FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gowanus Canal
An aerial view of the canal and its crossings.
An aerial view of the canal and its crossings.

The Gowanus Canal, also known as the Gowanus Creek Canal, is a canal in the western portion Long Island, in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, New York, USA. Connected to Gowanus Bay in Upper New York Bay, the canal borders the neighborhoods of Red Hook and South Brooklyn on the west and Gowanus/Park Slope on the east. Gowanus Bay borders Sunset Park and Red Hook neighborhoods. There are five east-west bridge crossings over the canal, located at Union Street, Carroll Street, Third Street, Ninth Street, and Hamilton Avenue. The Gowanus Expressway (Interstate 278) and the IND Culver Line of the New York City Subway, the only above-ground section of the original Independent Subway System, pass overhead. Image:Gowanusmap2. ... Image:Gowanus Canal. ... Image:Gowanus Canal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Channel (geography). ... Map showing Long Island; to the north is Connecticut and to the west are New York City and New Jersey. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... The Five Boroughs of New York City: 1: Manhattan 2: Brooklyn 3: Queens 4: Bronx 5: Staten Island In New York City, a borough is a unique form of government used to administer the five constituent counties that make up the city; it differs significantly from other borough forms of... Brooklyn (named for the Dutch city Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. ... NY redirects here. ... Upper New York Bay, sometimes called Upper New York Harbor or the Upper Bay, is the northern area of New York Harbor inside the Narrows. ... A Holland-Style Factory Building in Red Hook Red Hook circa 1875 Red Hook is a neighborhood of the Borough of Brooklyn, New York, USA. Before annexation into Brooklyn, Red Hook was a separate village. ... South Brooklyn is a hybrid neighborhood encompassing areas of Carroll Gardens, Cobble Hill, Red Hook, Gowanus and Boerum Hill. ... Gowanus is a neighborhood in Brooklyn, New York, USA, situated roughly between Red Hook and Carroll Gardens on the west and Park Slope on the East. ... A typical Park Slope block in spring. ... The original Gowanus Expressway in 1954, before widening. ... Interstate 278 (abbreviated I-278) is an Interstate Highway in the U.S. states of New Jersey and New York. ... The IND Culver Line is a rapid transit line of the IND Division of the New York City Subway, extending from the Rutgers Street Tunnel under the East River to the BMT Culver Line at Ditmas Avenue (which continues to Coney Island). ... The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system operated by the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit. ... The sections of the IND and the date each was opened. ...


Once a leading national transportation hub, the canal's fate has mirrored the decline of shipping via water. A legacy of serious environmental problems has troubled the area from the time the canal was first built out of the local tidal wetlands and fresh water streams. In recent years, there has been a call once again for environmental cleanup. In addition, development pressures have brought speculation that the wetlands of the Gowanus should serve waterfront economic development needs which may not be compatible with environmental restoration. Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... A running stream. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ...

Contents

History and overview

Mill creek

The Gowanus neighborhood was originally a tidal inlet of navigable creeks in original saltwater marshland, and meadows teeming with fish and other wildlife. Henry Hudson and Giovanni da Verrazzano both navigated the inlet in their explorations of New York Harbor. The first land patents within Breukelen (Brooklyn), including the land of the Gowanus, were issued by the Dutch Government from 1630 to 1664. In 1639, the leaders of New Netherland made one of the earliest recorded real estate deals in New York City history with the purchase of the area around the Gowanus Bay for construction of a tobacco plantation. The early settlers of the area named the waterway "Gowanes Creek" after Gouwane, sachem of the local Lenape tribe called the Canarsee, who lived and farmed on the rich shorelines.[1] This article is about tides in the ocean. ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway An inlet is a body of water, usually seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: a bay a cove an estuary a firth a fjord a geo a sea loch a sea lough a... A running stream. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... A meadow is a tract of grassland, either in its natural state or used as pasture or for growing hay. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... Giovanni da Verrazzano (c. ... New York Harbor, a geographic term, refers collectively to the rivers, bays, and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City. ... During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... // Main article: History of New York City (prehistory-1664) Prehistory in the area began with the geological formation of the peculiar territory of what is today New York City. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... // This article is about crop plantations. ... A sagamore is the head of a Native American tribe. ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American peoples. ... Shore A shore or shoreline is the land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake. ...


