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Encyclopedia > Grace O'Malley
Grace O'Malley
c. 1530c. 1603

The meeting of Grace O'Malley and Queen Elizabeth I
Nickname: Gráinne Mhaol, Granuaile
Type: Pirate
Place of birth: Ireland
Place of death: most likely Rockfleet Castle
Allegiance: Ireland
Battles/wars: Nine Years War (Ireland)

Gráinne Ní Mháille (c. 1530 – c. 1603), also known as Granuaile or Gráinne Mhaol, known in English as Grace O'Malley, is an important figure in Irish folklore, but was in fact a larger-than-life figure from 16th century Irish history. O'Malley is sometimes known as "The Sea Queen Of Connaught". Her name appears in contemporary documents as Gráinne Ui Mháille, Gráinne Umhaill (Grace of the Umhalls). Anglicized versions of her name in contemporary English state papers included Grany O'Maly, Grany Imallye, Granny Nye Male, Grany O'Mayle, Granie ny Maille, Granny ni Maille, Grany O'Mally, Grayn Ny Mayle, Grane ne Male, Grainy O'Maly, and Granee O'Maillie. [1] She has been biographed primarily in the 20th and 21st century by the historian Anne Chambers. The Irish song "Oró Sé do Bheatha 'Bhaile" is dedicated to her. Her story is currently being made into a feature film. Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Rockfleet Castle Rockfleet Castle or Carraigahowley Castle (Carraig-an-Cabhlaigh), is a tower house near Newport in County Mayo, Ireland. ... The Nine Years War (Irish: Cogadh na Naoi mBliana) in Ireland took place from 1594 to 1603 and is also known as Tyrones Rebellion. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Although many of the manuscripts containing texts relating to Irish mythology have failed to survive, and much more material was probably never committed to writing, there is enough remaining to enable the identification of four distinct, if overlapping, cycles: the Mythological Cycle, The Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle and the... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Reformation, before which, in 1536, Henry VIII broke with Papal authority, fundamentally changed Ireland. ... Oró, Sé do Bheatha Bhaile is a traditional Irish independantist song. ...

Contents

Early life

O'Malley was born in Ireland around 1530, when Henry VIII was on the throne of England. Under the policies of the English government at the time, the semi-autonomous Irish princes and lords were left mostly to their own devices. However this was to change over the course of her life and the Tudor re-conquest of Ireland gathered pace. Henry VIII redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital London Head of State King of England Parliament Parliament of England This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of England (927-1707). ... The Tudor re-conquest of Ireland took place under the English Tudor dynasty during the 16th century. ...


She was the daughter of Eoghan (Owen) Dubhdara O'Malley,[2] chieftain of the O'Malley clan. The O'Malleys controlled most of what is now the barony of Murrisk[3] in South-West County Mayo and recognized as their nominal overlords the Gaelicized Anglo-Norman Burke or de Burgo family who controlled much of what is now that county. Her mother, Margaret, was also an O'Malley. Although she was the only child of Dubhdara and his wife, Gráinne O'Malley had a half-brother, called Dónal na Piopa (Donal of the Pipes), who was the son of her father. [4] Murrisk (Muraisc in Irish) is a village in County Mayo, on the south side of Clew Bay, about 6km west of Westport. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ...


Unusual among the Irish nobility of the time, the O'Malleys were a seafaring family and taxed all those who fished off their coasts, which included fishermen from as far away as England. Their leader bore the ancient Irish title of The O'Malley.


According to Irish legend, as a young girl O'Malley wished to go on a trading expedition to Spain with her father, and on being told she could not because her long hair would catch in the ship's ropes,she cut off most of her hair to embarrass her father into taking her, thus earning her the nickname "Gráinne Mhaol" (IPA: [ˈgrɑːnʲə veːl]) (Irish maol meaning "bald" or having cropped hair); the name stuck.


As a child she most likely lived at her family's residence of Belclare and Clare Island, [5] but she may have been fostered to another family since fosterage was traditional among Irish nobility at the time. Clare Island is magnificent mountainous island guarding the entrance to Clew Bay in County Mayo, Ireland. ...


