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Encyclopedia > Graffiti
Examples of modern graffiti styles
Spanish inscription at El Morro National Monument, 1605, with later graffiti
Spanish inscription at El Morro National Monument, 1605, with later graffiti

Graffiti (singular: graffito; the plural is used as a mass noun) is the name for images or lettering scratched, scrawled, painted or marked in any manner on property. Graffiti is often regarded as unsightly damage or unwanted vandalism. Graffiti usually refers to a type of deliberately inscribed marking made by humans. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution (2235 × 1500 pixel, file size: 827 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution (2235 × 1500 pixel, file size: 827 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Aerial view of El Morro. ... It has been suggested that Count noun be merged into this article or section. ... Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ...


Graffiti has existed since ancient times, with examples going back to Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire.[1] Graffiti can be anything from simple scratch marks to elaborate wall paintings. In modern times, spray paint and markers have become the most commonly used materials. In most countries, defacing property with graffiti without the property owner's consent is considered vandalism, which is punishable by law. Sometimes graffiti is employed to communicate social and political messages. To some, it is an art form worthy of display in galleries and exhibitions, to others it is merely vandalism. There are many different types and styles of graffiti and it is a rapidly evolving artform whose value is highly contested, being reviled by many authorities while also subject to protection, sometimes within the same jurisdiction. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Aerosol paint can. ... A Selection of Felt-Tip-Pens. ... Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ...

Contents

Etymology

Graffiti and graffito are from the Italian word graffiato ("scratched"). "Graffiti" is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface. A related term is "graffito," which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was primarily used by potters who would glaze their wares and then scratch a design into it. In ancient times, graffiti was carved on walls with a sharp object, although sometimes chalk or coal were used. The Greek infinitive γράφειν - graphein - meaning "to write," is from the same root. This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Graffito is the plural of Graffiti Graffito (Apache) is an open source framework used to build CMSes, blogs, etc. ... For other uses, see Chalk (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


History

The term graffiti referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, etc., found on the walls of ancient sepulchers or ruins, as in the Catacombs of Rome or at Pompeii. Usage of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes vandalism. Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... For the sepulchral burial site of Jesus in Jerusalem, see Church of the Holy Sepulchre. ... A procession in the catacomb of Callistus. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ...


The only known source of the Safaitic language, a form of proto-Arabic, is from graffiti: inscriptions scratched on to the surface of rocks and boulders in the predominantly basalt desert of southern Syria, eastern Jordan and northern Saudi Arabia. Safaitic dates from the 1st century B.C. to the 4th century A.D.. Safaitic is the name given to an Old North Arabian dialect, preserved in the form of inscriptions which are written in a type of South Semitic script. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... AD redirects here. ...


The first known example of "modern style" graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus (in modern-day Turkey). Local guides say it is an advertisement for prostitution. Located near a mosaic and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint and a number. This is believed to indicate that a brothel was nearby, with the handprint symbolizing payment.[2] For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... Whore redirects here. ... This article is about a decorative art. ...

Ancient Pompeii graffito caricature of a politician.
Ancient Pompeii graffito caricature of a politician.

The ancient Romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which also survive in Egypt. The eruption of Vesuvius preserved graffiti in Pompeii, including Latin curses, magic spells, declarations of love, alphabets, political slogans and famous literary quotes, providing insight into ancient Roman street life. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, a prostitute, apparently of great beauty, whose services were much in demand. Another shows a phallus accompanied by the text, 'mansueta tene': "Handle with care". From fr:Image:Graffiti politique de Pompei. ... From fr:Image:Graffiti politique de Pompei. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio) is a volcano east of Naples, Italy, located at 40°49′N 14°26′ E. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland, although it is not currently erupting. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Disappointed love also found its way onto walls in antiquity:

Quisquis amat. veniat. Veneri volo frangere costas
fustibus et lumbos debilitare deae.
Si potest illa mihi tenerum pertundere pectus
quit ego non possim caput illae frangere fuste?
Whoever loves, go to hell. I want to break Venus's ribs
with a club and deform her hips.
If she can break my tender heart
why can't I hit her over the head?
-CIL IV, 1284.

Errors in spelling and grammar in this graffiti offer insight into the degree of literacy in Roman times and provide clues on the pronunciation of spoken Latin. Examples are CIL IV, 7838: Vettium Firmum / aed[ilem] quactiliar[ii] [sic] rog[ant]. Here, "qu" is pronounced "co." The 83 pieces of graffiti found at CIL IV, 4706-85 are evidence of the ability to read and write at levels of society where literacy might not be expected. The graffiti appear on a peristyle which was being remodeled at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius by the architect Crescens. The graffiti was left by both the foreman and his workers. The brothel at CIL VII, 12, 18-20 contains over 120 pieces of graffiti, some of which were the work of the prostitutes and their clients. The gladiatorial academy at CIL IV, 4397 was scrawled with graffiti left by the gladiator Celadus Crescens (Suspirium puellarum Celadus thraex: "Celadus the Thracian makes the girls sigh.") The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ...

This 2nd-century representation of a crucified donkey is believed by some to be the first representation of Jesus (here, evidently by a non-Christian). Palatine Hill, Rome.
This 2nd-century representation of a crucified donkey is believed by some to be the first representation of Jesus (here, evidently by a non-Christian). Palatine Hill, Rome.

It was not only the Greeks and Romans that produced graffiti: the Mayan site of Tikal in Guatemala also contains ancient examples. Viking graffiti survive in Rome and at Newgrange Mound in Ireland, and a Varangian scratched his name (Halvdan) in runes on a banister in the Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Alexamenos graffito The Alexamenos graffito (also known as the graffito blasfemo[1]) is an inscription on a wall near the Palatine hill in Rome. ... There are no undisputed historical images of Jesus. ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... For other uses, see Tikal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Newgrange, which is located at , is one of the passage tombs of the Brú na Bóinne complex in County Meath, and the most famous of all Irish prehistoric sites. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Rune redirects here. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Graffiti, known as Tacherons, were frequently scratched on the walls of Romanesque churches.[3]


When Renaissance artists such as Pinturicchio, Raphael, Michelangelo, Ghirlandaio or Filippino Lippi descended into the ruins of Nero's Domus Aurea, they carved or painted their names[4][5] and returned with the grottesche style of decoration. There are also examples of graffiti occurring in American history, such as Signature Rock, a national landmark along the Oregon Trail. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The Crucifixion with Sts Jerome and Christopher (1471) Oil on wood, 59 x 40 cm Galleria Borghese, Rome Pinturicchio (1454-1513), Italian painter, whose full name was Bernardino di Betti. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... An Old Man with a Strawberry Nose (1480). ... Filippino Lippi, self-portrait Biography Filippino Lippi (ca. ... The Domus Aurea (Latin for Golden House) was a large landscaped portico villa, designed to take advantage of artificially created landscapes, rather than a monumental palace,[1] built in the heart of Ancient Rome by the Roman emperor Nero after Great fire of Rome, which devastated Rome in 64 AD... For other uses, see Oregon Trail (disambiguation). ...


Later, French soldiers carved their names on monuments during the Napoleonic campaign of Egypt in the 1790s.[6] Lord Byron's survives on one of the columns of the Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sounion in Attica, Greece.[7] There is also evidence of Chinese graffiti on the great wall of China. 1798 was a relatively quiet period in the French Revolutionary Wars. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Cape Sounion, looking out to the Aegean islands The cape of Sounion or Sounio, previously known as Sunium (in ancient Greek Σούνιον) is located 65 kilometres south-east of Athens, in Attica. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th...


Art forms like frescoes and murals involve leaving images and writing on wall surfaces. Like the prehistoric wall paintings created by cave dwellers, they do not comprise graffiti, as the artists generally produce them with the explicit permission (and usually support) of the owner or occupier of the walls. For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ...


Modern graffiti

Engraving of Kilroy on the WWII Memorial in Washington DC.
Engraving of Kilroy on the WWII Memorial in Washington DC.

