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Encyclopedia > Gradual

The Gradual (Latin: graduale, sometimes called the Grail) is a chant in the Roman Catholic Mass, sung after the reading or singing of the Epistle and before the Alleluia, or, during penitential seasons, before the Tract. It is part of the Proper of the Mass. "Gradual" can also refer to the book collecting all the musical items of the Mass, in Latin it is called the Graduale Romanum. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the various liturgical rites of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, and in some Lutheran regions which are largely High Church: the main Lutheran service is still known as the... An epistle is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ... Hallelujah, Halleluyah, or Alleluia, is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְלוּיָהּ meaning [Let us] praise (הַלְלוּ) God (יָהּ) (or Praise (הַלְלוּ) [the] Lord (יָהּ)). It is found mainly in the book of Psalms. ... poop ... The Proper (Latin proprium) is that part of the Christian liturgy that varies according to the date, either representing an observance within the Liturgical Year, or of a particular saint or significant event. ...

Contents


History

The Gradual, like the Alleluia and Tract, is one of the responsorial chants of the Mass. Responsorial chants derive from early Christian traditions of singing choral refrains called responds between psalm verses. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, it (and the associated Alleluia or Tract) is the oldest of the chants of the Proper of the Mass, and, in contrast to the Introit, Offertory, and Communion, the only one that was not filling up time where something was being done Until about the fifth century, it included singing a whole psalm. They were sung in the form of a psalmus responsorius, i.e. the whole text was chanted by a reader appointed for this purpose. For some time before Gregory I, to sing these psalms was a privilege of deacons at Rome; it was suppressed by him in 595. The people answered each clause or verse with an acclamation. This apparently dates back to the synagogue tradition, and can even be seen in the structure of some Psalms (such as 136|135). Originally, there was a psalm sung between each reading, of which in the fifth century there were three (Prophets, Epistle, and Gospel). When the Old Testament reading was later dropped, the other two psalms became the Gradual and Alleluia, which are now ordinarily sung one after another. A responsory is a type of chant in Christian liturgies that involves one section singing a respond, answered by another section singing a verse, then the respond is sung again by the first section, followed by a different verse from the second, et al. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia (also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia today) is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the The Encyclopedia Press, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. // History The writing of the encyclopedia began on January 11... The Proper (Latin proprium) is that part of the Christian liturgy that varies according to the date, either representing an observance within the Liturgical Year, or of a particular saint or significant event. ... The introit (Latin: introitus, entrance) is part of the opening of the celebration of the Mass. ... Offertory (from the ecclesiastical Latin offertorium, French offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. ... The Communion is the Gregorian chant sung during the Eucharist in the Roman Mass. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Saint Gregory I, or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (circa 540 - March 12, 604) was pope of the Catholic Church from September 3, 590 until his death. ... Deacon is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. ... Lesko synagogue, Poland A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... An epistle is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Hallelujah, Halleluyah, or Alleluia, is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְלוּיָהּ meaning [Let us] praise (הַלְלוּ) God (יָהּ) (or Praise (הַלְלוּ) [the] Lord (יָהּ)). It is found mainly in the book of Psalms. ...


The modern Gradual always consists of two psalm verses, generally (but not always) taken from the same psalm. There are a few Graduals which use a different scripture (for example, the verse from the Feast of the Immaculate Conception is from Judith), or even non-scriptural verses (for example, the first verse in the Requiem). Mary Immaculate This article refers to the dogma of the immaculate conception of Mary, Mother of Jesus. ... The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded by Jews and Protestants. ... The Requiem or Requiem Mass, also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church and its Eastern Rite. ...


The Gradual is believed to have been so named because it was sung on the step (Latin: gradus) of the altar, or perhaps because the deacon was mounting the steps of the ambo for the reading or singing of the Gospel. However, early sources use the form gradale ("graded" or "distinguished"), and the Alia Musica (c. 900) uses the term antiphona gradalis for the Introit.[1] Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The introit (Latin: introitus, entrance) is part of the opening of the celebration of the Mass. ...