Adam Brouwer, who had been a soldier in the service of the Dutch West India Company, built and operated the first gristmill patented in N.Y., located at Gowanus (on land patented July 8, 1645, to Jan Evertse Bout). The tide-water gristmill on the Gowanus was the first in the town of Breukelen and was the first mill ever operated in New Netherlands (located north of Union Street, west of Nevins Street, and next to Bond Street). A second mill (Denton's Mill, also called Yellow mill) was built on Denton's mill pond, after being granted permission to dredge from the creek to the mill pond once located between Fifth Ave and the present day canal at Carroll and Third Street. On May 26, 1664, several Breuckelen residents, headed by Brouwer, petitioned director general Peter Stuyvesant and his Council for permission to dredge a canal at their own expense through the land of Frederick Lubbertsen in order to supply water to run the mill. The petition was presented to the council on May 29, 1664, and the motion was granted. Another mill, Cole's Mill, was located just about at present day 9th Street, between Smith Street and the Canal. Cole's Mill pond was a man made work, employing slave labor to excavate the marshland.[2] Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... Gristmill with water wheel, Skyline Drive, VA, 1938 A gristmill is a building where grain is ground into flour. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... // [edit] Six Dutch towns The Battle of Brooklyn was fought across Kings County An independent city prior to 1898, Brooklyn developed out of the small Dutch-founded town of Breuckelen on the East River shore of Long Island, named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. ... // For other uses, see Dredge (disambiguation). ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... This is a list of Directors, appointed by the Dutch West India Company, of the 17th century Dutch province of New Netherland (Nieuw Nederland in Dutch) in North America. ... Peter Stuyvesant circa 1660 Peter Stuyvesant (circa 1600 – August 1672) served as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what in 1776 became the United States. ... Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, cat tails, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ...


In 1700, a settler, Nicholas Vechte, built a farmhouse of brick and stone now known as the Old Stone House, which later played a critical role in the 1776 Battle of Long Island, when American troops fought off the Redcoats long enough to allow George Washington to retreat. This house sat at the south eastern edge of the Denton's Mill pond. Brower's Mill (also known as Freeks Mill) can be seen in drawings depicting the "Battle of Brooklyn". Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... The Old Stone House is a 1930 reconstruction of the Vechte-Cortelyou House which was destroyed in 1897. ... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,807 total (400 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured or missing) 377 total... Red coat is a term often used to refer to a soldier of the historical British Army because of the colour of the uniforms formerly worn by the majority of regiments. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,807 total (400 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured or missing) 377 total...


Throughout this period, many Dutch farmers settled along the banks and engaged in clamming of large, succulent oysters that became a notable first export to Europe. The creek was close to sea level and the six-foot (2 m) tides of the bay forced salt water up into its meandering course to create a brackish mix of water that was ideal for the bivalves, which often grew much larger than today but gradually shrunk through a form of negative artificial selection. By the middle of the 19th century, the City of Brooklyn was the third most populous, and fastest growing, city in America and had incorporated the creek and farmland into a greater urban fabric with linear villages flourishing along the shore.[1] Clam digging is a common means by which to harvest clams from below the surface of the tidal mud flats where they live. ... Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron, opened The name oyster is used for a number of different groups of mollusks which grow for the most part in marine or brackish water. ... Europe at its furthest extent, reaching to the Urals. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... In biology, negative selection is artificial selection in which negative, rather than positive traits of a species are selected. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ...


