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Encyclopedia > Governors Island

This article is about Governors Island in New York State. For other uses, see Governors Island (disambiguation) Governors Island may refer to: Governors Island (Massachusetts) Governors Island (New York) Governors Island (Prince Edward Island) Category: ...

Governors Island National Monument
Location New York, USA
Nearest city New York, NY
Coordinates 40°41′29″N 74°0′58″W / 40.69139, -74.01611
Area 22 acres (89,000 m²)
Established January 19, 2001
Total visitation 11,312 (in 2004)
Governing body National Park Service

Governors Island is a 172-acre (69 ha) island in Upper New York Bay, approximately one-half mile (1 km) from the southern tip of Manhattan Island. It is legally a part of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It is separated from Brooklyn by the Buttermilk Channel. The island was expanded by approximately 82 acres (33 ha) of landfill on its southern side when the Lexington Avenue subway was excavated in the early 1900s. Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... NY redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Upper New York Bay, sometimes called Upper New York Harbor or the Upper Bay, is the northern area of New York Harbor inside the Narrows. ... The Five Boroughs redirects here. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, New York, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Categories: Stub ... The Lexington Avenue Line (sometimes called the Lex or the IRT East Side Line) is one of the major IRT lines in the New York City Subway. ...


First named by the Dutch explorer Adriaen Block, it was called Noten Eylant (and later in pidgin language Nutten Island) from 1611 to 1784. In 1624, it became the locus for the transformation of the New Netherland territory to a North American province of the Dutch Republic from having been a place for private commercial interests through patents issued by the (Dutch Republic's) States General since 1614. Blocks map of his 1614 voyage, with the first appearance of the term New Netherland Adriaen Block (1567–1627) was a Dutch private fur trader and navigator who explored the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614... A pidgin is a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups who do not share a common language, in situations such as trade. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ...


From 1783 to 1966, the island was a United States Army post. From 1966 to 1996 the island served as a major United States Coast Guard installation. The island's current name stems from British colonial times when the colonial assembly reserved the island for the exclusive use of New York's royal governors. The ZIP Code of Governors Island is 10004. The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and is involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ... Mr. ...


In 2001, the two historical fortifications and their surroundings became a national monument. On January 31, 2003, control of most of the island was transferred to the State of New York for a symbolic $1, but 13% of the island (22 acres or 9 ha) was transferred to the United States Department of the Interior as the Governors Island National Monument which is now administered by the National Park Service. The national monument area is in the early stages of development and open only on a seasonal basis, so services and facilities are limited. is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NY redirects here. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...


The portion of the island which is not included in the National Monument is administered by the Governors Island Preservation and Education Corporation (GIPEC), a public corporation of the State of New York. The transfer included deed restrictions which prohibit permanent housing or casinos on the island. Governor George Pataki appointed NYS Secretary of State Randy Daniels as the first Chairman of the Board of GIPEC. Mayor Michael Bloomberg appointed James F. Lima as first President of GIPEC. Literally a public company is a company owned by the public. ...


The national historic landmark district, approximately 92 acres (37 ha) of the northern half of the island, is open to public access on a seasonal basis during the summer months. In 2007 Governors Island is open only by guided tour on Wednesdays through Fridays, and to general public access on Saturdays and Sundays from June 2 through September 2 and probably the first weekend of October. The island is accessible only by a free ferry from the 1907 Battery Maritime Building at South and Whitehall Streets at the southern tip of Manhattan. The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... South Street in Manhattan is noted for its seaport, also called the South Street Seaport. ...