O'Malley was probably formally educated, since she is believed to have spoken in Latin with Queen Elizabeth I at their historic meeting in 1593. [6] Because of her extensive travels and trade, she may have spoken some English, Spanish, Scottish Gaelic, and French as well. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


Marriage to O'Flaherty

Clare Island, associated with Grace O'Malley
Clare Island, associated with Grace O'Malley

O'Malley was married in 1546 at a young age to Dónal an-Chogaidh (Donal of the Battle) O'Flaherty, tánaiste or heir to the O'Flaherty title, which would have been a good political match for the daughter of the O'Malley chieftain. As O'Flaherty tánaiste Dónal an-Chogaidh one day expected to rule Iar-Connacht, the area roughly equivalent to modern Conamara. [7] Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 463 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 463 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Statistics Area: 17,713. ... Connemara (Irish Conamara) is a region in the west of Ireland (Co. ...


She bore three children during her marriage to Dónal an-Chogaidh O'Flaherty:

  • Owen:[8] The eldest child and son, known to be extremely kind and forgiving. When Owen was in his late twenties, or early thirties, Richard Bingham tricked him and, as a result, Owen was murdered and Bingham and his troops took over Owen's castle.
  • Margaret:[9] Sometimes called 'Maeve', Margaret was much like O'Malley herself. She married and had several children. O'Malley and Margaret's husband were supposedly very close, and more than once O'Malley's son-in-law saved her from death.
  • Murrough:[10] Murrough was said to take after his father, Donal, as he enjoyed warfare. He was also sexist, many times beating up his sister, Margaret, and refusing to listen to his mother because of her gender. Many sources report that Murrough, who seems to have had no sense of loyalty, betrayed his family and joined forces with Richard Bingham after the murder of Owen. When O'Malley heard of this, she swore she'd never speak to Murrough again for the rest of her life, though she would often insult him.

Later the warlike Donal was killed in battle, and O'Malley recaptured a castle from the Joyces that had been his (now Hen's Castle in Lough Corrib). She afterwards returned to Mayo and took up residence at the family castle or tower-house on Clare Island. Richard Bingham (1528 - 19 January 1599) was an English soldier and naval commander, who served in Ireland under Queen Elizabeth I during the reconquest of the country and was appointed governor of Connacht. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... A map of Lough Corrib taken from the Admiralty Chart made in 1846 Lough Corrib (Loch Coirib in Irish) is a lake in the west of Ireland. ... Clare Island is magnificent mountainous island guarding the entrance to Clew Bay in County Mayo, Ireland. ...


After Donal's death, Grainne left Iar-Connacht and returned to O'Malley territory, taking with her many O'Flaherty followers who were loyal to her. [11] Statistics Area: 17,713. ...


Marriage to Burke

By 1567 O'Malley had married a second time, this time to Richard-an-Iarainn Burke, called "Iron Richard",[12] an appropriate corruption of his Irish name as he is reputed to have always worn a coat of mail inherited from his Anglo-Norman ancestors. The nickname may also have come from the fact that he controlled the ironworks at Burrishoole, where his principal castle and residence were.[13] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Traditionally it is said that the Burke marriage was motivated by O'Malley's desire to enlarge her holdings and her prestige. Burke was owner of Rockfleet Castle, also called Carraigahowley Castle, which was strategically situated near Newport, as well as other lands like Burrishoole, with sheltered harbors in which a pirate ship could hide. Burke held a high position as chieftain of a senior branch of his sept. Because of his sept leadership he would eventually be eligible for election as MacWilliam, the second most powerful office in Connacht.[14] Rockfleet Castle Rockfleet Castle or Carraigahowley Castle (Carraig-an-Cabhlaigh), is a tower house near Newport in County Mayo, Ireland. ... Old bridge in Newport, County Mayo WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M989937 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Elevation: 14 m Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural:   527  1,636 Newport (Irish: ) is a small town in County Mayo, Republic of Ireland. ...


According to tradition they married under Brehon law 'for one year certain', and although it is said that when the year was up O'Malley divorced Burke and kept the castle. Legend says that when the one year had passed, O'Malley and her followers locked themselves in Rockfleet Castle and O'Malley called out a window to Burke, "Richard Burke, I dismiss you." Those words had the effect of ending the marriage, but since she was in possession of the castle she kept it.[15] Rockfleet remained for centuries in the O'Malley family and is today open to the public. The Brehon Laws were statutes that governed everyday life and politics in Ireland until the Norman invasion of 1171 (the word Brehon is an Anglicisation of breitheamh (earlier brithem), the Irish word for a judge). ...