Canal

Sunset at Gowanus Bay in the Bay New York (1851) by Henry Gritten
Sunset at Gowanus Bay in the Bay New York (1851) by Henry Gritten

Along with this boom of residential expansion came the need for navigational and docking facilities. Colonel Daniel Richards, a successful local merchant, advocated the building of a canal to benefit existing inland industries and drain the surrounding marshes for land reclamation that would raise property values.[3] In 1849, the New York Legislature authorized the construction of the Gowanus Canal, by widening the original Gowanus Creek into a mile and a half long commercial waterway emptying into Upper New York Bay. Edwin C. Litchfield, railroad owner, founder of the Brooklyn Improvement Company, and personal owner of much the marshlands as well as what is now western Prospect Park and Park Slope, started filling in the ponds and marsh while widening the creek for larger boats in the late 1840s. But the full dredging of Gowanus Creek could not begin until a further act of the legislature in 1867. After exploring numerous alternative (and some more environmentally sound) designs, the final was chosen for its low price tag. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) Major David Douglas was hired to design the canal, which was essentially complete by 1869. The cost of the construction came from assessments on the local residents of Brooklyn and State money.[4] Image:Gowanus-1851. ... Image:Gowanus-1851. ... A dock is an area of water between two piers or alongside a pier, forming a chamber used for building or repairing one ship. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The New York Legislature is the legislative branch of the U.S. state of New York, seated at the states capital, Albany. ... Upper New York Bay, sometimes called Upper New York Harbor or the Upper Bay, is the northern area of New York Harbor inside the Narrows. ... Prospect Park is a 526 acre (2. ... A typical Park Slope block in spring. ... // Events and Trends Technology First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. War, peace and politics First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Despite its relatively short length, the Gowanus Canal soon became the main hub for Brooklyn's maritime and commercial activity. Factories and working-class residential communities sprang up as a result of its construction. Grain was imported from the Erie Canal. Much of the brownstone quarried in New Jersey and the upper Hudson was placed on barges with lumber and brick and shipped through the canal to build up the neighborhoods of Carroll Gardens, Cobble Hill, and Park Slope. In addition, the industrial sector feeding off the canal grew substantially over time to include: stone yards, flour mills, cement and gas works, tanneries, factories for paint, ink, soap and coal, machine shops, chemical plants, and sulfur producers, all of which emitted substantial water and airborne pollutants.[5] Working class is a term used both in academic sociology as well as in ordinary conversation. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the building material and the dwelling. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river running mainly through New York State but partly forming the boundary between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Lumber is the name used, generally in North America, for wood that has been cut into boards or other shapes for the purpose of woodworking or construction. ... An old brick wall in English bond laid with alternating courses of headers and Brick is an artificial stone made by forming clay into rectangular blocks which are hardened, either by burning in a kiln or sometimes, in warm countries, by sun-drying. ... Carroll Gardens is a neighborhood in Brooklyn, New York, USA named for Charles Carroll, a revolutionary war veteran who was also the only Roman Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence. ... Cobble Hill is a Brooklyn neighborhood in New York City, USA. Bordered by Atlantic Avenue on the north, Hicks Street to the west, Smith Street on the east and Degraw Street to the south, Cobble Hill sits adjacent to Boerum Hill and Brooklyn Heights with Carroll Gardens to the south. ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... For the water carbonator, see Gasogene. ... This page is about making leather. ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for colouring a surface to render an image or text. ... Handmade soap Soap is a surfactant used in conjunction with water for washing and cleaning. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... A Chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures chemicals, usually on a large scale. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... Water pollution Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies (lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater) caused by human activities. ... Before flue gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide. ...


With as many as 700 new buildings a year constructed, the South Brooklyn region was growing at a remarkable rate. Thriving industry had brought many people to the area but important questions about wastewater sanitation had not been addressed. What they got was a sewer connection that discharged raw sewage into the Gowanus Canal. By the turn of the century, the combination of industrial pollutants and runoff from storm water, fortified with the products of the new sewage system, rendered the waterway a repository of rank odors, known to residents of the time as the "Lavender Lake" after the ink that was dumped in it. After World War I, with six million annual tons of cargo produced and trafficked though the waterway, the Gowanus Canal became the nation's busiest commercial canal, and arguably the most polluted. Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Image of a sewer pipe // Function Sewers transport wastewater from buildings to treatment facilities. ... Sewage is the liquid water produced by human society which typically contains washing water, laundry waste, faeces, urine and other liquid or semi-liquid wastes. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Cargo is a term used to denote goods or produce being transported generally for commercial gain, usually on a ship, plane, train, van or truck. ...


