produce and understand sentences in any and all languages.
grammar (6384 words)
Grammar involves rules of phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics that are all internalized, usually by the age of 5.
Grammar studies were considered a means of honing the mind and the classical trivium of grammar, rhetoric, and logic were considered the foundation of all knowledge and were prerequisites for later studies in theology, philosophy, and literature (Weaver 1996).
In essence she asks “whose grammar are we teaching?” If the goal of grammar teaching (whether within the context of writing or not) is to help students speak and write the language of power, we must ask ourselves if this is a noble goal.
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