Despite the divorce story, O'Malley and Burke appear as mentioned as husband and wife in English documents of the period, so appeared to remain married, at least allied, as far as the English were concerned. In her answers to the interrogatories from Queen Elizabeth I, O'Malley said she was Richard Burke's widow.


They had one son, Tibbot Burke, nicknamed Tiobóid na Long (Tibbot of the Ships), who was born about 1567.[16] Tibbot was later given the title of Viscount Mayo. Burke had at least four other children, Edmund, Walter, John, and Catherine.[17] The title Earl of the County of Mayo, usually known simply as Earl of Mayo, was created in the Peerage of Ireland in 1785 for John Bourke, 1st Viscount Mayo. ...


Other Relationships

O'Malley was accused of promiscuity, and it was said that she may have had a son out of wedlock. Biographer Anne Chambers points out that despite hints at these facts in certain state documents, allegations such as these were frequently made against women who acted in a manner contrary to the social norms of the day.[18] Promiscuous redirects here. ... In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a pattern of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. ...


The Chambers biography relates that the legendary reason for O'Malley's seizure of Doona Castle in Ballycroy was because the MacMahons, who owned the castle, killed her lover, Hugh de Lacy, the shipwrecked son of a Wexford merchant O'Malley had rescued.[19] This article is about the Irish town. ...


Career

Even as a young woman Gráinne O'Malley was involved in the business of sailing ships and international trade.[20] She probably learned the business from her father, Owen "Dubhdara" O'Malley, who plied a busy international shipping trade. Bunowen Castle, where she lived with her first husband, Dónal an-Chogaidh O'Flaherty, was situated on the most western point in Connacht, and was apparently the first base for her shipping and trade activities. By the time of Donal's death in the early 1560s, she commanded the loyalty of so many O'Flaherty men that many of them left the area when she did, and followed her to Clare Island in Clew Bay, where she moved her headquarters.[21] Statistics Area: 17,713. ... Clare Island is magnificent mountainous island guarding the entrance to Clew Bay in County Mayo, Ireland. ... Clew Bay (Irish Cuan Mó) is a natural ocean bay in County Mayo, Ireland. ...


Dónal an-Chogaidh O'Flaherty had taken a fortress in the Lough Corrib from the Joyce clan. Because of Donal's attitude, the Joyces bagan calling that particular fortress "Cock's Castle." When they heard of his death, they decided to take back the castle. Grainne defended it against them successfully, and apparently the Joyces were so impressed with her abilities in battle that they renamed it Caislean an-Circa, the "Hen's Castle," the name by which it is still known. The English later attacked her at the Hen's Castle, but despite being outnumbered O'Malley withstood the siege. According to legend, she took lead from the roof of the fortress and melted it, then poured it onto the heads of the attacking soldiers. She summoned help by sending a man to light a beacon on the nearby Hill of Doon. Some time before she had ordered the signal beacons set up for just such a purpose. Help arrived and the English were beaten back, never to attack the fortress again.[22] A map of Lough Corrib taken from the Admiralty Chart made in 1846 Lough Corrib (Loch Coirib in Irish) is a lake in the west of Ireland. ...


Around the time of her first husband's death came the initial complaints to the English Council in Dublin from Galway's city leaders that O'Flaherty and O'Malley ships were behaving like pirates. Because Galway imposed taxes on the ships that traded their goods there, the O'Flahertys, led by O'Malley, decided to extract a similar tax from ships traveling in waters off their lands. O'Malley's ships would stop and board the traders and demand either cash or a portion of the cargo in exchange for safe passage the rest of the way to Galway. Resistance was met with violence and even murder. Once they obtained their toll, the O'Flaherty ships would disappear into one of the many bays in the area.[23][24] WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ...


By the early 1560s, O'Malley had left O'Flaherty territory and returned to her father's holdings on Clare Island.[25] She recruited fighting men from both Ireland and Scotland, transporting the gallowglass mercenaries between their Scottish homes and Irish employers and plundering Scotland's outlying islands on her return trips. [26] In an apparent effort to curry favor with the English, which were engaged in a re-conquest of Ireland at the time, O'Malley went to the Lord Deputy of Ireland and offered two hundred fighting men to serve English interests in Ireland and Scotland.[27] The term Galloglas (or Gallowglass) is an Anglicisation of the Irish, Gallóglaigh (foreign soldiers), incorporating the word, Óglach, which is derived from oac, the Old Irish for youths, but later meaning soldier. The galloglas were a mercenary warrior élite among Gaelic-Norse clans residing in the highlands and Western...