With much fanfare the US ACOE completed their last dredging of the canal in 1955. But soon after the US ACOE gave up on the regular dredging of the Gowanus Canal, deeming it to be no longer cost effective. With the early 1960s growth of container shipping, New York's loss of industrial waterfront jobs during this period was evident on the canal and, by the late 1970s, it was estimated that over 50% of the property in Gowanus was unused and derelict. Remaining barge traffic mostly carried sand, gravel and scrap metal. At this point, in the face of drastic economic and environmental decline, the issue of revitalizing and cleaning up the Gowanus area surfaced as a pressing issue. In 1975 the City of New York established a Gowanus Industrial Renewal Plan for the area, which will remain in effect until the year 2011. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...

Oil tanks and a scrap metal yard line the Gowanus Canal.
Oil tanks and a scrap metal yard line the Gowanus Canal.

Several design for the canal were proposed, some with lock systems that would have allowed daily flushing of the whole canal. But these designs appeared too expensive for Brooklyn and the State of New York at the time. And so the Gowanus Canal was constructed with significant design flaws, but within budget. There was no through-flow of water, the canal was open at only one end, and everyone crossed their fingers that the tides would be enough to flush the waterway. But with the canal's wooden and concrete embankments, the strong tides of fresh diurnal doses of oxygenated water from New York Harbor were bared from flow into the 1.8 mile (3 km) channel. Water quality studies have found the concentration of oxygen in the canal to be just 1.5 parts per million, well below the minimum 4 parts per million needed to sustain life.[6] With the population of people filling out the Gowanus Watershed area, excessive nitrates are constantly flowing into the canal, further depleting the oxygen and making breeding grounds for the pathogens responsible for the canal's odor. Image:Gowanuscanal2. ... Image:Gowanuscanal2. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Wrecking yard. ... New York Harbor, a geographic term, refers collectively to the rivers, bays, and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City. ... Water quality is the chemical and physical characterization of water. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ...


The opaqueness of the Gowanus water obstructs sunlight to one third of the six feet needed for aquatic plant growth. Rising gas bubbles betray the decomposition of sewage sludge that pungently overwhelms the olfactories on a ripe, warm day. The murky depths of the canal conceal the remnants of its industrial past: cement, oil, mercury, lead, PCBs, coal tar, and other contaminants. In 1951, with the opening of the elevated Gowanus Expressway over the waterway, easy access for trucks and cars catalyzed industry slightly. But, with 150 thousand vehicles passing overhead each day, the expressway also provides the means for depositing tons of toxic lead fumes into the air and water.[6] Aquatic plants — also called hydrophytic plants or hydrophytes — are plants that have adapted to living in or on aquatic environments. ... Olfaction (the sense of smell) is the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Atomic mass 200. ... For PB or pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... PCB may refer to: Brazilian Communist Party (in Portuguese, Partido Comunista Brasileiro) Communist Party of Bolivia (in Spanish, Partido Comunista de Bolivia) Pakistan Cricket Board PCBoard, a bulletin board system software Police Complaints Board, which oversaw the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and Wales until... Coal tar is the liquid by-product of the distillation of coal to make coke. ... The original Gowanus Expressway in 1954, before widening. ...


There is an urban legend that the canal served as a dumping ground for the Mafia. In Jonathan Lethem's Motherless Brooklyn, a character refers to it as "the only body of water in the world that is 90 percent guns." In Lavender Lake, a 1998 documentary film about the Gowanus Canal by Alison Prete, two cops discuss the recent discovery by fishermen of a suitcase taken from the waterway that was full of human body parts. An urban legend is a kind of modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... The Sicilian Mafia (also referred to simply as the Mafia or Cosa Nostra), is a criminal secret society of men which first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily. ... Jonathan Allen Lethem (born February 19, 1964) is an American writer based in New York City, best known for his novels, short stories, and essays, whose work encompasses a variety of genres and styles. ... Motherless Brooklyn is a Jonathan Lethem novel published in 1999. ... A gun is a common name given to a device that fires high-velocity projectiles. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... NYPD emblem The New York City Police Department is the largest police department in the United States, the largest municipal police force in the world, and has the primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within The Five Boroughs of New York City. ...

