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Encyclopedia > Gram equivalent
Look up gram equivalent in
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In chemistry, a gram equivalent is the mass, in grams, of a compound's equivalent weight. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a Wikimedia Foundation project intended to be a free wiki dictionary (hence: Wiktionary) (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... Equivalent weight is the atomic weight of an element or radical divided by the valence it assumes in a chemical compound. ...


More formally, a gram equivalent of a substance taking part in a given reaction is the number of grams of the substance associated with the transfer of n electrons or protons or with the neutralization of n negative or positive charges, where n is Avogadro's number, 6.02×1023.


In a practical sense, a gram equivalent is the amount of a compound that is necessary to produce a given normality of a reactive species in a solution. Here, reactive species include ions that will precipitate, neutralize base (protons, H+), neutralize acid (hydroxide, OH-), donate electrons, or accept electrons. This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ...


To make clear the distinction between grams and gram equivalents, consider the following:


When making a solution with a given molarity, you measure grams of a compound and dissolve them in a known volume.


When making a solution with a given normality, you measure gram equivalents of a compound, in grams, and dissolve them in a known volume. This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ...


It is important to note that gram equivalents are specific to a given ion in solution (e.g., Na+, OH-, Ca2+, Fe3+, etc.), as measured in the solid state. As such, it can be a measure of ions participating in one of three general categories of reactions: oxidation-reduction reactions, acid-base reactions, and precipitation reactions: An ion is an atom, group of atoms, or subatomic particle with a net electric charge. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Reduction or reducing has several meanings: In mathematics, reduction is the process of manipulating a series of equations or matrices into a desired simpler format. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that strong base be merged into this article or section. ...

  • In acid-base chemistry, the gram equivalent expresses the mass of acid or base which will furnish a concentration of protons or hydroxide ions undergoing neutralization.
  • In redox reactions, gram equivalents denote the mass of oxidizing or reducing agent that can accept or furnish a given molarity of electrons.
  • In precipitation reactions, the gram equivalent is mass of a substance (typically a salt) which will produce a molar concentration of ions that participate in the precipitation.

For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that strong base be merged into this article or section. ... Redox reactions include all chemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Properties The electron is a lightweight fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. ...

Reference

  • Meldrum, W.B. J. Chem. Ed., 1955, 32, 48.

 
 

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