O'Malley's attacked other ships at least as far away as Waterford on the south central coast of Ireland, as well as closer to her home port in northwestern Ireland. She did not limit her attacks to other ships. She attacked fortresses on the shoreline, including Curradh Castle at Renvyle and the O'Loughlin castle in the Burren. She also attacked the O'Boyle and MacSweeney clans in their holdings in Burtonport, Killybegs and Lough Swilly.[28] WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S604123 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 41. ... Burren landscape The Burren (from Irish: , meaning great rock; Boirinn is the modern form used by the Ordnance Survey) is a unique karst-landscape region in northwest County Clare, in the Republic of Ireland. ...


In 1577, she met with Sir Henry Sidney, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, who already knew of her since she had met his son, Sir Philip Sidney, in 1576. Although Philip Sidney would have been a very young man at the time, O'Malley evidently made an impression on him since he mentioned her in favorable terms to his father.[29] Sir Henry Sidney (1529 - May 5, 1586), lord deputy of Ireland, was the eldest son of Sir William Sidney, a prominent politician and courtier in the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, from both of whom he received extensive grants of land, including the manor of Penshurst in Kent... Philip Sidney Sir Philip Sidney (November 30, 1554 - October 17, 1586) became one of the Elizabethan Ages most prominent figures. ...


O'Malley was wealthy on land as well as by sea. She inherited her father's fleet of ships and land holdings, as well as the land her mother had owned. Around the time of her meeting with Queen Elizabeth I of England, she owned herds of cattle and horses that numbered at least one thousand, which would have meant she was wealthy.[30]


Legendary Exploits

Many folk stories and legends about O'Malley have survived since her actual days of pirating and trading. There are also traditional songs and poems about her.


A widespread legend concerns an incident at Howth, which apparently occurred in 1576. During a trip from Dublin, O'Malley attempted to pay a courtesy visit to Howth Castle, home of the 8th Baron Howth. However, she was informed that the family was at dinner and the castle gates were closed against her. In retaliation, she abducted the Earl's son and heir, the 10th Baron. He was eventually released when a promise was given to keep the gates open to unexpected visitors, and to set an extra place at every meal. Lord Howth gave O'Malley a ring as pledge on the agreement. The ring remains in the possession of a descendant of Grace O'Malley, and at Howth Castle today, this agreement is still honoured by the Gaisford St. Lawrence family, descendants of the Baron.[31] WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O283393 Statistics County: Elevation: sea level Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural:   8706  n/a Howth (pronounced to rhyme with both; known as Binn Éadair in Irish) is a generally affluent residential area in the Fingal County Council administrative area of County Dublin, Ireland. ... Howth Castle lies close to the village of Howth, north of the city of Dublin in Ireland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The legendary reason for O'Malley's seizure of Doona Castle in Ballycroy was because the MacMahons, who owned the castle, killed her lover, Hugh de Lacy, the shipwrecked son of a Wexford merchant O'Malley had rescued. When the guilty members of the MacMahon clan landed on the holy island of Caher for a pilgrimage, O'Malley captured their boats. She and her men then captured the MacMahons and killed those responsible for her lover's death. Still not satisfied with her revenge, O'Malley then sailed for Ballycroy and attacked the garrison at Doona Castle, overpowering the defenders and taking the castle for herself.[32]


Her attack against the MacMahons was not the first time she interrupted someone at their prayers. Legend tells of another chieftain who stole property from O'Malley and fled to a church for sanctuary. O'Malley was determined to wait out the thief, maintaining that he could starve or surrender. The thief dug a tunnel and escaped, however, and the hermit who took care of the church broke his vow of silence to scold her for attempting to harm someone who had sought sanctuary. O'Malley's reply is not included in the legend.[33]


Revolutionary Activity

In 1593, in his letter to Queen Elizabeth I protesting Grainne O'Malley's claims against him, Richard Bingham claimed that O'Malley was "nurse to all rebellions in the province for this forty years."[34][35] Elizabeth I Queen of England and Ireland Queen of France, nominal title Elizabeth I (September 7, 1533–March 24, 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from November 17, 1558 until her death. ... Richard Bingham (1528 - 19 January 1599) was an English soldier and naval commander, who served in Ireland under Queen Elizabeth I during the reconquest of the country and was appointed governor of Connacht. ...