The bridge for the New York City Subway over the Gowanus Canal.
The bridge for the New York City Subway over the Gowanus Canal.

The first step to improve pollution in the canal was the construction of the Bond Street sewer pipe line in the 1890s to carry sewage out into the harbor. But this proved inadequate. In the first attempt to improve flow at the north, closed end of the canal, the "Big Sewer" was constructed from Marcy Avenue in Prospect Heights, down Green Ave to 4th Avenue and into the canal at Butler Street. This sewer design was featured in Scientific American for it's innovative construction method and size. The area this sewer ran through was known as "The Flooded District," and it was believed that this new sewer would serve two purposes: to drain the flooded district, and to use the flow of that excessive water to move the water of the upper Gowanus Canal. Headlines in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle newspaper declared it an engineering blunder shortly after it's construction. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 509 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 509 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system operated by the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ...


The existing method to control the pollution of the isolated Gowanus Canal was the installation of the Flushing Tunnel on June 21, 1911. Here, the mechanism attempted to draw dirty water out of the canal through the brick-lined 1.2 mile (1.9 km) tunnel connecting the upper canal to Buttermilk Channel via Butler Street. Unfortunately, it never performed well either. Aside from numerous operational glitches, a long series of problems and mistakes occurred throughout the 1960s, culminating when a city worker dropped a manhole cover that severely damaged the pump system that was already suffering from the effect of the corrosive salt water. The Clean Water Act had not yet been passed, and the City, stretched for funds at the time, turned its back on the waterway. As a result of the unfixed damage to the Flushing Tunnel, and the long stretch of economic depression in the area, the waters of the Gowanus Canal lay stagnant and unused for years. June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Princeton University manhole cover, Princeton, NJ, USA Pick holes in manhole cover, Palo Alto, CA, USA Kraków manhole cover Painted manhole cover in Matsumoto, Japan. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ...


According to the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), plans to reactivate the Flushing Tunnel pump were proposed in 1982. But, due to bureaucratic delays, the DEP did not take up the project until 1994. The Flushing Tunnel was finally reactivated in 1999. The new design employed a 600 horsepower (450 kW) motor, that pumped an average rate of 200 million gallons a day (9 m³/s) of aerated water from Buttermilk Channel of the East River into the head end of the canal. Although water was circulating through the tunnel, it can only be pumped 11 hours a day, due to tidal forces. Water quality has now improved, provided you take water samples only when the Flushing Pump is operating.[7] Another attempt to control pollution, the construction of the US$230 million Red Hook Water Pollution Control Plant in 1987, had similar unsatisfactory results. The Red Hook Treatment plant collected waste from the existing Bond Street sewer that had been dumping into the harbor. It did not take up any additional waste that still spills into the canal from the sewer system's 14 Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) points. Machinery and technology have yet to keep up with the combined sewage overflows of the Gowanus Canal. The New York City Department of Environmental Protection is responsible for managing the natural resources and environment of New York City. ... The horsepower (hp) is the name of several non-metric units of power. ... Categories: Stub ... New York City waterways: 1. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... ...


Most recently, the particular problem of wastewater management has been brought up during the controversy of a planned Brooklyn Nets Arena in nearby central Brooklyn. According to the March 4, 2006 edition of The Brooklyn Paper, the sewage created from the development (which includes a basketball arena and 17 "skyscrapers") will flow into antiquated city-run sewer and waste treatment systems — which overload when it rains. The result, is that allegedly 27 billion gallons of untreated wastewater will drain into waterways around the city each year, including 13 spigots on the Gowanus Canal. The Brooklyn Nets Arena is a proposed sports arena to be built partly on a platform over the Metropolitan Transportation Authority-owned Atlantic Yards at Atlantic Avenue in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... ARENA may refer to either: Nationalist Republican Alliance, a political party in El Salvador. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building architecturally, is located in Taipei City, Taiwan. ...