Graffiti is often seen as having become intertwined with hip hop culture as one of the four main elements of the culture (along with rapping, DJing, and break dancing). However, there are many other instances of notable graffiti this century. Graffiti has long appeared on railroad boxcars. The one with the longest history, dating back to the 1920's and continuing into the present day, is Bozo Texino. During World War II and for decades after, the phrase "Kilroy was here" with accompanying illustration was widespread throughout the world, due to its use by American troops and its filtering into American popular culture. In the sixties, its popularity was eclipsed by American graffiti proclaiming that "Yossarian lives!", a reference to the protagonist of Joseph Heller's novel, Catch-22. The student protests and general strike of May 1968 saw Paris bedecked in revolutionary, anarchist, and situationist slogans such as L'ennui est contre-révolutionnaire ("Boredom is counterrevolutionary"). A famous graffito of the 20th century was the inscription in the London subway reading "Clapton is God". The phrase was spray-painted by an admirer on a wall in an Islington Underground station in the autumn of 1967. The graffiti was captured in a now-famous photograph, in which a dog is urinating on the wall. A popular graffito of the 1970s was the legend "Dick Nixon Before He Dicks You," reflecting the hostility of the youth culture to that U.S. president. Graffiti also became associated with the anti-establishment punk rock movement beginning in the 1970s. Bands such as Black Flag and Crass (and their followers) widely stenciled their names and logos, while many punk night clubs, squats and hangouts are famous for their graffiti. The National World War II Memorial is a National Memorial to all Americans that served in the armed forces and on the home front during World War II. It is located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., on the former site of the Rainbow Pool at the eastern... Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa. ... Rap redirects here. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... A boy hitting (holding) a pike Breakdance (media coined phrase), also known as breaking, b-girling or b-boying, is a street dance style that evolved as part of the hip hop movement that originated among African American youths in the South Bronx of New York City during the early... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the graffiti. ... Yossarian, as portrayed by Alan Arkin Captain John Yossarian is the 28-year-old protagonist of the 1961 novel Catch-22 by Joseph Heller. ... Joseph Heller (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American satirical novelist and playwright. ... Catch 22 can refer to: A book by Joseph Heller, or the movie based on the book; see Catch-22. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ... Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE[2] (born 30 March 1945) [3], nicknamed Slowhand, is a Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter and composer. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 - April 22, 1994) was the thirty-sixth (1953–1961) Vice President, and the thirty-seventh (1969–1974) President of the United States. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Black Flag was a hardcore punk band formed in 1976 in southern California, largely as the brainchild of Greg Ginn: the guitarist, primary songwriter and sole continuous member through multiple personnel changes. ... For information about the anarchist writer, see Chris Crass Crass was an English anarchist punk rock band, formed in 1977[1][2] and based around Dial House, an open house community near Epping, Essex. ...


Graffiti as an element of hip hop

An aerosol paint can, common tool for modern graffiti
An aerosol paint can, common tool for modern graffiti

In America around the late 1960s, graffiti was used as a form of expression by political activists, and also by gangs such as the Savage Skulls, La Familia, and Savage Nomads to mark territory. Towards the end of the 1960s, the signatures—tags—of Philadelphia graffiti writers Top Cat,[8] Cool Earl and Cornbread started to appear.[9] Around 1970-71, the centre of graffiti innovation moved to New York City where writers following in the wake of TAKI 183 and Tracy 168 would add their street number to their nickname, "bomb" a train with their work, and let the subway take it—and their fame, if it was impressive, or simply pervasive, enough—"all city". Bubble lettering held sway initially among writers from the Bronx, though the elaborate Brooklyn style Tracy 168 dubbed "wildstyle" would come to define the art.[8][10] The early trendsetters were joined in the 70s by artists like Dondi, Futura 2000, Daze, Blade, Lee, Zephyr, Rammellzee, Crash, Kel, NOC 167 and Lady Pink.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Aerosol paint can. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... New York Citys TAKI 183 One of the originators of New York graffiti was TAKI 183 – a foot messenger who would tag his nickname around New York streets that he daily frequented en route in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... TRACY 168 (b. ... Bronx redirects here. ... This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... For other uses, see Wildstyle (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Andrew Zephyr Witten is a graffiti artist, lecturer and author from New York City. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... John Crash Matos Crash (b. ... Lady Pink - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The relationship between graffiti and hip hop culture arises both from early graffiti artists practicing other aspects of hip hop, and its being practiced in areas where other elements of hip hop were evolving as art forms. Graffiti is recognized as a visual expression of rap music, as breakdancing is the physical expression. By the mid-eighties, the form would move from the street to the art world. Jean-Michel Basquiat would abandon his SAMO tag for art galleries, and even street art's connections to hip hop would loosen. Occasional hip hop paeans to graffiti could still be heard throughout the nineties, however, in tracks like the Artifacts' "Wrong Side of Da Tracks" (Between a Rock and a Hard Place, Big Beat, 1994) and Company Flow's "Lune TNS" (Funcrusher Plus, Rawkus, 1997).[8] Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa. ... A boy hitting (holding) a pike Breakdance (media coined phrase), also known as breaking, b-girling or b-boying, is a street dance style that evolved as part of the hip hop movement that originated among African American youths in the South Bronx of New York City during the early... Jean-Michel Basquiat (pronounced in French) (December 22, 1960, Brooklyn - August 12, 1988, New York, New York) was an American artist. ... Artifacts are a now-defunct hip hop duo consisting of El da Sensei and Tame One. ... Company Flow was a hip hop crew at one time associated with the independent record label Rawkus Records. ...

Modern graffiti on train
Modern graffiti on train

Origins

Between the years of 1969-1974 the "pioneering era" took place. During this time graffiti underwent a change in styles and popularity. Soon after the migration to NYC, the city produced one of the first graffiti artists to gain media attention in New York, TAKI 183. TAKI 183 was a youth from Washington Heights, Manhattan who worked as a foot messenger. His tag is a mixture of his name Demetrius (Demetraki), TAKI, and his street number, 183rd. Being a foot messenger, he was constantly on the subway and began to put up his tags along his travels. This spawned a 1971 article in the New York Times titled "'Taki 183' Spawns Pen Pals".[9][6][11] Julio 204 is also credited as an early writer, though not recognized at the time outside of the graffiti subculture. Other notable names from that time are: Stay High 149, PHASE 2, Stitch 1, Joe 182, Junior 161 and Cay 161. Barbara 62 and Eva 62 were also important early graffiti artists in New York, and are the first women to become known for writing graffiti. New York Citys TAKI 183 One of the originators of New York graffiti was TAKI 183 – a foot messenger who would tag his nickname around New York streets that he daily frequented en route in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... Washington Heights seen from the west tower of the George Washington Bridge. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Example of a Julio 204 tag JULIO 204 was the first graffiti writer in New York City and inspired early graffiti pioneers like Taki 183 and Stay High 149. Julio was a Puerto Rican who lived on 204th street and was a member of the Savage Skulls gang. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Also taking place during this era was the movement from outside on the city streets to the subways. Graffiti also saw its first seeds of competition around this time. The goal of most artists at this point was "getting up": having as many tags and bombs in as many places as possible. Artists began to break into subway yards in order to hit as many trains as they could with a lower risk, often creating larger elaborate pieces of art along the subway car sides. This is when the act of bombing was said to be officially established.


By 1971 tags began to take on their signature calligraphic appearance because, due to the huge number of artists, each graffiti artist needed a way to distinguish themselves. Aside from the growing complexity and creativity, tags also began to grow in size and scale – for example, many artists had begun to increase letter size and line thickness, as well as outlining their tags. This gave birth to the so-called 'masterpiece' or 'piece' in 1972. Super Kool 223 is credited as being the first to do these pieces. Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ...


The use of designs such as polka dots, crosshatches, and checkers became increasingly popular. Spray paint use increased dramatically around this time as artists began to expand their work. "Top-to-bottoms", works which span the entire height of a subway car, made their first appearance around this time as well. The overall creativity and artistic maturation of this time period did not go unnoticed by the mainstream – Hugo Martinez founded the United Graffiti Artists (UGA) in 1972. UGA consisted of many top graffiti artists of the time, and aimed to present graffiti in an art gallery setting. By 1974, graffiti artists had begun to incorporate the use of scenery and cartoon characters into their work.


Mid 1970s

After the original pioneering efforts, which culminated in 1974, the art form peaked around 1975 – 1977.[citation needed] By this time, most standards had been set in graffiti writing and culture. The heaviest "bombing" in U.S. history took place in this period, partially because of the economic restraints on New York City, which limited its ability to combat this art form with graffiti removal programs or transit maintenance. Also during this time, "top-to-bottoms" evolved to take up entire subway cars. Most note-worthy of this era proved to be the forming of the "throw-up", which are more complex than simple "tagging," but not as intricate as a "piece". Not long after their introduction, throw-ups lead to races to see who could do the largest amount of throw-ups in the least amount of time.


Graffiti writing was becoming very competitive and artists strove to go "all-city," or to have their names seen in all five boroughs of NYC. Eventually, the standards which had been set in the early 70s began to become stagnant. These changes in attitude lead many artists into the 1980s with a desire to expand and change. A borough is a political division originally used in England. ...


Late 1970s and early 1980s

The late 1970s and early 1980s brought a new wave of creativity to the scene. As the influence of graffiti grew, beyond the Bronx, a graffiti movement begun by encouragement by Friendly Freddie. Fab 5 Freddy (Fred Brathwaite) is another popular graffiti figure of this time, often credited with helping to spread the influence of graffiti and rap music beyond its early foundations in the Bronx. It was also, however, the last wave of true bombing before the Transit Authority made graffiti eradication a priority. The MTA (Metro Transit Authority) began to repair yard fences, and remove graffiti consistently, battling the surge of graffiti artists. With the MTA combating the artists by removing their work it often led many artists to quit in frustration, as their work was constantly being removed. It was also around this time that the established art world started becoming receptive to the graffiti culture for the first time since Hugo Martinez’s Razor Gallery in the early 1970s. Fred Brathwaite (born 1959), more popularly known as Fab 5 Freddy, was a graffiti artist in the 1970s. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Bronx redirects here. ... The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) is a public benefit corporation responsible for public transportation in the State of New York. ...