O'Malley engaged in revolutionary activity against the English crown. Her castle at Clare Island was attacked by an expedition from Galway intended to get rid of her. However, they were put to flight and barely escaped. Later O'Malley was captured, but released some time afterward. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ...


Meeting with Elizabeth

In the later 16th century English power steadily increased in Ireland and O'Malley's power was steadily encroached upon. Finally, in 1593, when her sons, Tibbot Burke and Murrough O'Flaherty, and her half-brother, Donal-na-Piopa, were taken captive by the English governor of Connaught, Sir Richard Bingham, O'Malley sailed to England to petition Elizabeth I for their release. Elizabeth apparently took to O'Malley, who was three years older, and the two women reached sufficient agreement for Elizabeth to grant O'Malley's requests provided that her support of many Irish rebellions and piracy against England ended. Their discussion was carried out in Latin, as O'Malley spoke no English and Elizabeth spoke no Gaelic. Richard Bingham (1528 - 19 January 1599) was an English soldier and naval commander, who served in Ireland under Queen Elizabeth I during the reconquest of the country and was appointed governor of Connacht. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Elizabeth I famously sent O'Malley a list of questions, which she answered and returned to Elizabeth. O'Malley then came to England (as previously stated) to petition the release of her sons and half-brother. She met with Elizabeth at Greenwich Palace, wearing a fine gown, the two of them surrounded by guards and the members of Elizabeth's royal Court. O'Malley refused to bow before Elizabeth because she did not recognize her as the Queen of Ireland, and wished to show Elizabeth this. It is also rumored that O'Malley had a dagger concealed about her person, which guards found upon searching her. Elizabeth's courtiers were said to be very upset and worried, but O'Malley informed the queen that she carried it for her own safety--Elizabeth accepted this and, though the dagger was removed from O'Malley's possession, did not seem to worry. Some also reported that O'Malley sneezed and was given a lace-edged handkerchief from a noblewoman. She apparently blew her nose into the handkerchief and then threw the piece of cloth into a nearby fireplace, much to the shock of the court. O'Malley amusedly informed Elizabeth and her court that, in Ireland, a used handkerchief was considered dirty and was destroyed.


O'Malley and Elizabeth, after much talk, agreed to a list of demands. For example, Elizabeth was to remove Richard Bingham from his position in Ireland, and O'Malley was to stop supporting the Irish Lords' rebellions. O'Malley sailed back to Ireland, and the meeting seemed to have done some good, for Richard Bingham was removed from service. However, several of O'Malley's other demands (i.e. the return of the cattle and land that Bingham had stolen from her, for instance) remained unmet, and within a rather short period of time, Elizabeth sent Bingham back to Ireland. Upon Bingham's return, O'Malley realized that the meeting with Elizabeth had been useless, and went back to supporting Irish rebellions.


Later life

Despite the meeting, O'Malley later returned to her old ways, though nominally directing her raids against the "enemies of England" during the Nine Years War. She most likely died at Rockfleet Castle in 1603, the same year as Elizabeth, though the year and place of her death are disputed. The Nine Years War (Irish: Cogadh na Naoi mBliana) in Ireland took place from 1594 to 1603 and is also known as Tyrones Rebellion. ...


More than 20 years after her death, an English lord deputy of Ireland recalled her ability as a leader of fighting men, noting her fame and favor that still existed among the Irish people. [36][37] The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European ethnic group who originate in Ireland, in north western Europe. ...


