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Encyclopedia > Graf

Graf is a historical German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title akin to the Viking title Jarl). A derivation ultimately from the Greek verb graphein 'to write' may be fanciful: Paul the Deacon wrote in Latin ca 790: "the count of the Bavarians that they call gravio who governed Bauzanum and other strongholds…" (Historia gentis Langobardorum, V.xxxvi); this may be read to make the term a Germanic one, but by then using Latin terms was quite common. Graf can mean: Titles Graf - a German comital title, equal to count or earl Margrave Pfalzgraf Landgrave Burgrave Rhinegrave Altgrave Wildgrave Raugrave People Graf, Stefanie Maria Steffi: German tennis professional on the WTA-Tour. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... Comes (genitive: comitis) is the Latin word for companion, either individually or as a member of a collective known as comitatus (compare comitatenses), especially the suite of a magnate, in some cases large and/or formal enough to have a specific name, such as a cohors amicorum. ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Jarl may refer to: Alternative word for the peerage dignity Earl Japan Amateur Radio League, the Amateur Radio association of Japan Jarl, a Norse title Jarl Wahlström, the 12th General of The Salvation Army Category: ... Paul the Deacon (c. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A revolt against Empress Irene leads to Constantine VI being declared sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Bolzano (Italian Bolzano; German: Bozen, archaic Botzen; Ladin: Bulsan; Latin: Bauzanum; many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Bolzan or Bulsan) is a city in the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region of Italy. ... The Historia gentis Langobardorum (history of the Lombards) is the chief work by Paul the Deacon, written in the late 8th century. ...


Today, in Germany, Graf is considered part of the name, and no longer to be considered as a title.[1] The comital title Graf has of course also been used by other German-speakers (as official and/or vernacular language), as in Austria and other Habsburg crown lands (mainly Slavic and Hungary), in Liechtenstein and much of Switzerland

  • A Graf (Count) ruled over a territory known as a Grafschaft, literally 'countship' (also rendered as 'county').
  • The comital titles awarded in the Holy Roman Empire often related to the jurisdiction or domain of responsibility and represented special concessions of authority or rank. Only the more important titles remained in use until modern times. Many Counts were titled Graf without any additional qualification.
  • For a list of the titles of the rank of Count etymologically related to Graf (and for other equivalents) see article Count.

Contents

This article is about the medieval empire. ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ...

List of nobiliary titles containing the term graf

Some are approximately of comital rank, some higher, some lower. The more important ones are treated in separate articles (follow the links); a few minor, rarer ones only in sections below.

German English Comment/ etymology
Markgraf Margrave (only continental) and
(younger) Marquess or Marquis
Mark: march (border province) + Graf
Pfalzgraf Count Palatine
or Palsgrave (the latter is archæic in English)
Pfalz (palatial estate, Palatinate) + Graf
Reichsgraf Count of the Empire Reich i.e., (the Holy Roman) Empire + Graf
Landgraf Landgrave Land (country) + Graf
Freigraf Free Count Frei = free (allodial?) + Graf; both a feudal title of comital rank and a more technical office
Gefürsteter Graf Princely Count German verb for "to make into a Reichsfürst" + Graf
Burggraf Burgrave Burg (castle, burgh) + Graf
Rheingraf Rhinegrave Rhein (river Rhine) + Graf
Altgraf Altgrave Alt (old) + Graf (very rare)
Wildgraf Wildgrave Wild (game or wilderness) + Graf
Raugraf Raugrave Rau (raw, uninhabited, wilderness) + Graf
Vizegraf Viscount Vize = vice- (substitute) + Graf

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... “Marquis” redirects here. ... Marquis has many different meanings: The French spelling of the title known in English as Marquess and Margrave. ... A Pfalzgraf or Count Palatine or Palsgrave functioned, especially in medieval times, as the permanent representative (grafio =scribe rather than Count) of the Frankish king and later Holy Roman Emperor in a pfalz or palatial domain of the crown, of which there were dozens throughout greater Germany. ... Palatinate or Pfalz (German) can refer to: the Palatinate or Electoral Palatinate (German: Kurpfalz), a historic state within the Holy Roman Empire. ...   (IPA: ; German IPA: ), is the German word used most for empire, realm, or nation cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch: , Sanskrit: and English: as found in bishopric. ... Freigraf is a German noble title derived from the German language words frei (free) and the feudal title graf (count). ... Allodial title is a concept in some systems of property law. ... Fürst (plural Fürsten) is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince. The female form is Fürstin (plural Fürstinnen). ... Burgrave, the Eng. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ...