Just as the culture was spreading outside New York and overseas, the cultural aspect of graffiti in New York was said to be deteriorating almost to the point of extinction. The rapid decline in writing was due to several factors. The streets became more dangerous due to the burgeoning crack epidemic, legislation was underway to make penalties for graffiti artists more severe, and restrictions on paint sale and display made racking (stealing) materials difficult. Above all, the MTA greatly increased their anti-graffiti budget. Many favored painting sites became heavily guarded, yards were patrolled, newer and better fences were erected, and buffing of pieces was strong, heavy, and consistent. As a result of subways being harder to paint, more writers went into the streets, which is now, along with commuter trains and box cars, the most prevalent form of writing. Crack Cocaine The crack epidemic refers to a six year period between 1984 and 1990 in the United States during which there was a huge surge in the use of crack cocaine in major cities, and crack-houses all over the USA. Fallout from the crack epidemic included a huge...


Many graffiti artists, however, chose to see the new problems as a challenge rather than a reason to quit. A downside to these challenges was that the artists became very territorial of good writing spots, and strength and unity in numbers became increasingly important. This was probably the most violent era in graffiti history – Artists who chose to go out alone were often beaten and robbed of their supplies. Some of the mentionable graffiti artists from this era were Blade, Dondi, Seen and Skeme. This was stated to be the end for the casual NYC subway graffiti artists, and the years to follow would be populated by only what some consider the most "die hard" artists. People often found that making graffiti around their local areas was an easy way to get caught so they traveled to different areas. Seen is one of the most famous pioneering graffiti artists. ...


Spread of graffiti culture

In 1979, graffiti artist Lee Quinones and Fab 5 Freddy were given a gallery opening in Rome by art dealer Claudio Bruni. Slowly, European art dealers became more interested in the new art form. For many outside of New York, it was the first time ever being exposed to the art form. Fab 5 Freddy's friendship with Debbie Harry influenced Blondie's single "Rapture" (Chrysalis, 1981), the video to which would also offer many their first glimpse of a depiction of elements of graffiti in hip hop culture, as would Charlie Ahearn's independently released fiction film Wild Style (Wild Style, 1982), and the early PBS documentary Style Wars (1983). Hit songs like "The Message" and "Planet Rock" (both 1982) contributed to a growing interest outside New York in all aspects of hip hop. Fab 5 Freddy and Futura 2000 took hip hop graffiti to Paris and London as part of the New York City Rap Tour in 1983.[12] Hollywood also paid attention, consulting writers like PHASE 2 as it depicted the culture and gave it international exposure in movies like Beat Street (Orion, 1983). ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Deborah Ann Harry (born July 1, 1945, in Miami, Florida) is a singer-songwriter and actress most famous for being the lead singer for the punk rock/new wave band Blondie. ... Blondie is the name of an American rock band that first gained fame in the late 1970s, and which has sold over 140 million records. ... Audio sample Info (help· info) Alternate cover Rapture 1981, US edition Rapture is a single by Blondie. ... Chrysalis logo (1987-2005) Chrysalis Records is a record label that was created in 1969. ... For other uses, see Wild Style (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Style Wars is an early documentary on hip hop culture, made by Tony Silver and Henry Chalfant, made in New York City in the early 1980s. ... For Nas song, see The Message (Nas song). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Beat Street is a 1984 mainstream hip hop dramatic feature film, and the second following Breakin. It is set in New York City during the popularity rise of hip hop culture in the early 1980s. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


New York 1985–1989

The years between 1985 and 1989 became known as the "die hard" era. A last shot for the graffiti artists of this time was in the form of subway cars destined for the scrap yard. With the increased security, the culture had taken a step back. The previous elaborate "burners" on the outside of cars were now marred with simplistic marker tags which often soaked through the paint. Categories: Stub | Waste ...


By mid-1986 the MTA and the CTA were winning their "war on graffiti," and the population of active graffiti artists diminished. As the population of artists lowered so did the violence associated with graffiti crews and "bombing." Roof tops also were being the new billboards for some 80's writers. Some notable graffiti artists of this era were Cope2, Ja, Zephyr, Sane Smith, and T-Kid.[history source needed] For other uses, see Chicago Transit Authority (disambiguation). ... Cope2 in front of Time Magazine billboard. ...


New York Clean Train Movement era

The current era in graffiti is characterized by a majority of graffiti artists moving from subway or train cars to "street galleries." The Clean Train Movement started in May, 1989, when New York attempted to remove all of the subway cars found with graffiti on them out of the transit system. Because of this, many graffiti artists had to resort to new ways to express themselves. Much controversy arose among the streets debating whether graffiti should be considered an actual form of art.[13]


During this period many graffiti artists had taken to displaying their works in galleries and owning their own studios. This practice started in the early 1980s with artists such as Jean-Michel Basquiat, who started out tagging locations with his signature SAMO (Same Old Shit), and Keith Haring, who was also able to take his art into studio spaces. Jean-Michel Basquiat (pronounced in French) (December 22, 1960, Brooklyn - August 12, 1988, New York, New York) was an American artist. ... Harings Radiant Baby Keith Haring (May 4, 1958 - February 16, 1990) was a pre-eminent artist and social activist whose work responded to the New York street culture of the 1980s. ...


In some cases, graffiti artists had achieved such elaborate graffiti (especially those done in memory of a deceased person) on storefront gates that shopkeepers have hesitated to cover them up. In the Bronx after the death of rapper Big Pun, several murals dedicated to his life appeared virtually overnight;[14] similar outpourings occurred after the deaths of The Notorious B.I.G., Tupac Shakur, Big L, and Jam Master Jay.[15][16] Bronx redirects here. ... Rap redirects here. ... Christopher Lee Rios (November 9, 1971 - February 7, 2000), better known as Big Punisher or Big Pun, was an American rapper of Puerto Rican descent who emerged from the underground rap scene in The Bronx in the late 1990s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tupac Amaru Shakur (June 16, 1971 – September 13, 1996), also known by his stage names 2Pac, Makaveli, or simply as Pac, was an American artist renowned for his rap music, movie roles, poetry, and his social activism. ... For other uses, see Big L (disambiguation). ... Jason Mizell (January 21, 1965 – October 30, 2002), known as Jam Master Jay, was the founder and DJ of Run-DMC, a highly influential hip-hop group, based in the Queens borough of New York City. ...


Commercialization and entrance into mainstream pop culture

An example of crossover between video game culture and graffiti culture
An example of crossover between video game culture and graffiti culture

With the popularity and legitimization of graffiti has come a level of commercialization. In 2001, computer giant IBM launched an advertising campaign in Chicago and San Francisco which involved people spray painting on sidewalks a peace symbol, a heart, and a penguin (Linux mascot), to represent "Peace, Love, and Linux." However due to illegalities some of the "street artists" were arrested and charged with vandalism, and IBM was fined more than $120,000 for punitive and clean-up costs.[17][18] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1232x1632, 704 KB) Summary self made, from berlin germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1232x1632, 704 KB) Summary self made, from berlin germany. ... Video game culture is a form of new media culture that has been influenced by video games. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Peace sign redirects here. ... The traditional heart shape appears on a 1910 St. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


In 2005, a similar ad campaign was launched by Sony in New York, Chicago, Atlanta, Philadelphia, Los Angeles and Miami in order to market its handheld PSP gaming system. In this campaign, taking notice of the legal problems of the IBM campaign, Sony paid building owners for the rights to paint on their buildings "a collection of dizzy-eyed urban kids playing with the PSP as if it were a skateboard, a paddle or a rocking horse."[18] Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... The PlayStation Portable (officially abbreviated PSP)[5] is a handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. ... The PlayStation Portable (officially abbreviated PSP)[5] is a handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. ...


Along with the commercial growth has come the rise of video games also depicting graffiti, usually in a positive aspect – for example, the Jet Set Radio series (2000-2003) tells the story of a group of teens fighting the oppression of a totalitarian police force that attempts to limit the graffiti artists' freedom of speech. In plotlines mirroring the negative reaction of non-commercial artists to the commercialization of the artform by companies like IBM (and, later, Sony itself) the Rakugaki Ōkoku series (2003-2005) for Sony's PlayStation 2 revolves around an anonymous hero and his magically imbued-with-life graffiti creations as they struggle against an evil king who only allows art to be produced which can benefit him. Following the original roots of modern graffiti as a political force came another game title, Marc Eckō's Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure (2006), featuring a story line involving fighting against a corrupt city and its oppression of free speech, as in the Jet Set Radio series. Computer and video games redirects here. ... Jet Set Radio (Jet Grind Radio in the United States), is a video game released by Smilebit on 1 November 2000. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Graffiti Kingdom, known as Rakugaki Oukoku 2: Maoujou no Tatakai (ラクガキ王国2 魔王城の戦い) in Japan, is a video game by Taito Corporation and Garakuta Studio, which was published in America by Hot-B for the PlayStation 2 console. ... PS2 redirects here. ...


