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Encyclopedia > Gozan
Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE
Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE

Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. It was the first find of a Neolithic culture, subsequently dubbed the Halafian culture, characterized by glazed pottery painted with geometric and animal designs. The site dates back to the 6th millenium BCE and was later the location of the Aramaean city-state of Guzana. File links The following pages link to this file: Template:Did you know User talk:MacGyverMagic Template talk:Did you know User:Ianbrown User:Ianbrown/Sandbox2 Tell Halaf Categories: GFDL images | Protected main page images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Template:Did you know User talk:MacGyverMagic Template talk:Did you know User:Ianbrown User:Ianbrown/Sandbox2 Tell Halaf Categories: GFDL images | Protected main page images ... Basalt Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock, sometimes porphyritic, and is often both fine-grained and dense. ... Al Hasakah is a governorate in the far north-east corner of Syria, including the Euphrates river. ... ,neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... The Arameans or Aramaeans (also called Syriacs) were a Semitic, nomadic people who dwelt in Aram-Naharaim or Aram of the two rivers, also known as Mesopotamia a region including modern Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Iran that is mentioned six times in the Hebrew Bible. ...

Contents


Discovery and excavation

Location of R'as al 'Ayn, Syria. Tell Halaf lies nearby.
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Location of R'as al 'Ayn, Syria. Tell Halaf lies nearby.

The site is located near the village of R'as al 'Ayn in the fertile Khabur valley (Nahr al Khabur) through which the Khabur river flows, close to the modern border with Turkey. It was discovered in 1899 by Baron Max von Oppenheim, a German engineer, while he was surveying the area to build the now-defunct Berlin-Baghdad railway. (At the time, Syria was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.) He returned to excavate the site from 1911 to 1913, and took many of the artifacts found back to Berlin. The site was also excavated in 1927 and 1929 under French stewardship following the creation of modern Syria. The name Tell Halaf is a local Arabic placename, tell meaning "hill" in Arabic; what its original inhabitants called their settlement is not known. The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally southeast to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...   Berlin? (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El-Muzaffer Daima (Ottoman Turkish for the Ever Victorious) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Constantinople (Ä°stanbul) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ... 1911 was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


Von Oppenheim founded the Tell Halaf museum in Berlin to house his discoveries from the site. The museum was wrecked in a massive aerial bombardment in World War II and many of the rare artifacts were damaged or destroyed, in what is considered one of the worst losses to have occurred in Near Eastern archaeology. However, 80 cubic meters of basalt fragments were later rescued and stored away in the Pergamon Museum. In 2001, a restoration project commenced in Germany which has made some headway in reconstructing some of the damaged artifacts. World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb. ... The Pergamon Museum The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. ...


History

The site flourished from about 5050 to 4300 BCE. This period of time is sometimes referred to as the Halafian period. The Halafian culture was succeeded in northern Mesopotamia by the Ubaid culture. (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ...


In 894 BCE, the Assyrian king Adad-nirari II recorded it in his archives as a tributary Aramaean city-state. After a short period of independence, Semiramis sacked the city in 808 BCE and reduced the surrounding area to a province of the Assyrian Empire. Assyrians are a Christian Syriac-speaking minority inhabiting northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and northwestern Iran, some of whom are also identified as Aramaeans, Syriacs and Chaldeans. ... Adad-nirari II is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period. ... Semiramis (c. ... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ...


Economy

Dry farming was practiced by the population. This type of farming was based on exploiting natural rainfall without the help of irrigation, in a similar practice to that still practiced today by the Hopi people of Arizona. Emmer wheat, two rowed barley and flax were grown. They kept cattle, sheep and goats. Part of a Hopi pueblo Hopi refers to a Native American nation who primarily live on the 1. ... State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Other U.S. States Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano (D) Official languages English Only State Area 295,254 km² (6th)  - Land 294,312 km²  - Water 942 km² (0. ... Binomial name triticum dicoccoides Emmer wheat is a wild species of wheat officially known as Triticum dicoccoides. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ...


The Halafians' pottery has been found in other parts of the ancient Near East, such as at Nineveh and Tepe Gawra, suggesting that it was widely exported in the region. In addition, the Halaf communities made baked clay female figurines and stamp seals of stone. The seals are thought to mark the development of concepts of personal property, as similar seals were used for this purpose in later times. [1] The Halafians used tools made of stone but also increasingly used copper and bronze. This article is about the ancient Middle Eastern city of Nineveh. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance copper, metallic Atomic mass 63. ... Bronze figurine, found at Öland Bronze is the traditional name for a broad range of alloys of copper. ...


Culture

Architecture

Halafian ware
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Halafian ware

Although no Halaf settlement has been extensively excavated some buildings have been excavated: the tholoi of Arpachiyah, circular domed structures approached through long rectangular anterooms [2]. Only a few of these structures were ever excavated. They were constructed of mud-brick sometimes on stone foundations and may have been for ritual use (one contained a large number of female figurines). Other circular buildings were probably just houses. The Treasure of Atreus tholos in 2004 Beehive tombs, also known as Tholos tombs (plural tholoi), are a style of Mycenaean chamber tomb from the Bronze Age. ...


Pottery

The pottery of Tell Halaf, called Halafian ware, is glazed pottery painted with geometric and animal designs. There are many theories about why the distinctive pottery style developed. The most accepted theory is that the pottery came about due to regional copying and that it was exchanged as a prestige item between local elites.


References

  • "The History of the Ancient Near East Electronic Compendium". Retrieved May 27, 2005.

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