Reichsgraf, Gefürsteter Graf

A Reichsgraf is a count who is the owner of an imperial estate of the Holy Roman Empire, i.e., he has a vote in the Reichstag and is directly subject to the king/emperor. A count who is not a Reichsgraf has only a secondary fief (Afterlehen) — he is subject to a prince of the empire, such as a duke. An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (German singular: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Reichstag or Imperial Diet. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Reichstag may refer to: Reichstag (institution), the Diets or parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire, of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and of Germany from 1871 to 1945 Reichstag building, Berlin location where the German legislature met from 1894 to 1933 and again since 1999 The Reichstag fire in 1933, which...


A gefürsteter Graf (in English, princely count) is a Reichsgraf who has been made Reichsgraf by an act of the king, as opposed to one whose ancestors have held this privilege since the High Middle Ages.[citation needed] The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ...


Notable Reichsgrafen included:

A complete list of Reichsgrafen as of 1792 can be found in the List of Reichstag participants (1792). Castell was a county of northern Bavaria, Germany, ruling a string of territories in the historical region of Franconia, both east and west of Würzburg. ... Coat of arms Map of Württemberg before the French Revolutionary Wars, showing the County of Fugger, with the Danube shown running through the centre of the image and the Iller forming the border between Württemberger lands (coloured) and Bavarian lands (non-coloured) Capital Weißenhorn (nominally) Imp. ... Coat of Arms Henneberg-Schleusingen House of Henneberg: a branch of the Franconian Babenbergs which was very powerful in Franconia and Thuringia particularly in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries // The distant origins of this family are speculative yet seem to originate in the Rhine Valley, east of modern-day... Leiningen, the name of an old German family, whose lands lay principally in Alsace and Lorraine. ... Flag of Nassau-Weilburg Nassau-Weilburg were a state in the current Germany which had existed from 1344 to 1816. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... Pappenheim was a German statelet in western Bavaria, Germany, located on the Altmühl River between Treuchtlingen and Solnhofen, and south of Weißenburg. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and... Stollberg is a town in Saxony, capital of the district Stollberg. ... The Holy Roman Empire was one of the strangest political structures in the world. ...


Landgrave

A Landgraf or Landgrave was a nobleman of comital rank in feudal Germany whose jurisdiction stretched over a sometimes quite considerable territory. The title survived from the times of the Holy Roman Empire. The status of a landgrave was often associated with sovereign rights and decision-making greater than those of a simple Graf (Count), but carried no legal prerogatives. This article is about the medieval empire. ...


Landgraf occasionally continued in use as the subsidiary title of such nobility as the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar, who functioned as the Landgrave of Thuringia in the first decade of the 20th century; but the title fell into disuse after World War I. The jurisdiction of a landgrave was a Landgrafschaft landgraviate and the wife of a landgrave was a Landgräfin or landgravine. Saxe-Weimar (German Sachsen-Weimar) was a Duchy in Thuringia. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Examples: Landgrave of Thuringia, Landgrave of Hesse (later split in Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Leuchtenberg. The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... Leuchtenberg is a town in the district of Neustadt (Waldnaab) in Bavaria in Germany. ...


Gefürsteter Landgraf

A combination of Landgraf and Gefürsteter Graf (both above). Example: Leuchtenberg, later a duchy. Leuchtenberg is a town in the district of Neustadt (Waldnaab) in Bavaria in Germany. ...


Burgrave / Viscount

A Burggraf, or Burgrave, was a 12th and 13th century military and civil judicial governor of a castle (compare Castellan, Custos, Keeper) of the town it dominated and of its immediate surrounding countryside. His jurisdiction was a Burggrafschaft, burgraviate. Burgrave, the Eng. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... A castellan was the governor or caretaker of a castle or keep. ... Keeper may mean: A curator as, for example, at the British Museum A menstrual cup In some sports, a player who protects a goal A warder or guardian A gamekeeper A term used to refer to the status of a person that one is dating being worth marrying. ...


Later the title became ennobled and hereditary with its own domain.