Cultural impact

O'Malley's life has inspired musicians, novelists and playwrights to create works based her adventures. The latest artistic project is the musical play The Pirate Queen by Alain Boublil, Claude-Michel Schönberg, Richard Maltby, Jr. and John Dempsey, which originally debuted at Chicago's Cadillac Palace Theatre in October 2006, with American stage actor Stephanie J. Block as Grania (Grace). The Pirate Queen is based on Morgan Llywelyn's 1986 novel about O'Malley's life, Grania: She-King of the Irish Seas. Morgan Llewellyn's book, in turn, takes from Anne Chambers' biography, who was credited as consultant. The musical moved to Broadway in March 2007, but closed in June due to lack of interest on the part of theatre-goers. The Pirate Queen is a musical based on the life of the 16th century Irish chieftain, adventuress and pirate Grace OMalley. ... Alain Boublil is a librettist, best known for his collaborations with the composer Claude-Michel Schönberg. ... Claude-Michel Schönberg (born July 6, 1944 in Vannes, France) is a French record producer, actor, singer, popular songwriter, and musical theatre composer, best known for his collaborations with the librettist Alain Boublil. ... Richard Maltby, Jr. ... John Dempsey is a theatrical lyricist and playwright who has worked in Britain and the United States. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... October 2006 is the tenth month of that year and has yet to occur. ... Stephanie J. Block (born Stephanie Janette Block on September 19, 1972) is an American stage actress and member of Actors Equity and the Los Angeles Musical Theater Guild. ... Morgan Llywelyn is an American-born Irish author of historical fantasy, historical fiction, and historical non-fiction. ... March 2007 is the third month of the year. ...


James Joyce used the legend of Grace O'Malley ("her grace o'malice") and the Earl of Howth in chapter 1 of Finnegans Wake, but added the kidnapping of another fictional son, Hilary, to match his Shem and Shaun theme. Christopher/Tristopher is turned into a Luderman (happy Lutheran) and Hilary into a Tristian (sad Christian). This article is about the writer and poet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


The play Bald Grace by Marki Shalloe debuted at Chicago's Stockyards Theatre in 2005 and was featured at Atlanta's Theatre Gael (American's oldest Irish-American theatre) in 2006.[38] A musical drama written in 1989, Grannia, story and lyrics by Thomas A. Power and music by Larry Allen, also tells the story of O'Malley from childhood to her meeting with Elizabeth I. It won the 1990 Moss Hart Award. For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánach) are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in the west European island of Ireland. ... Larry Christopher Allen, Sr. ... Moss Hart (October 24, 1904 – December 20, 1961) was an American playwright and director of plays and musical theater. ...


Romance author Bertrice Small portrays O'Malley in several of her books, particularly in Skye O'Malley, where she is a kinswoman to the main character. There is also a more recent book (2004) by Alan Gold titled The Pirate Queen: The Story of Grace O'Malley, an Irish Pirate that tells of her life from 14 till her meeting with Elizabeth I. The Wild Irish: A Novel of Elizabeth I & the Pirate O'Malley, by Robin Maxwell, tells O'Malley's story from birth up until a few years before her death. The Wild Irish focuses mainly on O'Malley's life, but is highly fictional — the main part of the story is O'Malley telling her life story to Elizabeth I on the night of their meeting. A children's book titled The Pirate Queen was also written about O'Malley. Bertrice Small is an American author of historical and erotic romance novels. ... Alan Bernard Gold (1917-May 15, 2005) was the chief justice of the Quebec Superior Court from 1983 to 1992. ...


Irish author O.R. Melling portrays O'Malley in her novel The Summer King (part two of the Chronicles of Faerie) as a ghost who haunts Achill Island, and later as her live self when heroes Laurel and Ian go back in time to win her as an ally. O.R. Melling Born in Ireland and raised in Canada, O.R. Melling/aka G.V. Whelan has written several novels in the realm of fantasy. ... Location of Achill Island. ...


In 2005, theater camp Stagedoor Manor premiered a play, The Heart Rising, focusing around a family of Irish immigrants to America. The show included O'Malley as a common thread throughout the many generations of the family. Stagedoor Manor (brochure photo) Stagedoor Manor is a performing arts summer camp located in upstate New York which has trained several high profile child actors. ...


In June 2006 the Knock School of Irish Dancing did a dance drama based on O'Malley's story. The production was called Grainne O'Malley, The Pirate Queen and was performed by the entire Knock School at the Winspear Center in downtown Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). June 2006 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Extraordinary renditions. ... Irish dancers at St. ...


The Irish sail training vessel Asgard II has a figurehead of Granuaile. From its modern interpretations to its antecedents when maritime nations would send young naval officer candidates to sea (e. ... The Asgard II is the Irish national sail training ship. ... Forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Figurehead is a carved wooden decoration, often female or bestiary, found at the prow of ships of the 16th to the 19th century. ...