Liturgical use

In the Roman Rite, the Gradual is sung after the reading of the Epistle. It is ordinarily followed by the Alleluia or Tract, but in Masses that have more readings than normal, such as during Lent, they may be separated by the other reading, or, if there are more than three readings, there is more than one Gradual, and finally the Tract, to separate each reading. In Eastertide, the Gradual is normally omitted, and a second Alleluia is sung in its place, except for within the Octave of Easter. Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... An epistle is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ... Hallelujah, Halleluyah, or Alleluia, is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְלוּיָהּ meaning [Let us] praise (הַלְלוּ) God (יָהּ) (or Praise (הַלְלוּ) [the] Lord (יָהּ)). It is found mainly in the book of Psalms. ... The tract (Latin: tractus) is part of the proper of the Roman Mass, which is used instead of the Alleluia during Lenten or pre-Lenten seasons, and a few other penitential occasions, when the joyousness of an Alleluia is deemed inappropriate. ... In Western Christianity, Lent is the period from Ash Wednesday to Holy Saturday, the day before Easter Sunday. ... Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Day and continues until Pentecost in the Christian liturgical calendar, thus spanning a total of seven weeks. ... Octave in the liturgical sense is the eighth day following a major feast, particularly in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican liturgal calendars. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


In the Tridentine Mass, in both low Mass and high Mass, the celebrant reads the Gradual with the Alleluia, Tract, or Sequence immediately after he has read the Epistle, and at the same place. As soon as the Epistle is finished, the Gradual is sung by the choir. There is no rule for the distribution of its parts. All may be sung straight through by the whole choir, but it is more common to divide the texts so that some are sung by one or two cantors. A common arrangement is that the cantors sing the first words of the Gradual (to the asterisk in the choir-books), the choir continues, and the cantors sing the verse. Normally it is all sung to plainsong. A Tridentine Mass being celebrated in Bohermeen, Ireland in the 1950s. ... Until the changes brought in following the Second Vatican Council, a Low Mass or Missa Lecta was one said by a priest alone, with the assistance of one or two servers. ... In the United States of America the term High Mass refers to what in Great Britain & Ireland, as well as in many traditional-minded Anglo-Catholic parishes in the U.S.A., is called Sung Mass or Misa Cantata. ... In Latin poetry, a sequence (Latin sequentia) is a poem written in a non-classical metre, often on a sacred Christian subject. ... Broadly speaking, plainsong is the name given to the body of traditional songs used in the liturgies of the Catholic Church. ...


In other churches and rites, there are fragments of the psalms once sung between the lessons that correspond to the Roman Gradual. Their placement and structure depend strongly on how many readings there are. In the Byzantine Rite the reader of the epistle first chants "the Psalm of David" and then the "Prokeimenon of the Apostle", both short fragments of psalms. The Armenian Rite, which has kept the older arrangement of three lessons, includes between each a fragment called the Saghmos Jashu (Psalm of dinnertime) and the Mesedi (mesodion), again a verse or two from a psalm. The Nestorians use three verses of psalms each followed by three Alleluias (this group is called Zumara) after the Epistle. The present Ambrosian Rite sometimes has a Prophecy before the Epistle, in which case there follows the Psalmellus, two or three verses from a psalm, which corresponds to the Gradual. The Mozarabic Rite has three lessons, with a psalm (Psallendo) sung between the first two. Among Protestant churches, Lutherans sometimes sing a Gradual between the Epistle and the Gospel readings. The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... In the liturgical practice of the Orthodox Church, a Prokeimenon (Greek Προκειμενον, plural prokeimena; sometimes prokimenon/prokimena) is a psalm or canticle refrain sung responsorially at certain specified points of the Divine Liturgy or the Divine Office, usually to introduce a scripture reading. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Ambrosian Rite (also sometimes called the Milanese rite) named after Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, is a series of Catholic liturgical rites practised among Catholics in the greater part of the diocese of Milan (excluding notably the city of Monza), and neighbouring area, including some five... The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...


Musical form and style

The usual form of the Gradual is a single respond with a solo verse, although a final repetition of the respond was found up to the Renaissance and is still permitted by the Liber usualis. The Liber usualis is a book of commonly-used Gregorian chants compiled by the monks of the Abbey of Solesmes in France. ...