Governors Island, shown in red, in Upper New York Bay
Governors Island, shown in red, in Upper New York Bay

The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel passes near the northeast corner of the island, but provides no access to the island. A ventilation building is located just off the northern end of the island, connected to the island by a causeway. At one point, Robert Moses proposed a bridge across the harbor, with a base located on Governors Island; this plan persisted until the intervention of the War Department under Franklin D. Roosevelt. Governors Island is shown in red in Upper New York Bay near the entrance of the East River. ... Governors Island is shown in red in Upper New York Bay near the entrance of the East River. ... The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel is a toll road in New York City which crosses under the East River at its mouth and connects the Boroughs of Brooklyn and Manhattan, nearly passing under, but providing no access to Governors Island. ... Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge Robert Moses (December 18, 1888–July 29, 1981) was the master builder of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County. ... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... FDR redirects here. ...

Contents

Proposals

Map of Governors Island
Map of Governors Island
Governors Island from the air with the Statue of Liberty in the background

The question of what to do with Governors Island has been an issue which the mayor and governor have faced since 1996 when the Coast Guard closed the base located there since 1966 as a cost savings measure. On February 15, 2006, Governor George Pataki and Mayor Michael Bloomberg called for "visionary ideas to redevelop and preserve Governors Island" to be submitted to GIPEC (see above). The announcement said proposals should "enhance New York's place as a center of culture, business, education and innovation," include public parkland, contribute to the harbor's vitality and stress "environmentally sustainable development." Deputy Mayor Dan Doctoroff said whatever group or entity is selected to develop the island would assume the $12 million annual maintenance costs that are now split between the city and state. In early 2007, GIPEC paused in the search for developers, focusing on the development of a major park on the island as called for in the deed that conveyed the island from the federal government to the city and state of New York. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 855 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) w:Governors Island U.S. General Services Administration map; indicates U.S. Coast Guard usage, 1995 (image source) (image reference) This image was (or all images... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 855 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) w:Governors Island U.S. General Services Administration map; indicates U.S. Coast Guard usage, 1995 (image source) (image reference) This image was (or all images... Image File history File links Govisland. ... Image File history File links Govisland. ... Liberty Enlightening the World (French: La liberté éclairant le monde), known more commonly as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté), is a large statue that was presented to the United States by France in 1886. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and is involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) was the 57th Governor of New York, USA serving from January 1995 until January 1, 2007. ... Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born 14 February 1942) is an American businessman, philanthropist, and the founder of Bloomberg L.P., currently serving as the Mayor of New York City. ... New York Harbor, a geographic term, refers collectively to the rivers, bays, and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


With regard to transportation to and from the island, one idea being considered is an aerial gondola system designed by Santiago Calatrava. Santiago Calatrava Valls (born July 28, 1951) is an internationally recognized and award-winning Spanish architect and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zurich, Switzerland. ...


In recognition of Governors Island’s momentous legacy that is reflective of New York’s identity of tolerance―the lifeblood of American liberty―one group has proposed placing a 151 foot (46 meter) high version of Barnett Newman's sculpture Broken Obelisk - dedicated by him to the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. - as a Tolerance Monument. The Tolerance Monument would be the centerpiece of Historic New Amsterdam; a proposed 50-acre Tolerance Park on the island's southern tip. Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


In recent years, a proposal has been tendered to use Castle Williams on the island for a New Globe Theater, designed by architect Norman Foster. [1] The restored Reichstag in Berlin, housing the German parliament. ...


In the Fall of 2006, GIPEC announced that the New York Harbor School, a small public high school in Bushwick, Brooklyn, would relocate to Governors Island.


In June 2007, series of five competing development proposals for public spaces on the southern portion of the island, were unveiled by the GIPEC, with a winner expected to be selected in July 2007.[2]


Legislative recognition

The New York State Senate and Assembly have recognized Governors Island as the birthplace, in 1624, of the state of New York. They have also acknowledged the island as the place on which the planting of the “legal-political guaranty of tolerance onto the North American continent” took place (Resolutions No. 5476 and No. 2708). The New York State Senate is one of two houses in the New York State Legislature and has members each elected to two-year terms. ... The chamber of the New York State Assembly. ... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ...