Other games which feature graffiti include Bomb the World (2004), an online graffiti simulation created by graffiti artist Klark Kent where users can virtually paint trains at 20 locations worldwide, and Super Mario Sunshine (2002), in which the hero, Mario must clean the city of graffiti left by the villain, Bowser Jr. in a plotline which evokes the successes of the Anti-Graffiti Task Force of New York's Mayor Rudolph Giuliani (a manifestation of "broken window theory") or those of the "Graffiti Blasters" of Chicago's Mayor Richard M. Daley. Klark Kent was Stewart Copelands alter-ego who recorded several UK singles in 1978 and released an eponymously-named 10-inch album on green vinyl in 1980. ... Klark Kent was Stewart Copelands alter-ego who recorded several UK singles in 1978 and released an eponymously-named 10-inch album on green vinyl in 1980. ... Super Mario Sunshine ) is a platform game developed by Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo GameCube. ... Mario ) is a video game character created by Japanese game designer Shigeru Miyamoto and the official mascot of Nintendo. ... // This is a list of various fictional and recurring characters who appear in the Mario series of video games created by Nintendo, as well as spin-off media, such as books, comics, and animated series. ... Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani (pronounced ;[1] born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, businessman, and politician from the state of New York who was Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001. ... Broken windows in the Pruitt-Igoe housing development Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities by George L. Kelling and Catherine Coles is a criminology book published in 1996, about petty crime and strategies to contain or eliminate it from urban neighbourhoods. ... Chicagos mayor, Richard M. Daley created the Graffiti Blasters (also known as Mayor Daleys Graffiti Blasters) to eliminate graffiti and gang-related vandalism. ... Richard Michael Daley (born April 24, 1942) is a United States politician, member of the national and local Democratic Party and current mayor of Chicago, Illinois. ...

A graffiti depiction of the 1978 game, Space Invaders

Numerous other non-graffiti-centric video games allow the player to produce graffiti (such as the Half-Life series, the Tony Hawk's series, The Urbz: Sims in the City, and Rolling). Many other titles contain in-game depictions of graffiti (such as The Darkness, Double Dragon 3: The Rosetta Stone, NetHack, Samurai Champloo: Sidetracked, The World Ends With You, The Warriors, Just Cause, Portal, various examples of Virtual Graffiti, etc.). There also exist a host of games where the term "graffiti" is used as a synonym for "drawing" (such as Yahoo! Graffiti, Graffiti, etc.). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 603 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 696 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) John Fekner and Don Leicht © 1982 Your Space Has Been Invaded. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 603 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 696 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) John Fekner and Don Leicht © 1982 Your Space Has Been Invaded. ... Space Invaders ) is an arcade video game designed by Tomohiro Nishikado in 1978. ... Gordon Freeman, the main protagonist, on the first Half-Life cover Half-Life is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game series developed by Valve Software and published by Sierra Studios. ... The latest game in the series, Tony Hawks Proving Ground. ... The Sims is a strategy/simulation computer game, created by game designer Will Wright and published by Maxis. ... This article is about a computer game. ... The Darkness is a first-person shooter video game for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. ... Billy and Jimmy Lee, the protagonists of the Double Dragon series. ... This article is about the role-playing game. ... The Warriors is a beat em up video game published by Rockstar Games. ... Just Cause was released on September 22, 2006 for Microsoft Windows, Xbox, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 2 platforms in Europe. ... For the 1986 interactive novel, see Portal (interactive novel). ... Yahoo! Graffiti is a multiplayer game and a member of the Yahoo! Games network of online computer games. ... First available to the public in 1991, the ImagiNation Network was a unique online gaming network that gave subscribers from all over the United States of America a place where they could play games, make friends and have fun. With a wide variety of games including RPGs, WWI aeroplane simulations...


Marc Ecko, an urban clothing designer, has been an advocate of graffiti as an art form during this period, stating that "Graffiti is without question the most powerful art movement in recent history and has been a driving inspiration throughout my career."[19] Marc Ecko (born Marc Milecofsky[1] in 1972 in East Brunswick, New Jersey) is a fashion designer and entrepreneur. ...


Keith Haring was another well-known graffiti artist who brought Pop Art and graffiti to the commercial mainstream. In the 1980s, Haring opened his first Pop Shop: a store that offered everyone access to his works—which until then could only be found spray-painted on city walls. Pop Shop offered commodities like bags and t-shirts. Haring explained that, "The Pop Shop makes my work accessible. It's about participation on a big level, the point was that we didn't want to produce things that would cheapen the art. In other words, this was still art as statement". Harings Radiant Baby Keith Haring (May 4, 1958 - February 16, 1990) was a pre-eminent artist and social activist whose work responded to the New York street culture of the 1980s. ...


Global developments

South America

There is a significant graffiti tradition in South America most especially in Brazil. Within Brazil, Sao Paulo is generally considered to be the current centre of inspiration for many graffiti artists worldwide.[20] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the Brazilian state, São Paulo. ...


Brazil "boasts a unique and particularly rich graffiti scene...[earning] it an international reputation as the place to go for artistic inspiration."[21] Graffiti "flourishes in every conceivable space in Brazil's cities."[21] Artistic parallels "are often drawn between the energy of Sao Paulo today and 1970s New York."[22] The "sprawling metropolis,"[22] of Sao Paulo has "become the new shrine to graffiti;"[22] Manco alludes to "poverty and unemployment...[and] the epic struggles and conditions of the country's marginalised peoples,"[23] and to "Brazil's chronic poverty,"[24] as the main engines that "have fuelled a vibrant graffiti culture."[24] In world terms, Brazil has "one of the most uneven distributions of income. Laws and taxes change frequently."[23] Such factors, Manco argues, contribute to a very fluid society, riven with those economic divisions and social tensions that underpin and feed the "folkloric vandalism and an urban sport for the disenfranchised,"[24] that is South American graffiti art. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Middle East

Graffiti in Tehran, Iran.
Graffiti in Tehran, Iran.

Graffiti in the Middle East is slowly emerging, with pockets of taggers operating in the various 'Emirates' of the United Arab Emirates, in Israel, and in Iran. Graffiti is also being covered in mainstream media following the launch of a West Coast Customs branch in Dubai and their country wide talent search for artists to spray the inside of the new garage live at the launch show.[citation needed] The major Iranian newspaper Hamshahri has published two articles on illegal writers in the city with photo coverage of Iranian artist A1one's works on Tehran walls. Tokyo-based design magazine PingMag has interviewed A1one and featured photos of his work.[25] The Israeli West Bank barrier has become a site for graffiti, reminiscent in this sense of the Berlin Wall. Many graffiti artists in Israel come from other places around the globe, such as JUIF, from Los Angeles, and DEVIONE from London. The term, "נ נח נחמ נחמן מאומן" ("Na Nach Nachma Nachman Meuman") is commonly seen graffitied around Israel. For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Hamshahri (Persian: همشهری) is a major national Iranian Persian-language newspaper published by the Municipality of Tehran, and founded by Gholamhossein Karbaschi. ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Na Nach Nachma Nachman Meuman is a Hebrew language mantra used by some sub-groups of the Breslov group of Hasidic Jews. ...

Modern experimentation

Modern graffiti art often incorporates additional arts and technologies. For example, Graffiti Research Lab has encouraged the use of projected images and magnetic light-emitting diodes as new media for graffiti writers. The Italian artist Kaso is pursuing regenerative graffiti through experimentation with abstract shapes and deliberate modification of previous graffiti artworks. Graffiti Research Labs, created by Eyebeam Atelier and OpenLab, is dedicated to outfitting graffiti writers and artist with open source technologies for urban communication. ... LED redirects here. ...


Characteristics of common graffiti

See also Graffiti terminology

Some of the most common styles of graffiti have their own names. A "tag" is the most basic writing of an artist's name in either spray paint or marker. A graffiti writer's tag is his or her personalized signature. "Tagging" is often the example given when opponents of graffiti refer to vandalism, as they use it to label all acts of graffiti writing (it is by far the most common form of graffiti). Tags can contain subtle and sometimes cryptic messages, and might incorporate the artist's initials or other letters. As well as the graffiti name, some artists include the year that they completed that tag next to the name, so that Tox, an artist from London, becomes Tox03, Tox04, etc. John Tsombikos claimed subsequent to his arrest that his "Borf" tag campaign, which gained recognition for its prevalence in Washington, D.C., was in memory of a deceased friend.[9] A number of words and phrases have come to describe different styles and aspects of graffiti. ... Borf stencils outside Kramerbooks. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Another form is the "throw-up," also known as a "fill-in," which is normally painted very quickly with two or three colors, sacrificing aesthetics for speed. Throw-ups can also be outlined on a surface with one color. A "piece" is a more elaborate representation of the artist's name, incorporating more stylized "block" or "bubble" letters, using three or more colors. This of course is done at the expense of timeliness and increases the likelihood of the artist getting caught. A "blockbuster" is a large piece done simply to cover a large area solidly with two contrasting colours, sometimes with the whole purpose of blocking other "writers" from painting on the same wall.