Example: Burgrave of Nuremberg. “Nürnberg” redirects here. ...


It occupies the same relative rank as titles rendered in purist German by Vizegraf, in Dutch as Burggraaf or in English as Viscount[citation needed] (Latin: Vicecomes), in origin also a deputy of a Count, as the burgrave dwelt usually in a castle or fortified town. Soon many became hereditary and almost-a-Count, ranking just below the 'full' Counts, but above a Freiherr (Baron). A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


It was also often used as a courtesy title by the heir to a Graf[citation needed].


Rhinegrave, Wildgrave, Raugrave, Altgrave

Unlike the other comital titles, the titles of Rhinegrave, Wildgrave, Raugrave, and Altgrave are not generic titles. Instead, each is linked to one specific countship. By rank, these unusually named counts are equivalent to other counts.

  • "Rhinegrave" (German Rheingraf) was the title of the count of the Rheingau, a county located between Wiesbaden and Lorch on the right bank of the Rhine. Their castle was known as the Rheingrafenstein. After the Rhinegraves inherited the Wildgraviate (see below) and parts of the Countship of Salm, they called themselves Wild- and Rhinegraves of Salm. [2]
  • When the Nahegau (a countship named after the river Nahe) split into two parts in 1113, the counts of the two parts called themselves Wildgraves and Raugraves, respectively. They were named after the geographic properties of their territories: Wildgrave (Wildgraf), in Latin comes sylvanus, after Wald ("forest"), Raugrave (Raugraf), in Latin comes hirsutus, after the rough (i.e., mountainous) terrain. [3]
  • The first Raugrave was Count Emich I (died 1172). The dynasty died out in the 18th century. The title was taken over after Elector Palatine Karl Ludwig I purchased the estates, and after 1667 was owned by the children from the Elector's bigamous (morganatic) second marriage to Karl's wife, Marie Louise von Degenfeld. [4]
  • Altgrave (German Altgraf, "old count") was a title used by the counts of Lower Salm to distinguish themselves from the Wild- and Rhinegraves of Upper Salm, since Lower Salm was the senior branch of the family.

Rheingau valley with the River Rhein The Rheingau (in English: Rhine District) is the hill country on the north side of the Rhine River between Wiesbaden and Rüdesheim near Frankfurt, reaching from the western Taunus to the Rhine. ... Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ... Lorch is a town in Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis, Germany. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Salm is the name of several historic principalities in present Germany, Belgium and France. ... Events Pierre Abélard opens his school in Paris End of Kyanzitthas reign in Myanmar Alaungsithus reign begins in Myanmar Suryavarman Is reign begins in the Khmer Empire Bridlington Priory founded Births August 24 - Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (died 1151) Stefan Nemanja, Serbian Grand Zupan Deaths... Events Duke Richard of Aquitaine becomes Duke of Poitiers. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A palatinate is an area administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Charles I Louis, engraving by Christoph Le Blon, 1652 Charles Louis, (German: ), Elector Palatine (22 December 1617 – 28 August 1680) was the second son of Frederick V, the Winter King, and his wife, Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I of England. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between persons of unequal social rank (unebenbürtig in German), which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ... Flag Capital Vielsalm (originally) Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Partitioned from County     of Saarbrücken   1019  - First partitioned into     Lower and Upper Salm   1165  - Lower Salm extinct; to     Reifferscheid-Dyck   1416  - Part of Upper Salm to     Wild- and Rhinegraves   1475  - Annexed to Imperial     département of Lippe   1810–11...

Other uses

Furthermore, the term -graf occurs in various office titles which didn't attain nobiliary status, but were either held as a sinecure by nobleman or courtiers, or by those who remained functional officials, such as the Deichgraf (in a polder management organism).


Sources and references

(incomplete)

  1. ^ Weimar Constitution Article 109, sentence 2
  2. ^ Rheingraf at Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1888
  3. ^ Raugraf at Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1888
  4. ^ Raugraf at wissen.de

The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ...

External links

  • Lexikon article "Raugraf"

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Graf - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (723 words)
Graf is a (now obsolete) German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title derived from the Viking title Jarl).
A Graf (Count) ruled over a territory known as a Grafschaft, literally 'countship' (also rendered as 'county').
It was also often used as a courtesy title, by the heir to a Graf.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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