Colonial history

Jan Rodrigues from Santo Domingo (then on the Caribbean Island of Hispaniola), a Latin-American of African ancestry and a free man, was the first person to summer on Governors Island in 1613. He was employed as interpreter in trade negotiations with the Hudson River Indians by the private Amsterdam fur trader and explorer Adriaen Block. Rodrigues was left behind on the island in May 1613 to serve as on-the-spot factor to trade with the natives. Rodrigues and Block rendezvoused again in December that year. Blocks map of his 1614 voyage, with the first appearance of the term New Netherland Adriaen Block (1567–1627) was a Dutch private fur trader and navigator who explored the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614...


In May 1624, Noten Eylant (renamed Governors Island in 1784) was the landing place of the first settlers to the New York Tri-State region. Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ...


They had arrived from the Dutch Republic with the ship New Netherland under the command of Cornelis Jacobsz May who disembarked with 30 families on the island in order to take legal possession of the New Netherland territory (the New York Tri-State region) between the 38th and 42nd parallels. Captain May was appointed the first director of New Netherland (Petrus Stuyvesant was its seventh and last director). Most of those settlers were quickly distributed on an island in the Delaware River, at the top of the Hudson River and at the mouth of the Connecticut River in order to complete legal possession of what was now the province of New Netherland. Cornelis Jacobsz May, sometimes spelled Mey or Meij was a Dutch explorer, captain and fur trader, and namesake of Cape May, Cape May County, and the city of Cape May, New Jersey, so named first in 1620. ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... Peter Stuyvesant, ca. ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ...


That territory was discovered in 1609 by the Dutch East India Company with the ship Halve Maen (Half Moon) under the command of Henry Hudson and was subsequently explored, surveyed and mapped by Adriaen Block and his partner Hendrick Christiaensz from 1611 to 1614 (the name New Netherland was first recorded on Block's map of 1614) in order to pave the way for a well-planned, successful landing under the auspices of the Dutch West India Company in 1624. That year, (New York) harbor's first fortification was built on Noten Eylant as well as the (Tri-State) region's first windmill, a saw mill, by Franchoys Fezard. Fezard, also known as Veersaert, arrived with the 1624 settlers who were mostly from originally French speaking Walloon extraction. Peter Minuit (Pierre Minuyt) was among them as volunteer. Fezard and Minuyt were designated to take part in the local [Dutch] West India Company council comprising seven advisers . Blocks map of his 1614 voyage, with the first appearance of the term New Netherland Adriaen Block (1567–1627) was a Dutch private fur trader and navigator who explored the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ...


In June 1625, forty-five more colonists, whereunder five master-farmers, disembarked on Noten Eylant from three ships named Horse, Cow and Sheep. The ships also landed 103 horses, steers and cows in addition to numerous pigs and sheep. Most of the cattle was moved to Manhattan for better pasture several days after arrival. Military engineer and surveyor Crijn Fredericksz van Lobbrecht, who had arrived with the June colonists, commenced to lay out the moats and ramparts of a large citadel on the southern tip of Manhattan to contain the colonists and Fort Amsterdam as centerpiece of the town of New Amsterdam, now New York City (hence, New York City's birth date of 1625). Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ...


The Noten Eylant settlers had been given instructions which incorporated the laws and ordinances of the states of Holland and, specifically, were instructed that they had to attract, “through attitude and by example”, the natives and non-believers to God’s word “without, on the other hand, to persecute someone by reason of his religion and to leave everyone the freedom of his conscience.”


In Article VIII of the August 1664 provisional Articles of Transfer, New Netherlanders were guaranteed, under future English jurisdiction, that they “shall keep and enjoy the liberty of their consciences in religion,” a precept so reintroduced, on March 4, 1789, in a proposed Congressional amendment to the Constitution of September 17, 1787. That proposal was presented to the state legislatures by John Adams as Vice-President of the United States and President of the Senate who, from 1780-1784, had been the Congressional envoy and first plenipotentiary minister of the United States at The Hague in the Dutch Republic. What was to become the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights, was ratified in the "State General" of New York, on February 22, 1790, by order of the Assembly, Giulian Verplanck, Speaker, and, on February 24, 1790, by order of the Senate, Isaac Roosevelt, President Pro Hac Vice. The freedom of religion clause became New York State law on February 27, 1790, upon the signature of the "well-beloved George Clinton, Esquire, Governor of our said State General." In the State of New York, that legal-political right to religious freedom had come full circle thus 166 years after the founding of the province of New Netherland on Governors Island in 1624. Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ...