Environmental/economic developments

The Gowanus Canal, near Smith and 9th Street, with the Gowanus Expressway in the distance.
The Gowanus Canal, near Smith and 9th Street, with the Gowanus Expressway in the distance.

More recently, legislation and fundraising has amassed to help revitalize and capitalize on Brooklyn’s most wasted real estate. In 1999, Assemblywoman Joan Millman allocated $100,000 to the Gowanus Canal Community Development Corporation (GCCDC) to produce and distribute a bulkhead study and public access document. The following year, GCCDC procured $270 thousand from the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation to construct three street-end public open spaces along the Gowanus Canal through the city's Green Street program. An additional $270 thousand was funded by Governor George E. Pataki to create a revitalization plan in 2001 and then allocated $100 thousand of capital funds in 2002 to implement a pilot project on the shoreline. In 2003, Congresswoman Nydia Velázquez allocated an additional $225 thousand to create a comprehensive community development plan.[1] Image:Gowanuscanal. ... Image:Gowanuscanal. ... The original Gowanus Expressway in 1954, before widening. ... Fundraising is the process of soliciting and gathering money or other gifts in kind by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies. ... The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York Legislature body of the state of New York. ... Joan Millman represents District 52 in the New York State Assembly, which consists of the Brooklyn neighborhoods of Cobble Hill, Boerum Hill, Carroll Gardens, Vinegar Hill, Gowanus, DUMBO, Park Slope, Brooklyn Heights and Prospect Heights. ... The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation is the branch of government of the City of New York responsible for maintaining the citys parks system, preserving and maintaining the ecological diversity of the citys natural areas, and furnishing recreational opportunities for citys residents. ... In urban planning, open space is publicly owned land that is preserved from urbanization (paving or building). ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is the current governor of the U.S. state of New York (since 1995). ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is the lower of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Nydia Velázquez Nydia Margarita Velázquez (born (March 28, 1953 in Yabucoa, Puerto Rico) became the first Puerto Rican woman to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. ...


In 2002, the US ACOE entered into a cost-sharing agreement with the DEP to collaborate on a $5 million Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study of the Gowanus Canal area to be completed in 2005, studying possible alternatives for ecosystem restoration such as dredging, and wetland and habitat restoration. Discussions have turned to breaking down the hard edges of the canal in order to restore some of the natural processes to improve the overall environment of the Gowanus wetlands area. The DEP has also initiated the Gowanus Canal Use and Standards Attainment project, which aims meet the City's obligations under the Clean Water Act.[1] A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former self, after some process (business, industry, natural disaster etc. ... The Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C.A. § 1251 et seq. ...


Today, in the ever-evolving industrial Brooklyn cityscape, numerous new development plans have been proposed and debated for the Gowanus Canal and the land that abuts its edge. The adjacent neighborhood to the east (4th Avenue) was recently rezoned for high density residential use with a strong commercial component. With brownfield redevelopment incentives offered by the State of New York, developers look to this land as another place to build, to build with help of public money. Examples of brownfields that were redeveloped into productive properties Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. ...


With the popularity of the location, some community groups, led by a funeral director in the area, have raised the dream of Brooklyn's own Grand Canal of Venice, with possibilities for tourism. Paving the way for recreational use of the canal has been the Gowanus Dredgers Canoe Club (founded in 1999), and The Urban Divers Estuary Conservancy (founded in 1998), two volunteer organizations that are dedicated to providing waterfront access and education related to the estuary and bordering shoreline of the canal. During the 2003 season, over 1,000 individuals, including more than 200 youths, participated in Dredger Canoe Club programs: logging over 2,000 trips on the Gowanus Canal. Shop window of a funeral director in France A funeral director (also known as a mortician or undertaker) is someone involved in the business of funeral rites. ... The Grand Canal in Venice, Italy The Grand Canal (italian: Canal Grande) is Venices largest waterway. ... Tourists at Oahu island, Hawaii Tourism is the act of travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of this act. ... Estuaries and coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing ecological, economic, cultural, and aesthetic benefits. ...