Graduals are among the most florid and melismatic of all Gregorian chants; Clamaverunt iusti, for example, has melismas with up to 66 notes.[2] Graduals as a group are also notable for melismas that stress one or two pitches, both through repeated notes and repercussive neumes. Both the verse and the respond tend to be similar in style, excepting a tendency for the verse to have a higher tessitura.[3] In music, melisma is the technique of changing the note (pitch) of a syllable of text while it is being sung. ... Neumes are the basic elements of Western and Eastern systems of musical notation prior to the invention of staff notation. ... Tessitura (Italian: texture) is a musical term. ...


Like Tracts, most Graduals show clear signs of centonization, a process of composition in which an extended vocabulary of stock musical phrases are woven together. Some phrases are only used for incipits, some only for cadences, and some only in the middle of a musical line. The Gregorian Graduals can be organized into musical families that share common musical phrases. Although nearly half of the Gregorian Graduals belong to a family of related chants in the fifth mode, the most famous family of Graduals are those of the second mode, commonly called the Iustus ut palma group after one representative chant.[4] The Graduals of the Old Roman chant fall similarly into centonization families, including a family corresponding to the Iustus ut palma group. Centonization refers to the practice of composing melodies based on pre-existing melodic figures and formulas. ... The incipit of a text, such as a poem, song, or book, is its first few words. ... Look up Cadence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Cadence has the following meanings. ... In music, a mode is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... Old Roman chant is the liturgical plainchant repertory of the Roman rite of the Roman Catholic Church formerly performed in Rome, closely related to but distinct from the Gregorian chant which gradually supplanted between the 11th century and the 13th century. ...


Polyphonic settings

Graduals were among the parts of the Mass most frequently composed as organa, including both the St. Martial School and the Notre Dame School. Ordinarily the parts that were sung by the soloist (the beginning of the respond and the verse) are the only parts so set, while the choral parts continued to be performed in plainsong. In 1198, Odo de Sully, Bishop of Paris, authorized polyphonic performances of Graduals, including Perotin's famous four-part organa, Sederunt principes for St. Stephen's Day and Viderunt omnes for Christmas.[5] This article is about a style of music. ... The St. ... The group of composers working at or near the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris from about 1170 to 1250, along with the music they produced, is referred to as the Notre Dame school, or the Notre Dame School of Polyphony. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... Pérotin was a European composer, believed to be French, who lived around the end of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century. ... This article is about a style of music. ... St. ... Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a traditional Christian holiday meant to celebrate the birth of Jesus with both religious and secular aspects, commonly observed on 25 December. ...


Book

The gradual collects the musical items of the Mass. It is distinguished from the Missal by omitting the spoken items, and including the music for the sung parts. It includes both the Ordinary and Proper, as opposed to the Kyrial, which includes only the Ordinary, and the Cantatory, which including only the responsorial chants. Missal, in the Roman Catholic Church, is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Masses throughout the year. ... The Ordinary of the Mass (Latin: Ordo Missae) is the set of texts of the Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite Mass that are generally invariable. ... The Proper (Latin proprium) is that part of the Christian liturgy that varies according to the date, either representing an observance within the Liturgical Year, or of a particular saint or significant event. ... A responsory is a type of chant in Christian liturgies that involves one section singing a respond, answered by another section singing a verse, then the respond is sung again by the first section, followed by a different verse from the second, et al. ...


Originally the book was called an antiphonale missarum ("Antiphonal of the Mass"). Graduals, like the later Cantatory, may have originally only including the responsorial items, the Gradual, Alleluia, and Tract.[6] This article is about the musical term. ... Hallelujah, Halleluyah, or Alleluia, is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְלוּיָהּ meaning [Let us] praise (הַלְלוּ) God (יָהּ) (or Praise (הַלְלוּ) [the] Lord (יָהּ)). It is found mainly in the book of Psalms. ... The tract (Latin: tractus) is part of the proper of the Roman Mass, which is used instead of the Alleluia during Lenten or pre-Lenten seasons, and a few other penitential occasions, when the joyousness of an Alleluia is deemed inappropriate. ...