A more complex style is "wildstyle", a form of graffiti involving interlocking letters, arrows, and connecting points. These pieces are often harder to read by non-graffiti artists as the letters merge into one another in an often undecipherable manner. A "roller" is a "fill-in" that intentionally takes up an entire wall, sometimes with the whole purpose of blocking other "writers" from painting on the same wall. Some artists also use stickers as a quick way to "get-up". While critics from within graffiti culture consider this lazy and a form of cheating, stickers can be quite detailed in their own right, and are often used in conjunction with other materials. Sticker tags are commonly done on blank postage stickers, or indeed anything with an adhesive side to it.


Stencils are made by drawing an image onto a piece of cardboard or tougher versions of paper, then cut with a razor blade. What is left is then just simply sprayed-over, and if done correctly, a perfect image is left. Many graffiti artists believe that doing blockbusters or even complex wildstyles involves too great an investment of time to justify the practice. Doing wildstyle can take (depending on experience and size) three hours to several days. Another graffiti artist can go over that piece in a matter of minutes with a bubble fill-in. This was exemplified by the writer "CAP" in the documentary Style Wars, who, other writers complain, ruins pieces with his quick throw ups. This became known as "capping" and is often done when there is "beef", conflict between writers. Style Wars is an early documentary on hip hop culture, made by Tony Silver and Henry Chalfant, made in New York City in the early 1980s. ...


Uses

Theories on the use of graffiti by avant-garde artists have a history dating back at least to the Scandinavian Institute of Comparative Vandalism in 1961. A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... The Scandinavian Institute of Comparative Vandalism (Skandinavisk institut for sammenlignende vandalisme) was founded in 1961 by the Danish artist Asger Jorn, Peter Glob and Werner Jacobsen from the Danish National Museum and Holger Arbman of the University of Lund, Sweden. ...

Stencils by John Fekner: Charlotte Street Stencils, South Bronx, New York, 1980.
Stencils by John Fekner: Charlotte Street Stencils, South Bronx, New York, 1980.
Motor Lublin football club graffiti by an unknown supporter. Lublin, Poland
Motor Lublin football club graffiti by an unknown supporter. Lublin, Poland

Many contemporary analysts and even art critics have begun to see artistic value in some graffiti and to recognize it as a form of public art. According to many art researchers, particularly in the Netherlands and in Los Angeles, that type of public art is, in fact an effective tool of social emancipation or in the achievement of a political goal.[26] Image File history File linksMetadata BrokenPromises_JohnFekner. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BrokenPromises_JohnFekner. ... For other uses, see Stencil (disambiguation). ... John Fekner (b. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article is about the state. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 257 pixelsFull resolution (2797 × 897 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 257 pixelsFull resolution (2797 × 897 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Motor Lublin is a Polish football club based in Lublin, Poland. ... Panorama of Lublin form Trynitarska Tower Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Lublin Established before 12th century City Rights 1317 Government  - Mayor Adam Wasilewski Area  - City 147. ... La Joute by Jean-Paul Riopelle, an outdoor kinetic sculpture installation with fire jets, fog machines, and a fountain in Montreal. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The murals of Belfast and of Los Angeles offer another example of official recognition.[27] In times of conflict, such murals have offered a means of communication and self-expression for members of these socially, ethnically and/or racially divided communities, and have proven themselves as effective tools in establishing dialog and thus of addressing cleavages in the long run. The Berlin Wall was also extensively covered by Graffiti reflecting social pressures relating to the oppressive Soviet rule over the GDR. This article is about the capital city of Northern Ireland. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Disambiguation Page Global Depositary Receipt East Germany ...


Many artists involved with Graffiti also are concerned with the similar activity of Stencilling. Essentially, this entails stenciling a print of one or more colors using spray-paint. Graffiti artist John Fekner, called "caption writer to the urban environment, adman for the opposition" by writer Lucy Lippard[28] , was involved in direct art interventions within New York City's decaying urban environment in the mid-seventies through the eighties. Fekner is known for his word installations targeting social and political issues, stenciled on buildings throughout New York. a political stencil Stencil w/tools A stencil is a cartoon, number, letter, illustration, typographical symbol, or any other shape or image in cut-out form (it can be cut out of paper, cardboard, metal or other materials). ... John Fekner (b. ... Lucy Lippard is an internationally known writer, activist and curator from the United States. ...


In the UK, Banksy is the most recognizable icon for this cultural artistic movement and keeps his identity secret to avoid arrest. Much of Banksy's artwork can be seen around the streets of London and surrounding suburbs, though he has painted pictures around the world, including the Middle East, where he has painted on Israel's controversial West Bank barrier with satirical images of life on the other side. One depicted a hole in the wall with an idyllic beach, while another shows a mountain landscape on the other side. A number of exhibitions have also taken place since 2000, and recent works of art have fetched vast sums of money. Banksy is a well-known pseudo-anonymous[1] English graffiti artist. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Art exhibitions are traditionally the space in which art objects (in the most general sense) meet an audience. ...


Radical and political

Graffiti often has a reputation as part of a subculture that rebels against authority, although the considerations of the practitioners often diverge and can relate to a wide range of attitudes. It can express a political practice and can form just one tool in an array of resistance techniques. One early example includes the anarcho-punk band Crass, who conducted a campaign of stenciling anti-war, anarchist, feminist and anti-consumerist messages around the London Underground system during the late 1970s and early 1980s.[29] The anarchy symbol commonly used by anarcho-punks Anarcho-punk (sometimes known as peace-punk) is a subgenre of the punk rock movement consisting of groups and bands promoting specifically anarchist ideas. ... For information about the anarchist writer, see Chris Crass Crass was an English anarchist punk rock band, formed in 1977[1][2] and based around Dial House, an open house community near Epping, Essex. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Consumerist redirects here. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ...

Graffiti, UK, 1984
Graffiti, UK, 1984

In Amsterdam graffiti was a major part of the punk scene. The city was covered with names as 'De Zoot', 'Vendex' and 'Dr Rat'.[30][31] To document the graffiti a punk magazine was started called Gallery Anus. So when hip hop came to Europe in the early 1980's there already was a vibrant graffiti culture. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


The developments of graffiti art which took place in art galleries and colleges as well as "on the street" or "underground", contributed to the resurfacing in the 1990s of a far more overtly politicized art form in the subvertising, culture jamming or tactical media movements. These movements or styles tend to classify the artists by their relationship to their social and economic contexts, since, in most countries, graffiti art remains illegal in many forms except when using non-permanent paint. Since the 1990's a growing number of artists are switching to non-permanent paints for a variety of reasons -- but primarily because is it difficult for the police to apprehend and for the courts to sentence or even convict a person for a protest that is as fleeting and less intrusive than marching in the streets. In some communities, such impermanent works survive longer than works created with permanent paints because the community views the work in the same vein as that of the civil protestor who marches in the street -- such protest are impermanent but effective nevertheless. A subvertisement based on the Coca-Cola logo Subvertising refers to the practice of making spoofs or parodies of corporate and political advertisements in order to make a statement. ... Culture jamming is a resistance movement to cultural hegemony and the homogenous nature of popular culture, executed by means of guerrilla communication. ...


In some areas where a number of artist share the impermance ideal, there grows an informal competition. That is, the length of time that a work escapes destruction is related to the amount of respect the work garners in the community. A crude work that deserves little respect would invariably be removed immediately. The most talented artist might have works last for days.


Artists whose primary object is to assert contol over property -- and not primarily to create of an expressive work of art, political or otherwise -- resist switching to impermanent paints.


Contemporary practitioners, accordingly, have varied and often conflicting practices. Some individuals, such as Alexander Brener, have used the medium to politicize other art forms, and have used the prison sentences forced onto them as a means of further protest.[32] Green dollar sign spray painted onto Malevichs painting Alexander Brener (b. ...


The practices of anonymous groups and individuals also vary widely, and practitioners by no means always agree with each others' practices. Anti-capitalist art group the Space Hijackers, for example, did a piece in 2004 about the contradiction between the capitalistic elements of Banksy and his use of political imagery. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Banksy is a well-known pseudo-anonymous[1] English graffiti artist. ...


On top of the political aspect of graffiti as a movement, political groups and individuals may also use graffiti as a tool to spread their point of view. This practice, due to its illegality, has generally become favoured by groups excluded from the political mainstream (e.g. far-left or far-right groups) who justify their activity by pointing out that they do not have the money – or sometimes the desire – to buy advertising to get their message across, and that a "ruling class" or "establishment" control the mainstream press, systematically excluding the radical/alternative point of view. This type of graffiti can seem crude; for example fascist supporters often scrawl swastikas and other Nazi images. A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ... Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the left-right political spectrum. ... Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitive position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... // Advert redirects here. ... The term ruling class refers to the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that societys political policy. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... This article is about the symbol. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


One innovative form of graffiti that emerged in the UK in the 1970s was devised by the Money Liberation Front (MLF), essentially a loose affiliation of underground press writers such as the poet and playwright Heathcote Williams and magazine editor and playwright Jay Jeff Jones. They initiated the use of paper currency as a medium for counterculture propaganda, overprinting banknotes, usually with a John Bull printing set. Although short lived the MLF was representative of London’s Ladbroke Grove centered alternative and literary community of the period. The area was also a scene of considerable anti-establishment and humorous street graffiti much of it also produced by Williams. [1] The phrase underground press, especially underground newspapers (or simply underground papers) is, these days, most often used in reference to the alternative print media, independently published and distributed, associated with the countercultural movements of the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... Heathcote Williams (b. ... Counterculture (also counter-culture) is a sociological word used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day,[1] the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... World War I recruiting poster An earlier John Bull in which he is depicted as an actual bull. ... Ladbroke Grove is a road in West London, and is also the name given to the immediate area surrounding the road. ... Not to be confused with antidisestablishmentarianism. ...