Since 1948, the Commissioners of Irish Lights have sailed three vessels named Granuaile. Their current sole light tender is the most modern serving the coasts of Britain and Ireland[39]. The Commissioners of Irish Lights (CIL) is the body that serves as the lighthouse authority for all of the island of Ireland plus its adjacent seas and islands. ...


In 1986, famed Irish composer and music producer Shaun Davey released a concept album entitled Granuaile that was thematically based on O'Malley's life. The album featured a 22-piece chamber orchestra and his wife, Rita Connally, on all lead vocals. The duo have performed the work live periodically over the years. Shaun Davey is an Irish composer. ... In popular music, a concept album is an album which is unified by a theme, which can be instrumental, compositional, narrative, or lyrical (Shuker 2002, p. ...


The traditional song "Oró Sé do Bheatha 'Bhaile" is an entire song that praises her, and among many lines, says, "Welcome O' woman who was so afflicted". Oró, Sé do Bheatha Bhaile is a traditional Irish independantist song. ...


Grace O'Malley: The Film

For main article, Grace O'Malley (film)


As of 2007, a feature film based on Grace O'Malley's story is in development. It will be penned by Anne Chambers, author of the biography Granuaile: Ireland’s Pirate Queen, and Sarah Lawson, who will also produce the film under her company, Lawson Productions. Its predicted release is 2009, and is backed by the Irish Film Board. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  • Chambers, Anne. Granuaile: Ireland's pirate queen Grace O'Malley c. 1530-1603. Dublin: Wolfhound Press. ISBN 0-86327-913-9
  • Chambers, Anne. "Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley." New York: MJF Books, 2003. (This is a second, American edition of the book above) ISBN-13 978-1-56731-858-6; ISBN-10 1-56731-858-4
  • Cook, Judith. 2004. Pirate Queen, the life of Grace O'Malley 1530-1603. Cork: Mercier Press. ISBN 1-85635-443-1
  • Druett, Joan. 2000. She Captains: Heroines and Hellions of the Sea. Simon & Schuster, Inc.
  • Lynch, Patricia. 1970. Orla of Burren (1954). Leicester: Knight Books, Brockhampton Press Ltd. SBN 340-03990-6 (children's literature, historical novel)
  1. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 39. New York: MJF, 2003.
  2. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 20. New York: MJF, 2003.
  3. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 20. New York: MJF, 2003.
  4. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 21. New York: MJF, 2003.
  5. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 39. New York: MJF, 2003.
  6. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 36. New York: MJF, 2003.
  7. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 42. New York: MJF, 2003.
  8. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 44. New York: MJF, 2003.
  9. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 44. New York: MJF, 2003.
  10. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 44. New York: MJF, 2003.
  11. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 45. New York: MJF, 2003.
  12. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 63. New York: MJF, 2003.
  13. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, pp. 64, 66. New York: MJF, 2003.
  14. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, pp. 64-65. New York: MJF, 2003.
  15. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, pp. 65-66. New York: MJF, 2003.
  16. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 67. New York: MJF, 2003.
  17. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 64. New York: MJF, 2003.
  18. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, pp. 53-54. New York: MJF, 2003.
  19. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, pp. 55-56. New York: MJF, 2003.
  20. ^ 1593 Petition of Grainne O'Malley to Queen Elizabeth, State Papers Relating to Ireland (on microfilm, originals in the Public Record Office, London) SP 63/171/18
  21. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, pp. 45, 50. New York: MJF, 2003.
  22. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 49. New York: MJF, 2003.
  23. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 45-46. New York: MJF, 2003.
  24. ^ Calendar of State Papers Relating to Ireland (Elizabeth I), vol. 207, p. 5. (London 1860-1912)
  25. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 51. New York: MJF, 2003.
  26. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 52. New York: MJF, 2003.
  27. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 52. New York: MJF, 2003.
  28. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 54. New York: MJF, 2003.
  29. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 36. New York: MJF, 2003.
  30. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 54. New York: MJF, 2003.
  31. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 56-58. New York: MJF, 2003.
  32. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, pp. 55-56. New York: MJF, 2003.
  33. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 56. New York: MJF, 2003.
  34. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 52. New York: MJF, 2003.
  35. ^ Lambeth Palace Library MS 601, p. 111
  36. ^ Chambers, Anne: Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley, p. 53. New York: MJF, 2003.
  37. ^ Calendar of State Papers Relating to Ireland (James I) 1623, no. 997. (London 1860-1912)
  38. ^ "Current Events: The Marki Shalloe Theatre Festival, October 21 – November 5, 2006". Theatre Gael. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  39. ^ Ships in the Irish Lighthouse Service (HTML). Commissioners of Irish Lights. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.