Footnotes

  1.   Apel, Willi, ed (1972). Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd edition. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Page 350.
  2.   Abbaye Saint-Pierre de Solesmes (1979). Graduale Triplex. Tournai, Belgium: Desclée & Socii. ISBN 2-85274-094-X.
  3.   Apel, Willi (1990). Gregorian Chant. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20601-4.
  4.   Hoppin, Richard (1978). Medieval Music. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-09090-6.
  5.   Hiley, David (1995). Western Plainchant: A Handbook. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.. ISBN 0-19-816572-2.
  6.   Apel (1972), ibid.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia (also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia today) is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the The Encyclopedia Press, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. // History The writing of the encyclopedia began on January 11...



Gregorian chants of the Roman Mass Gregorian chant is also known as plainchant or plainsong and is a form of monophonic, unaccompanied singing, which was developed in the Catholic church, mainly during the period 800-1000. ... Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the various liturgical rites of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, and in some Lutheran regions which are largely High Church: the main Lutheran service is still known as the...

Ordinary:
Proper:
Accentus: Image File history File links Sample of Gregorian chant; Kyrie orbis factor File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Ordinary of the Mass (Latin: Ordo Missae) is the set of texts of the Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite Mass that are generally invariable. ... The Proper (Latin proprium) is that part of the Christian liturgy that varies according to the date, either representing an observance within the Liturgical Year, or of a particular saint or significant event. ... Accentus Ecclesiasticus is a Church music term, the counterpart of concentus. ...

 

Kyrie | Gloria | Credo | Sanctus | Agnus Dei | Ite missa est or Benedicamus Domino
Introit | Gradual | Alleluia or Tract | Sequence | Offertory | Communion
Collect | Epistle | Gospel | Secret | Preface | Canon | Postcommunion Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word κύριος (kyrios - lord) and means O Lord. ... Gloria in Excelsis Deo (Latin for Glory to God in the highest) is the title and beginning of the great doxology (song of praise) used in the Roman Catholic Mass and, in translation, in the services of many other Christian churches. ... In Latin, the word credo means I believe. ... Sanctus is the Latin word for holy, and is the name of an important hymn of Christian liturgy. ... Agnus Dei is a Latin term meaning Lamb of God, and was originally used to refer to Jesus Christ in his role of the perfect sacrificial offering that atones for the sins of man in Christian theology, harkening back to ancient Jewish Temple sacrifices. ... The Ite missa est is the concluding salutation of the Mass (liturgy) of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Benedicamus Domino (Latin for Let us bless the Lord) is a closing salutation used in the Roman Mass instead of the Ite missa est in Masses which lack the Gloria (such as those during Lent). ... The introit (Latin: introitus, entrance) is part of the opening of the celebration of the Mass. ... Hallelujah, Halleluyah, or Alleluia, is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְלוּיָהּ meaning [Let us] praise (הַלְלוּ) God (יָהּ) (or Praise (הַלְלוּ) [the] Lord (יָהּ)). It is found mainly in the book of Psalms. ... The tract (Latin: tractus) is part of the proper of the Roman Mass, which is used instead of the Alleluia during Lenten or pre-Lenten seasons, and a few other penitential occasions, when the joyousness of an Alleluia is deemed inappropriate. ... In Latin poetry, a sequence (Latin sequentia) is a poem written in a non-classical metre, often on a sacred Christian subject. ... Offertory (from the ecclesiastical Latin offertorium, French offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. ... The Communion is the Gregorian chant sung during the Eucharist in the Roman Mass. ... In Christian liturgy, a collect is a short, general prayer. ... An epistle is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Secret (Latin: Secreta, oratio secreta) is the prayer said in a low voice by the celebrant at the end of the Offertory in the Mass. ... A preface (Med. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia Canon of the Mass (Canon Missæ, Canon Actionis) is the name used in the Roman Missal of the Tridentine period for the part of the Mass that began after the Sanctus with the words Te igitur. ... Postcommunion (Latin: Postcommunio) is the text said or sung on a reciting tone following the Communion of the Mass. ...


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