Both sides of the conflict in Northern Ireland produce political graffiti. As well as slogans, Northern Irish political graffiti include large wall paintings, referred to as murals. Along with the flying of flags and the painting of kerb stones, the murals serve a territorial purpose. Artists paint them mostly on house gables or on the Peace Lines, high walls that separate different communities. The murals often develop over an extended period and tend to stylisation, with a strong symbolic or iconographic content. Loyalist murals often refer to historical events dating from the war between James II and William III in the late 17th century, whereas Republican murals usually refer to the more recent troubles. Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Peace Lines are a series of separation barriers ranging in length from a few hundred yards to over 3 miles, separating Catholic neighbourhoods in Belfast. ... For other uses, see Loyalist (disambiguation). ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scotland,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Irish republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent republic, whether as a unitary state, a federal state or as a confederal arrangement. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ...


Decorative and high art

Graffiti by Miss Van and Ciou in Barcelona
Graffiti by Miss Van and Ciou in Barcelona

A 2006 exhibition at the Brooklyn Museum displayed graffiti as an art form that began in New York's outer boroughs and reached great heights in the early '80s with the work of Crash, Lee, Daze, Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 474 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Detail File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Graffiti Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 474 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Detail File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Graffiti Metadata... Miss Van is one of the most prominent painters in the Toulouse graffiti scene. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... The Brooklyn Museum, located at 200 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, is the second largest art museum in New York City, and one of the largest in the United States. ...


It displayed 22 works by New York graffiti artists, including Crash, Daze and Lady Pink. In an article about the exhibition in Time Out Magazine, curator Charlotta Kotik said that she hoped the exhibition would cause viewers to rethink their assumptions about graffiti. Terrance Lindall, noted surrealist artist whose works for Heavy Metal Magazine and Creepy and Eerie have inspired many of these artists, went further:[33] ²--195. ... Lady Pink - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Terrance Lindall is an American artist who was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1944. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... Magazine cover featuring the main characters of Richard Corbens Den series, one of Heavy Metals most popular early features Heavy Metal is an American science fiction and fantasy comics magazine started in 1977. ...

"Graffiti is revolutionary, in my opinion," he says, "and any revolution might be considered a crime. People who are oppressed or suppressed need an outlet, so they write on walls—it’s free."

In Australia, art historians have judged some local graffiti of sufficient creative merit to rank them firmly within visual art. Oxford University Press's art history text Australian Painting 1788-2000 concludes with a long discussion of graffiti's key place within contemporary visual culture, including the work of several Australian practitioners.[34] Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Visual culture is a field of study that generally includes some combination of cultural studies, art history, and anthropology, by focusing on aspects of culture that rely on visual images. ...


Gang relations with graffiti

Groups that live in industrial or poor areas may use graffiti for various purposes, especially if many groups populate one specific area or city. The main use is to mark either territory or "turf" by tagging a space such as a wall on building near or on the boundaries of a gang's turf to inform other gangs of their presence. Usually, this type of tag will have the name of the gang. They are also used to communicate with other gangs, usually to warn them of a coming assassination of a certain member, by either writing the member's street name and crossing it out, or by finding tags by the member and crossing them out.


If a gang overwrites another gang's tag, it is also the symbol of a takeover of a gang's turf or a sign of aggression toward the gang. While most cities now take measures to prevent this, such as washing or erasing tags, it was much more common in the mid 1980s when crime waves ran high.


Currently, a graffiti group The Public Animals (TPA) has assumed the role of a federation of sorts. Founded in late 1976 to early 1977, TPA is at the forefront of unifying former rivals between crews, cliques or gangs. Under the TPA umbrella, many graffiti artists from all over the world and from different associations have found the ability to peacefully unite and perform their art form without the obligatory allegiance to a particular group of individuals whose philosophies may be limited by territories, nationalities, or personal viewpoints. The leader of The Public Animals, JOEY TPA, maintains a simple yet effective philosophy in that the global aspect of art is evolving and that as artists, there is more to be had in unifying rather than dividing.[citation needed]<=applies to this paragraph as a whole


Government responses

North America

Graffiti advocates perceive graffiti as a method of reclaiming public space or to display one's art form, their opponents regard it as an unwanted nuisance, or as expensive vandalism requiring repair of the vandalized property. Graffiti can be viewed as a "quality of life" issue, and its detractors suggest that the presence of graffiti contributes to a general sense of squalor and a heightened fear of crime. Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ... This article is about the economic and philosophical concept. ...


In 1984, the Philadelphia Anti-Graffiti Network (PAGN) was created to combat the city's growing concerns about gang-related graffiti. PAGN led to the creation of the Mural Arts Program, which replaced often hit spots with elaborate, commissioned murals that were protected by a city ordinance, increasing fines and penalties for anyone caught defacing a mural. Artwork created by the Mural Arts Program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania at 1200 South St Peace Wall, created in 1999 at 1308 S 29th St The Philadelphia Anti-Graffiti Network (PAGN) was founded in January 1984 by former Philadelphia Mayor Wilson Goode. ... The Mural Arts Program was founded by Jane Golden in Philadelphia, PA in the early 1980s as the Anti Graffiti Network. ...


The Philadelphia Subway line also features a long standing example of the art form by way of the broad and spring garden stop, along the broad & ridge (to 8th and market) line. Which while still existing, has long been quarantined, and has featured tags and murals that have existed for upwards of 15years.

Graffiti on a railroad bridge in Queens, New York City written as "CHUNE".
Graffiti on a railroad bridge in Queens, New York City written as "CHUNE".

Advocates of the "broken window theory" believe that this sense of decay encourages further vandalism and promotes an environment leading to offenses that are more serious. Former New York City mayor Ed Koch's vigorous subscription to the broken window theory promoted an aggressive anti-graffiti campaign in New York in the early eighties, resulting in "the buff"; a chemical wash for trains that dissolved the paint off. New York City has adopted a strenuous zero tolerance policy ever since. However, throughout the world, authorities often, though not always, treat graffiti as a minor nuisance crime, though with widely varying penalties. Roof tops became the mainstream after the trains died out. Queens is geographically the largest of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse county in the U.S. It is coterminous with Queens County in the State of New York and is located on western Long Island. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Broken windows in the Pruitt-Igoe housing development Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities by George L. Kelling and Catherine Coles is a criminology book published in 1996, about petty crime and strategies to contain or eliminate it from urban neighbourhoods. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Edward Irving Koch (born December 12, 1924; pronounced ) was a United States Congressman from 1969 to 1977 and the Mayor of New York City from 1978 to 1989. ... Look up buff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 1995 Mayor Rudolph Giuliani of New York set up the Anti-Graffiti Task Force, a multi-agency initiative to combat the perceived problem of graffiti vandals in New York City. This began a crackdown on "quality of life crimes" throughout the city, and one of the largest anti-graffiti campaigns in U.S. history. That same year Title 10-117 of the New York Administrative Code banned the sale of aerosol spray-paint cans to children under 18. The law also requires that merchants who sell spray-paint must lock it in a case or display cans behind a counter, out of reach of potential shoplifters. Violations of the city's anti-graffiti law carry fines of $350 per count.[35] Famous NYC graffiti artist Zephyr wrote an opposing viewpoint to this law.[36] Andrew Zephyr Witten is a graffiti artist, lecturer and author from New York City. ...


On January 1, 2006, in New York City, legislation created by Councilmember Peter Vallone, Jr. attempted to make it illegal for a person under the age of 21 to possess spray-paint or permanent markers. The law prompted outrage by fashion and media mogul Marc Ecko who sued Mayor Michael Bloomberg and Councilmember Vallone on behalf of art students and legitimate graffiti artists. On May 1, 2006, Judge George B. Daniels granted the plaintiffs' request for a preliminary injunction against the recent amendments to the anti-graffiti legislation, effectively prohibiting (on May 4) the New York City Police Department from enforcing the restrictions.[37] A similar measure was proposed in New Castle County, Delaware in April 2006[38] and was passed into law as a county ordinance in May 2006.[39] Peter F. Vallone, Jr. ... Marc Ecko (born Marc Milecofsky[1] in 1972 in East Brunswick, New Jersey) is a fashion designer and entrepreneur. ... Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born 14 February 1942) is an American businessman, founder of Bloomberg L.P., and the current Mayor of New York City. ... New Castle County is the northern-most county of the three counties in the state of Delaware. ...