Joan Druett is a New Zealand historian and novelist, specialising in maritime history. ... Brockhampton Press was a British publishing company, based in Leicester. ... Childrens books redirects here. ... A historical novel a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... Look up corsair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... The ushkuiniks were medieval Novgorodian pirates who led the Viking-like life of fighting, killing, and robbery. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Edward_England. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) An 18th-century pirate flag. ... Piracy in the Strait of Malacca was common in the past, and is currently on the rise again in recent years possibly for terrorism-related reasons. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in Magny-les-Hameaux, in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... For the island with a similar name in the Gulf of California, see Isla Tortuga. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Libertatia (also known as Libertalia) was a legendary country, or free colony, forged by pirates, under the leadership of Captain Misson in the late 1600s. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ... Jean Bart (October 21, 1651 - April 27, 1702) was a French naval commander of the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Blackbeard (disambiguation). ... Stede Bonnet (1688?-December 10, 1718)[1] was a pirate captain from the English colony of Barbados. ... Anne Bonny (c. ... Roche Braziliano (born c. ... Roberto Cofresí (June 17, 1791-March 29, 1825) born Roberto Cofresí y Ramírez de Arellano in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico, is Puerto Ricos most famous pirate and is better known as El Pirata Cofresí. Monument of Roberto Cofresí // The origin of Cofresís father is unknown and has... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... Henry Every or Avery (born c. ... For the musician, orchestrator, and composer, see William Kidd (composer). ... A portrait of Edward Lowe hanging in the National Maritime Museum in London Edward Ned Lowe (or Low, or Loe), often known as Ned Low was a notorious pirate during the Golden Age of Piracy. ... Anonymous portrait said to be of Jean Lafitte in the early 19th century, Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas Jean Lafitte (1776 - 1854?), was a famous pirate in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 19th century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Admiral Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ... John Rackham (died November 17, 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... For Mary Karen Read, see List of victims of the Virginia Tech massacre Mary Read (c. ... Oruç Reis captures a galley Aruj or Oruc Reis (Turkish: Oruç Reis) (c. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... Statue of Robert Surcouf in Saint-Malo. ... Statue in St Malo René Trouin, Sieur du Gué, usually called Réné Duguay-Trouin, (Saint Malo, 10 June 1673 -- 1736) was a famous French privateer, Lieutenant-Général des armées navales du roi (admiral) and Commander in the Order of Saint-Louis. ... Blackbeards severed head hanging from Maynards bow Robert Maynard was a lieutenant in the British Royal Navy, captain of HMS Pearl, and is most famous for defeating the infamous pirate Blackbeard in battle. ... Sir Chalonor Ogle (1681-1750) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the British navy. ... Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character N). Many pirates created their own individualized versions. ... A painting depicting the era. ... This is a timeline of the history of piracy. ... List of pirate films is is an alphabetical list of films dealing with piracy, primarily during the Golden Age of Piracy in the Caribbean Sea in the 16th century to 18th century. ... This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, and others involved in piracy. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Mediadrome - History - Grace O'Malley (2136 words)
Grace O'Malley had traveled to England to plead her case with the Queen directly, and to the amazement of almost everyone, Elizabeth I agreed to see her.
Grace O'Malley was born around 1530 to Owen "Black Oak" O'Malley, the elected chieftain of the Barony of Murrisk.
Grace had three children by O'Flaherty: Owen, Murrough and Margaret, but she was not the sort to settle down to home and hearth.
Grace O'Malley, Irish pirate (1581 words)
Grace O'Malley was a woman of fire and adventure, a pirate, mercenary, traitor, chieftain, and noblewoman in her lifetime.
Grace was married to Donal O'Flahetty in 1546.
Grace explained to the Queen that her acts were not of rebellion but merely acts of self defense as Bingham had taken upon himself to destroy her and all of Ireland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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