That year, the planting of the legal-cultural tradition of religious tolerance took place first in North-America. It was rooted in the 1579 founding document of the Dutch Republic which had stated "that everyone shall remain free in religion and that no one may be persecuted or investigated because of religion.” Ever since, religious tolerance had served as the foundation of cultural pluralism in the region and, in particular, New Amsterdam which was to become New York City comprising America's most diverse population. The legal codification of that specific right for all of the original thirteen United States occurred finally upon the ratification of the Bill of Rights on December 15, 1791; "Congress shall make no law prohibiting the free exercise of religion or respecting an establishment of religion." Governors Island is its symbol: "The laws we live by, the freedoms we enjoy, the institutions that we take for granted are all the work of other people who went before us" so wrote David McCullough, recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, historian and biographer.


In 1633, the fifth director of New Netherland, Wouter van Twiller, arrived with a 104-men regiment on Governors Island - its first use as a military base. Later he operated a farm on the island. He secured his farm by creating a deed on June 16, 1637 which was signed by two Lenape, Cacapeteyno and Pewihas, on behalf of their community at Keshaechquereren. Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


After the New Netherland province was ceded provisionally to the British in 1664, the city of New Amsterdam was renamed and incorporated unilaterally as the City of New York in June 1665. The Dutch Republic withdrew its claim on New Netherland in the multilateral Treaty of Breda in 1667. However, New Netherland was subsequently retaken by the Dutch Republic and relinquished to the English finally by the Treaty of Westminster in November 1674 thus concluding 60 years of New Netherland. Noten (in pidgin language Nutten) Island was renamed Governors Island in 1784 as the island, in earlier times, had been reserved by the British colonial assembly for the exclusive use of New York's royal governors. The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, July 31, 1667, by England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark. ... The Treaty of Westminster was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ... A pidgin is a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups who do not share a common language, in situations such as trade. ...


Colonial legacy and contemporary relevance

The planting of the laws and ordinances of the Dutch Republic on Governors Island by the New York Tri-State region's first settlers has left an enduring legacy on both American cultural and political life. Of the settlers’ specific instructions, the most important was the one that echoed the 1579 founding document of New York’s birthfather―the Dutch Republic. It promulgated that "everyone shall remain free in religion and that no one may be persecuted or investigated because of religion." This legal-cultural instruction of toleration formed the basis for religious and ethnic diversity in New Amsterdam, now New York City. In 1643, on his visit to New Amsterdam, Father Isaac Jogues reported that more than 18 languages were spoken and that besides Calvinists there were "Catholics, English Puritans, Lutherans, Anabaptists, etc." This religious freedom was preserved by treaty for New Netherlanders exclusively in 1664 as stated above. In 1682, the visiting Virginian William Byrd commented about New Amsterdam that "they have as many sects of religion there as at Amsterdam" whereas, in 1686, religious diversity in the newly acquired territory was described by its English governor as "Here be not many of the Church of England; few Roman Catholics; abundance of Quakers; preachers, men and women especially; singing Quakers, ranting Quakers; Sabatarians; Antisabatarians; some Anabaptists; some independents; some Jews; in short of all sorts of opinion there are some, and the most of none at all." (For citations, see footnotes of 19-page article under Links below.) Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was any person seeking purity of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the Reformation of the Church of England. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... William Byrd William Byrd (c. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... -1... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ...