An ironic example of Chicago graffiti condemning the Graffiti Blasters and Mayor Daley
An ironic example of Chicago graffiti condemning the Graffiti Blasters and Mayor Daley

Chicago's mayor, Richard M. Daley created the "Graffiti Blasters" to eliminate graffiti and gang-related vandalism. The bureau advertises free cleanup within 24 hours of a phone call. The bureau uses paints (common to the city's 'color scheme') and baking-soda based solvents to remove some varieties of graffiti.[40] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the form of speech, see Irony. ... Chicagos mayor, Richard M. Daley created the Graffiti Blasters (also known as Mayor Daleys Graffiti Blasters) to eliminate graffiti and gang-related vandalism. ... Richard Michael Daley (born April 24, 1942) is a United States politician, member of the national and local Democratic Party and current mayor of Chicago, Illinois. ... Richard Michael Daley (born April 24, 1942) is a United States politician, member of the national and local Democratic Party and current mayor of Chicago, Illinois. ... Chicagos mayor, Richard M. Daley created the Graffiti Blasters (also known as Mayor Daleys Graffiti Blasters) to eliminate graffiti and gang-related vandalism. ...


In 1992, an ordinance was passed in Chicago that bans the sale and possession of spray paint, and certain types of etching equipment and markers.[40] The law falls under Chapter 8-4: Public Peace & Welfare, Section 100: Vagrancy. The specific law (8-4-130) makes graffiti an offense with a fine of no less than $500 per incident, surpassing the penalty for public drunkenness, peddling, or disruption of a religious service.


In 2005, the city of Pittsburgh implemented a custom database-driven graffiti tracking system to build and enhance evidence for prosecution of graffiti artist suspects by linking tags to instances of graffiti.[41] One of the first suspects to be identified by the system as being responsible for significant graffiti vandalism was Daniel Joseph Montano.[42] He was dubbed "The King of Graffiti"[43] for having tagged close to 200 buildings in the city.


Europe

In Europe, community cleaning squads have responded to graffiti, in some cases with reckless abandon, as when in 1992 in France a local Scout group damaged two prehistoric paintings of Bisons in the Cave of Mayrière supérieure near the French village of Bruniquel in Tarn-et-Garonne, earning them the 1992 Ig Nobel Prize in archaeology.[44] Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ... The Cave of Mayrière supérieure (French: ) is a cave near Bruniquel, Tarn-et-Garonne, France, which contains two prehistoric cave paintings of Bisons, damaged during an attempt to remove modern graffiti. ... Bruniquel is one of the 195 Communes of the Tarn-et-Garonne département of France. ... Tarn-et-Garonne is a French département in the southwest of France. ... Flying frog. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


In September 2006, the European Parliament issued the European Commission to create urban environment policies in order to prevent and eliminate dirt, litter, graffiti, animals' excrement and excessive noise from domestic and vehicular music systems in European cities, along with other concerns over urban life.[45]


The Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003 became Britain's latest anti-graffiti legislation. In August 2004, the Keep Britain Tidy campaign issued a press release calling for zero tolerance of graffiti and supporting proposals such as issuing "on the spot" fines to graffiti offenders and banning the sale of aerosol paint to anyone under the age of 16.[46] The press release also condemned the use of graffiti images in advertising and in music videos, arguing that real-world experience of graffiti stood far removed from its often-portrayed 'cool' or 'edgy' image. The Anti-Social Behaviour Act is a law in the United Kingdom. ... Keep Britain tidy is a British Campain run by the ENCAMS environmental charity, which is part funded by the U.K. government. ... Zero tolerance is a strict approach to rule enforcement. ... FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ...


To back the campaign, 123 MPs (including Prime Minister Tony Blair) signed a charter which stated: Graffiti is not art, it's crime. On behalf of my constituents, I will do all I can to rid our community of this problem.[47] However, in the last couple of years the British graffiti scene has been struck by self-titled 'art terrorist' Banksy, who has revolutionized the style of UK graffiti (bringing to the forefront stencils to aid the speed of painting) as well as the content; making his work largely satirical of the sociological state of cities, or the political climate of war, often using monkeys and rats as motifs. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Banksy is a well-known pseudo-anonymous[1] English graffiti artist. ...


In the UK, city councils have the power to take action against the owner of any property that has been defaced under the Anti-social Behaviour Act 2003 (as amended by the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2005) or, in certain cases, the Highways Act. This is often used against owners of property that are complacent in allowing protective boards to be defaced so long as the property isn't damaged. The Anti-Social Behaviour Act is a law in the United Kingdom. ...


Australia

In an effort to reduce vandalism, many cities in Australia have designated walls or areas exclusively for use by graffiti artists. One early example is the "Graffiti Tunnel" located at the Camperdown Campus of the University of Sydney, which is available for use by any student at the University to tag, advertise, poster and create "art". Advocates of this idea suggest that this discourages petty vandalism yet encourages artists to take their time and produce great art, without worry of being caught or arrested for vandalism or trespassing.[48][49] Others disagree with this approach, arguing that the presence of legal graffiti walls does not demonstrably reduce illegal graffiti elsewhere.[50] Some Local Government Areas around Australia have introduced "anti-graffiti squads", who clean graffiti in the area, and such gangs as BCW (Buffers Cant Win) have taken steps to keep one step ahead of local graffiti cleaners. A view of rooftops in Camperdown Camperdown postcode 2050 is a suburb of Sydney, Australia. ... The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. ... In law, trespass can be: the criminal act of going into somebody else’s land or property without permission; it is also a civil law tort that may be a valid cause of action to seek judicial relief and possibly damages through a lawsuit. ...


Many state governments have banned the sale or possession of spray paint to those under the age of 18 (age of majority). However, a number of Local Governments in Victoria have taken steps to recognize the cultural heritage value of some examples of graffiti, such as prominent political graffiti.


Melbourne is a prominent graffiti city of Australia with many of it's lanes being tourist attractions, such as Hosier Lane in particular, a popular destination for photographers, wedding photography and backdrops for corporate print advertising. The Lonely Planet travel guide cites Melbourne's street are as a major attraction. Everything including; Sticker Art, Poster Art, Stencil Art and Wheatposting can be found in many places throughout the city. Prominent street art precincts include; Fitzroy, Collingwood, Northcote, Brunswick, St. Kilda and the CBD, where stencil and sticker art is prominent. As you move further away from the city, mostly along suburban train lines, graffiti tags become more prominent. Many international artists such as Banksy have left their work in Melbourne and in early 2008 a perspex screen was installed to prevent a Banksy stencil art piece from being destroyed, it had survived since 2003 through the respect of local street artists avoiding posting over it. This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Lonely Planet logo Lonely Planet Publications (usually known as Lonely Planet or LP for short) claims to be the largest independently owned travel guidebook publisher in the world. ... Fitzroy or FitzRoy is an Anglo-Norman name originally meaning son of the king - it usually refers to a bastard son of the king, or a descendant thereof. ... Collingwood may refer to: Collingwood, Victoria The Collingwood Football Club of the Australian Football League Collingwood, Ontario Collingwood, New Zealand Collingwood, Northumberland HMS Collingwood, four ships of the Royal Navy Collingwood 50005, a British Rail Class 50 locomotive Collingwood School, a university-preparatory school in West Vancouver, British Columbia Collingwood... Northcote, Victoria is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia. ... Braunschweig may also refer to the administrative region of Germany. ... This article is about the Scottish island of Saint Kilda. ... Banksy is a well-known pseudo-anonymous[1] English graffiti artist. ...


Asia

In China, Graffiti was used by Mao Zedong's Communist Party to stoke the fires of revolution.[51] Mao redirects here. ...


Graffiti made the news in 1993, over an incident in Singapore involving several expensive cars found spray-painted. The police arrested a student from Singapore American School, Michael P. Fay, questioned him and subsequently charged him with vandalism. Fay pleaded guilty for vandalizing the car in addition to stealing road signs. Under the 1966 Singapore Vandalism Act, originally passed to curb the spread of communist graffiti in Singapore, the court sentenced him to four months in jail, a fine of 3,500 Singaporean dollars (US $2,233 or GB £1,450), and a caning. The New York Times ran several editorials and op-eds that condemned the punishment and called on the American public to flood the Singaporean embassy with protests. Although the Singapore government received many calls for clemency, Fay's caning took place in Singapore on May 5, 1994. Fay had originally received a sentence of six lashes of the cane, but the then President of Singapore Ong Teng Cheong agreed to reduce his caning sentence to four lashes.[52] Singapore American School The Singapore American School (Abbreviation: SAS) is a private international school in Singapore. ... Michael Peter Fay (born May 30, 1975) is an American who was caned in Singapore on May 5, 1994, for theft and vandalism despite pleas from the United States government and press for clemency. ... The Vandalism Act of 1966 was originally passed to curb the spread of communist graffiti in Singapore during the period following Singaporean independence. ... ISO 4217 Code SGD User(s) Singapore, Brunei Inflation 1% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... USD redirects here. ... GBP redirects here. ... This article is about the physical punishment. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The President of the Republic of Singapore is the nations head of state. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Ong Ong Teng Cheong (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; January 22, 1936 - February 8, 2002) was the first directly elected President of Republic of Singapore. ...


