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Encyclopedia > Gram negative bacteria

Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. On most Gram-stain preparations, Gram-negative organisms will appear red or pink because they are counterstained. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus_Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ...


The difference lies in the cell wall of the two types; in contrast to most Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria have only a few layers of peptidoglycan and a secondary cell membrane made primarily of lipopolysaccharide. The space between the layers of peptidoglican and the secondary cell membrane is called periplasmatic space. A cell wall is a more or less solid layer surrounding a cell. ... Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a homogenous layer lying outside the plasma membrane in prokaryotes. ... A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule that contains both lipid and a carbohydrate. ...


Many species of Gram-negative bacteria are pathogenic. This pathogenic capability is usually associated with certain components of their cell walls, particularly the lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) layer. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule that contains both lipid and a carbohydrate. ... Endotoxin is part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. ...


The proteobacteria are a major group of Gram-negative bacteria, including for instance Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and other Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Helicobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Bdellovibrio, acetic acid bacteria, Legionella and a great many others. Other notable groups of Gram-negative bacteria include the cyanobacteria, spirochaetes, green sulfur and green non-sulfur bacteria. Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella choleraesuis Salmonella enterica Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella nyanza Salmonella paratyphi Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella virginia Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Species P. fluorescens P. putida etc. ... Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that infects the mucus lining of the human stomach. ... Bdellovibrio is a genus of Gram_negative, obligate aerobic bacteria. ... Genera Acetobacter Acidiphilium Acidocella Acidomonas Craurococcus Gluconacetobacter Gluconobacter Paracraurococcus Rhodopila Roseococcus Stella Zavarzinia Acetic acid bacteria are bacteria that derive their energy from the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during respiration. ... Species Legionella adelaidensis Legionella anisa Legionella beliardensis Legionella birminghamensis Legionella brunensis Legionella busanensis Legionella cherrii Legionella cincinnatiensis Legionella donaldsonii Legionella drancourtii Legionella drozanskii Legionella erythra Legionella fairfieldensis Legionella fallonii Legionella feeleii Legionella geestiana Legionella gratiana Legionella gresilensis Legionella hackeliae Legionella israelensis Legionella jamestowniensis Legionella jordanis Legionella lansingensis Legionella londiniensis Legionella... Cyanobacteria (Greek: cyanos = blue) are a phylum of aquatic bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. ... Families Brachyspiraceae Leptospiraceae Spirochaetaceae The spirochaetes are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Genera Chlorobium Ancalochloris Chloroherpeton Clathrochloris Pelodictyon Prostheochloris The green sulfur bacteria are a family (Chlorobiaceae) of phototrophic bacteria. ... Orders / Families / Genera Order Chloroflexales     Family Chloroflexaceae      Chloroflexus      Chloronema      Heliothrix      Roseiflexus    Family Oscillochloridaceae      Oscillochloris Order Herpetosiphonales      Herpetosiphon The Chloroflexi are a group of bacteria that produce energy through photosynthesis. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gram-negative - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (300 words)
Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria.
The difference lies in the cell wall of the two types; in contrast to most Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria have only a few layers of peptidoglycan and a secondary cell membrane made primarily of lipopolysaccharide.
Two major subclassifications of Gram-negative bacteria are Gram-negative cocci and Gram-negative rods (bacilli), which they owe to their appearance under a microscope.
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