The American Revolution and beyond

When a hundred years later, in 1776, the American Revolutionary War began, George Washington ordered the island to be fortified with earthworks just prior to the Battle of Long Island (also known as the Battle of Brooklyn), the largest battle of the entire war. The island engaged HMS Phoenix and HMS Rose inflicting enough damage to make the British commanders cautious of entering the East River and helped facilitate Washington's retreat across the Hudson from Brooklyn into Manhattan. The British captured it in early September and from September 2 to 14 it would engage volleys with Washington's guns on the battery in front of Fort George in Manhattan.[3] Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States (United Colonies prior to July 1776) France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Polish volunteers Quebec volunteers Prussian volunteers Oneida Tuscarora Great Britain Loyalists Hessian mercenaries Iroquois Confederacy Duchy of Brunswick Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Ko... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,719 total (312 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured or missing) 377 total... Fifteen vessels of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Phoenix, after the legendary phoenix bird. ... Two ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Rose after the rose: Rose, launched in 1757, was a sixth-rate frigate. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... Battery Park (to New Yorkers, The Battery) is a 21-acre (8. ... Fort Amsterdam was the name of the Dutch fort that was constructed on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1625. ...


The fort provided cover for George Washington during the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and then after being captured by the British was to engage in artillery duels with Washington's troops in Manhattan. The Fort (along with the rest of New York City) was held by the British for the rest of the war until Evacuation Day at the end of the war in 1783. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


After the war two fortifications were placed on Governors Island in the years preceding the War of 1812 as part of an extensive coastal defense system including Castle Clinton (or Fort Clinton) at the southern tip of Manhattan. The first, Fort Jay, is a square five bastioned fort started in 1794 on the site of the earlier earthworks. The second, Castle Williams, is a circular casemated work completed in 1811. The two forts are among the best remaining examples of First System (Fort Jay) and Second System (Castle Williams) American coastal fortification. Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Combatants United States British Empire: United Kingdom Upper Canada Lower Canada Newfoundland Bermuda Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •United States Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at... Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton is a circular sandstone fort and national monument in Battery Park at the southern tip of Manhattan, New York City. ... Fort Jay is a historical United States Army fort on Governors Island in New York City. ... Fort Jay is a historical United States Army fort on Governors Island in New York City. ... 1929 plan 1939 plan The IND Second System was a plan for a major expansion of the city-owned Independent Subway System in New York, New York. ...


During the American Civil War, Castle Williams held Confederate prisoners of war and Fort Jay held captured Confederate officers. After the war, Castle Williams was used as a military stockade and became the east coast counterpart to military prisons at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and Alcatraz Island, California. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ... Alcatraz Island (sometimes informally referred to as simply Alcatraz or by its pop-culture name, The Rock) is a small island located in the middle of San Francisco Bay in California, United States. ...


In 1878, the military installation on the island, then known collectively as Fort Columbus, became a major Army administrative center. By 1912, when it was known as Governor's Island, its administrative leaders included General Tasker Bliss, a prominent general for whom a current-day Army base is named. In 1939, the island became the headquarters of the U.S. First Army. When the Army left Governors Island in 1966, the installation became a U.S. Coast Guard base, serving as headquarters for the Atlantic Division, the regional Third District and the local office of the Captain of the Port of New York. Its closing in 1996 concluded almost two centuries of the island’s use as a federal reservation. Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. First Army. ... Coast Guard shield The United States Coast Guard is the coast guard of the United States. ...


Prior to the construction of Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, the island was considered as a site for a municipal airport. 1998 map of Floyd Bennett Field from the National Park Service. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ...


On February 4, 1985, 92 acres of Governors Island was designated a National Historic Landmark district. is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ...


The island was the site of a December 8, 1988 meeting between U.S. President Ronald Reagan, President-elect George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


Tom (1937) and Dick Smothers (1939), also known as the Smothers Brothers, were born on the island. Tom Smothers (born February 2, 1937) is an American comedian, composer and musician from New York, New York. ... Dick Smothers (born November 20, 1938) is an American comedian, composer and musician from New York, New York. ... The Smothers Brothers are an American musical-comedy team, formed by real-life brothers Tom and Dick Smothers. ...