Graffiti in Shenzhen is getting more and more prominent. Punishment would usually require a $1000 fine, and to clean up the wall, which, as one Chinese graffiti artist said "it's a piece of cake". The local authorities in Shenzhen don't really consider graffiti as a problem.[citation needed]


Documentaries and films

  • 80 Blocks from Tiffany's (1979), A rare glimpse into late '70s New York towards the end of the infamous South Bronx Gangs. The documentary shows many sides of the mainly Puerto Rican community of the South Bronx including. reformed gang members, current gang members, the police, and the community leaders who try and reach out to them.
  • Stations of the Elevated (1980), the earliest documentary about subway graffiti in New York City, with music by Charles Mingus
  • Wild Style (1983), a drama about hip hop and graffiti culture in New York City
  • Style Wars (1983), an early documentary on hip hop culture, made in New York City
  • Bombing L.A. (1989), An award-winning documentary about Los Angeles graffiti artists.
  • Sprayed Conflict (1994), a documentary about Melbourne graffiti artists featuring well-known Australian graffiti writer Duel.
  • Quality of Life (2004) a graffiti drama shot in the Mission District of San Francisco, starring/co-written by a retired graffiti writer.
  • Piece By Piece (2005), a feature length documentary on the history of San Francisco graffiti from the early 1980s until the present day.
  • Infamy (2005), A feature-length documentary about graffiti culture as told through the experiences of six well-known graffiti writers and a graffiti buffer.
  • NEXT: A Primer on Urban Painting (2005), a documentary about global graffiti culture
  • RASH (film) (2005), a feature documentary about Melbourne, Australia and the artists who make it a living host for illegal artwork called street art.
  • Bomb the System (2006), a drama about a crew of graffiti artists in modern day New York City
  • Jisoe (2007), a documentary on Melbourne graffiti artist Jisoe.
  • BOMB IT (2007), a graffiti and street art documentary filmed on 5 continents.
  • SprayMasters (2007), a documentary feature with late '70s NYC subway graffiti and interviews with Lee Quinones, Futura 2000, Lady Pink, and Zephyr.

For other uses, see Wild Style (disambiguation). ... Style Wars is an early documentary on hip hop culture, made by Tony Silver and Henry Chalfant, made in New York City in the early 1980s. ... This article is about the economic and philosophical concept. ... Piece By Piece is a documentary film directed by Nic Hill. ... RASH the film completed in 2005 is a contemporary story of Melbourne Australia and the artists who make it a living host for illegal artwork called street art. ... Bomb the System is a drama film written and directed by Adam Bhala Lough, which was released to film festivals in 2002 (see 2002 in film) and American theatres in 2005. ... BOMB IT is a international graffiti and street art documentary filmed on 5 continents. ...

See also

A number of words and phrases have come to describe different styles and aspects of graffiti. ... This article is about the graffiti. ... Example of spray paint art Spray paint art is an artform utilizing spray paint and performed on posterboard or wood. ... Street art is any art developed in public spaces — that is, in the streets — though the term usually refers to art of an illicit nature, as opposed to government sponsored initiatives. ... Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ...

References

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  2. ^ Mike Von Joel. "Urbane Guerrillas". Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
  3. ^ Tacherons on Romanesque churches
  4. ^ British Archaeology, June 1999
  5. ^ The Atlantic Monthly, April 97.
  6. ^ a b "Art Crimes", Jinx Magazine, Unknown. 
  7. ^ p. 76, Classical Archaeology of Greece: Experiences of the Discipline, Michael Shanks, London, New York: Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0415085217.
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  11. ^ "Black History Month - 1971", BBC, unknown. 
  12. ^ David Hershkovits, "London Rocks, Paris Burns and the B-Boys Break a Leg", Sunday News Magazine, April 3, 1983.
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  14. ^ New Big Pun Mural To Mark Anniversary Of Rapper's Death. MTV News (2001-02-02). Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
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  35. ^ The full text of the law.
  36. ^ Zephyr's opposing viewpoint.
  37. ^ "Marc Ecko Helps Graffiti Artists Beat NYC in Court, Preps 2nd Annual Save The Rhinos Concert", May 2, 2006. 
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  51. ^ BBC NEWS | In pictures: Graffiti artists in Beijing, Graffiti tradition
  52. ^ "Singapore Swings; Michael Fay's Torture's Over; Watch for the Docudrama", New York Times, 05-08-94. 

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Village Voice is a New York City-based weekly newspaper featuring investigative articles, analysis of current affairs and culture, arts reviews and events listings for New York City. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Smith, Bernard William (b. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Delaware News-Journal (also known as The News Journal) is a Wilmington, Delaware newspaper. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ...

External links

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Graffiti
  • Art Crimes
  • A TIME Archives Collection of Graffiti's progression
  • www.graffiteuro.com A site collecting graffiti on Euro banknotes
  • Graffitifilms.tv - videos
  • World Wide Writers - global graffiti community
  • Find legal graffiti walls around the world
  • www.workground.net о граффити на русском
Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rap redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... putang ina. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... DJ Mixer. ... Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa. ... A boy hitting (holding) a pike Breakdance (media coined phrase), also known as breaking, b-girling or b-boying, is a street dance style that evolved as part of the hip hop movement that originated among African American youths in the South Bronx of New York City during the early... Faada Freddy of the Senegalese rap crew Daara J in Germany, 2005. ... Hip hop dance refers to dance styles, mainly street dance styles, primarily danced to hip hop music, or that have evolved as a part of the hip hop culture. ... Hip Hop Theatre is a sub-genre of Hip-Hopera that came to the American stage in the late 20th century. ... The roots of hip hop can be found in 1970s block parties in New York City, specifically The Bronx[1]. Hip hop culture, including rapping, scratching, graffiti, and breakdancing. ... Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... New school hip hop is a rarely-heard term referring to hip hop created later in the forms development, contrasted with old school hip hop. ... The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, was probably introduced with the popularity of Run-DMCs 1986 album Raising Hell. ... See also: Category:Hip hop genres Hip hop music can be subdivided into subgenres, fusions with other genres and regional hip hop scenes. ... This is a list of influential albums in the history of hip hop music. ... Hip hop music was primarily limited to its country of origin, the United States, until the 1980s, at which point it reached into other countries and continents until its presence was worldwide. ... Hip hop music has been popular in Africa since the early 1980s due to widespread American influence. ... Cover of sampler CD (2003) This article is about hip hop music and culture originating in the Arabic-speaking world. ... Asian Hip Hop is a heterogeneous musical genre that covers all hip hop music as recorded and produced by artists of Asian origin. ... European hip hop is hip hop music created by European musicians. ... Latin rap is not a homogeneous musical style but rather a term that covers all Hip-Hop music recorded by artists of Latino origin. ... This article is about hip hop music and culture originating in the Middle East. ... Hip hop is quite a new style of music for Bosnia and Herzegovina, but it has nevertheless proven very popular. ... Dominican hip hop has its own style of hip hop music by mixing its native music and rapping to it like in the genres Merenrap or Merenhouse where they just take a blend of their native dance music called Merengue and rap to it. ... Greenlandic hip hop began in 1985 with the formation of the Inuit rap crew Nuuk Posse, though hip hop music first came to Greenland a year earlier. ... Rap marocain Moroccan rap ---- (more info) Stage 2 : In Progress (How-to) Its an interesting translation about Morocco Spy-jones 13:44, 31 May 2007 (UTC) This article didnt exist in English-language Wikipedia Spy-jones 20%   00:16, 1 June 2007 (UTC) Join this translation   ---   Update this... Native American hip hop is popular among Native Americans in the United States and the First Nations of Canada. ... Nepalese hip hop music, also referred to as NEPHOP, has a slight blend of Nepalese traditional music, western popular music, with lyrics that are usually altruistic and depicting the present Nepalese political and economic situation. ... Serbian hip hop refers to all genres of hip hop music in the Serbian language, mostly from Serbia, Republika Srpska (BiH), and Montenegro. ... Taiwanese hip hop music started in the early 1990s, popularized by early hip hop trio L.A. Boyz. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Graffiti Research Lab (600 words)
Street-culture brands have made a fortune off graffiti, Swoon is in the MoMA and Banksy is the biggest artist in the world, no matter how many diamonds Damien Hirst puts in his skull.
While in prison he will have to mount a case against a 43 count indictment where he may be sentenced to up to 7 years in prison with only the counsel of a court-appointed legal aid lawyer.
Come support Mike and the graffiti community in a fundraiser for his legal defense.
Graffiti (Palm OS) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (424 words)
Graffiti was originally written by Palm, Inc. as an alternate recognition system for the Apple Newton MessagePad, when NewtonOS 1 couldn't recognize handwriting very well at all.
Graffiti also runs on the Windows Mobile platform, where it is called "Block Recognizer," and on the Symbian UIQ platform as the default recognizer.
The original Graffiti system was the subject of a lawsuit from Xerox, claiming it violated Xerox's patent relating to its Unistrokes technology (U.S. Patent 5,596,656, granted in 1997).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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