A 9.4 acre (38,000 m²) U.S. Postal Service site on the east side of the Ninth Street canal crossing was also available for commercial development. Now known as Public Place, the site is still publicly owned. This highly contaminated brownfield was the focus of Columbia Earth Institute students projects to explore how the site might be decontaminated and brought back into use by the general public. The projects demonstrated methods for sound environmental cleanup methods. This site had also been proposed as the Brooklyn Commons, an entertainment and retail complex featuring a multiplex cinema, a bowling alley, shops and restaurants. After controversy, a lawsuit, and a rival proposal for an IKEA store, a large Lowe's store was built and opened on April 30, 2004, with an adjacent public promenade overlooking the canal. The IKEA company, previously rejected from the Ninth Street location for traffic congestion, is currently seeking development on the south end of Red Hook on the harbor waterway. That project still faces a objection from the Red Hook and Gowanus neighborhoods. The United States Postal Service (USPS) is an independent establishment of the executive branch of the United States Government (see ) responsible for providing postal service in the United States. ... A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, California). ... Bowling is the common name for several sports that involve rolling a ball towards a target or to knock down pins. ... Ingvar Kamprad, founder of IKEA IKEA is a privately held international low cost home furnishings retailer. ... Lowes redirects here. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Promenade is a seaside walkway constructed so that people can enjoy walking near the sea without getting their clothes wet and dirty. ... Traffic jams are common in heavily populated areas. ...


With intense gentrification and commercialization looming, several groups have emerged. FROGG, Friends & Residents of Greater Gowanus, and a group of artists have managed to carve out their own niche in the Gowanus area. The Gowanus Artists are a group of over 100 local visual artists that hang out and paint in the Canal's parks, on its bridges, and in their nearby studios. On the last weekend of every October, Gowanus Artists open up their studios for the Gowanus Open Studio Tour, expanding also into Park Slope's Brooklyn Lyceum (227 Fourth Avenue) and Southpaw (125 Fifth Avenue) venues.[8] This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A typical Park Slope block in spring. ...


On November 9-12, 2006, HABITATS, a festival dedicated to "local action as global wisdom" celebrated the Gowanus Canal through environmental conferences, collaborative art, educational programs and interactive walks around the area.[9]


See also

The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d The Gowanus Dredgers Canoe Club, "Gowanus Canal History", accessed May 12, 2004, revised April 2, 2004
  2. ^ Stiles, Henry R., History of the City of Brooklyn : Including the old town and village of Brooklyn, the town of Bushwick, and the village and city of Williamsburgh". Brooklyn, N.Y.: Pub. by subscription, 1867-1870. July 5, 2005
  3. ^ New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, Carroll Gardens Historic District, 1973
  4. ^ Wheelwright, Peter., Project III Program Statement: Gowanus Canal, River Projects Exhibition - Van Alen Institute for Public Architecture, 1998
  5. ^ Virginia Terry (April 16, 2003). Imaging the City: Gowanus Canal. Metropolital Waterfront Alliance.
  6. ^ a b Held, James E., "Currents of Change: Can Brooklyn’s Gowanus Canal Be Cleaned Up?", E – The Environmental Magazine, 10.3, 1999
  7. ^ New York City Department of Environmental Protection, City Activates Gowanus Canal Flushing Tunnel, Publication 99-28, New York: April 30th, 1999
  8. ^ Kim, Janet, "Close-Up on Gowanus", The Village Voice, February 13th, 2003
  9. ^ Habitats" Celebrating the revitalization of the Historic Gowanus Canal, accessed November 7, 2006

The Village Voice is a weekly newspaper in New York City featuring investigative articles, analysis of current affairs and culture, arts reviews and events listings for New York City. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gowanus Canal - definition of Gowanus Canal in Encyclopedia (1525 words)
The Gowanus Canal, also known as the Gowanus Creek Canal, is located in the Brooklyn, New York neighborhoods of Red Hook and South Brooklyn.
New York's loss of industrial jobs during this period was evident on the Canal and, by the late 1970s, it was estimated that over 50% of the property in Gowanus was unused and derelict.
The existing method to control the pollution of the isolated canal was the installation of The Flushing Tunnel on June 21, 1911.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m