Literature and games

Janet Lambert, an author of 54 books of young adult fiction for girls from 1941 to 1969, resided on Governors Island while her husband was the post commander in the 1950's. Lambert's works, best known as the Penny and Tippy Parrish series, focused was the lives and the coming of age choices of army daughters during World War II and the Korea-era. For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


Newbery Award winning author of The Giver, Lois Lowry, also resided on Governors Island during her high school years while her father, an army dentist, was stationed there. The John Newbery Medal is a literary award given by the Association for Library Service to Children of the American Library Association (ALA) to the author of the most outstanding American book for children. ... Lois Lowry (born March 20, 1937) is an author of childrens literature who has been awarded the Newbery Medal twice: first for Number the Stars in 1990, and again in 1994 for The Giver, her most famous and controversial work. ...


The Richard Preston novel, The Cobra Event, has a biosafety field lab located on the island. Richard Preston (b. ... The Cobra Event is a 1998 bio-thriller novel by Richard Preston describing a terror attempt on the United States by a man known only as Archimedes. ...


Governor's Island was prominently featured in the IO Interactive game Freedom Fighters, in which it was used as the seat of power for the Soviet Armed Forces, which had invaded the United States. Governors Island is the final Soviet stronghold that must be scaled, in addition to its appearances in earlier missions. Freedom Fighters is a game in which you play the role of Christopher Stone, a plumber, who has to stop the Red Army from taking control of the United States. ...


In the Ultimate Marvel Universe, the Triskelion headquarters of S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Ultimates is located on Governors Island. The various characters of the Ultimate Marvel Universe, as seen on the cover of Ultimates (v2) #12. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... S.H.I.E.L.D. (originally an acronym for Supreme Headquarters, International Espionage, Law-Enforcement Division, changed in 1991 to Strategic Hazard Intervention, Espionage and Logistics Directorate) is a fictional counterterrorism and intelligence agency in the Marvel Universe that often deals with superhuman threats. ... The Ultimates are a fictional team of government-sponsored superheroes in the Ultimate Marvel Universe, appearing primarily in their self-titled comic book limited series The Ultimates and The Ultimates 2, published by Marvel Comics, written by Mark Millar, and drawn by Bryan Hitch. ...


In Spider-Man 2: The Video Game, the map claims that a large patch of the river is Governors Island when, in gameplay, there is nothing there. However, if the player gets close enough with the use of boats, the words "Governors Island" appear at the top of the screen and the minimap shows a lighter piece of Hudson River for some unknown reason. It is possible that the game designers intended to build the island but never got around to completing it. Spider-Man 2 is the name of several computer and video games based on the Spider-Man universe and particularly the Spider-Man 2 movie. ...


In Spider-Man 3: The Video Game, the mission "Scorpion Unleashed" takes place at Governors Island, only it is owned by Mechabiocon(which makes military weapons) and cannot be gone there, but only on that mission. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


References

  1. ^ New Globe Theater
  2. ^ Ouroussoff, Nicolai. "Competing Visions for Governors Island", The New York Times, June 20, 2007. Accessed June 20, 2007.
  3. ^ Historic Timeline of The Battery - The Battery Conservancy

The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Governors Island - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2029 words)
Governors Island is a 217.65 acre (880,806 m²) island in Upper New York Bay, approximately one half mile from the southern tip of Manhattan, of which it is legally a part, in New York City.
In 1624, Governors Island became the locus for the transformation of the New Netherland territory to a North American province of the Dutch Republic from having been a place for private commercial interests through patents issued by the States General since 1614.
Governor's Island was prominently featured in the IO Interactive game Freedom Fighters, in which it was used as the seat of power for the Soviet Armed Forces, which had invaded the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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