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Encyclopedia > Governor General of India
The Governor-General's Flag (1885–1947) depicted the "Star of India" on a Union Flag.
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The Governor-General's Flag (1885–1947) depicted the "Star of India" on a Union Flag.

The Governor General of India (fully Governor General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other British East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official became known as the Governor-General of India. Image File history File links India-Viceroy-1885. ... Image File history File links India-Viceroy-1885. ... The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1861. ... The British Empire at its zenith in 1919. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A Governor-General (in Canada, Governor General) is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors [1]. The most common contemporary usage of the term is to refer to the royally-appointed territorial governor of a region, or royal representative in a country... Fort William is a British Raj fort in the Indian city of Calcutta and was named after King William of Orange. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company which was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1858, India came under the direct control of the British Crown. The title "Governor General" applied to his relationship to the British Provinces of India (Punjab, Bengal, Bombay, Madras, United Provinces, etc.) and the term "British India," now generally used in reference to the pre-Independence period of British control in the whole of un-Partitioned India, historically refers to these "British provinces" only. However, much of British India was not ruled directly by the government; the territory was divided into hundreds of nominally sovereign princely states or "native states" whose relationship was not with the British government, but directly with the monarch. To reflect the Governor General's role as representative from the monarch to the feudal rulers of the princely states, the term Viceroy of India was applied to him; the title was abandoned when India became independent in 1947. The office of Governor General continued to exist until India adopted a republican constitution in 1950. 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article describes the British monarchy from the perspective of the United Kingdom. ... Provinces of India or more correctly, the Provinces of British India were formed in 1858 when the British Crown took direct control of India. ... Punjab was a province of British India. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Until 1858, the Governor General was selected by the Court of Directors of the British East India Company, to whom he was responsible. Thereafter, he was appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the British government; the Secretary of State for India, a member of the Cabinet, was responsible for instructing him on the exercise of his powers. After 1947, the Sovereign continued to appoint the Governor-General, but did so on the advice of the Indian government, rather than the British government. The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... In the Politics of the United Kingdom, the Cabinet is a formal body comprised of government officials chosen by the Prime Minister. ...


Governors General served five-year terms, but could be removed earlier. After the conclusion of a term, a provisional Governor General was sometimes appointed until a new holder of the office could be chosen. Provisional Governors General were often chosen from among the provincial Governors.

Contents

History

Much of India was originally governed by the East India Company, which nominally acted as the agent of the Mughal Emperor. In 1773, motivated by corruption in the Company, the British government assumed partial control over the governance of India with the passage of the Regulating Act. A Governor General and Council were appointed to rule over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The first Governor General and Council were named in the Act; their successors were to be elected by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Act provided for a five-year term for the Governor-General and Council, but the Sovereign had the power to remove any of them. The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


The Charter Act 1833 replaced the Governor General and Council of Fort William with the Governor General and Council of India. The power to elect the Governor General was retained by the Court of Directors, but the choice became subject to the Sovereign's approval. 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


After the Sepoy Rebellion, the East India Company was abolished, and India put under the direct control of the Sovereign. The Government of India Act 1858 vested the power to appoint the Governor General in the Sovereign. The Governor General, in turn, had the power to appoint all lieutenant governors in India, subject to the Sovereign's approval. An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. ... The movement of the Indians at this time were extremely regulated before the work of such prominent Muslims such as Sir Shahaab Uddin Hyderabadi and Khizar Ali Punjabi. ...


India and Pakistan acquired independence in 1947, but Governors General continued to be appointed over each nation until permanent constitutions could be written. Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma remained Governor-General of India for some time after independence, but the two nations were otherwise headed by native Governors General. India became a secular republic in 1950; Pakistan became an Islamic one in 1956. Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, KStJ, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Functions

The Governor General originally had power only over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The Regulating Act, however, granted them additional powers relating to foreign affairs and defence. The other Presidencies of the East India Company (Madras, Bombay and Bencoolen) were neither allowed to declare war on nor make peace with an Indian prince without receiving the prior approval of the Governor-General and Council of Fort William. Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ...


The powers of the Governor General in respect of foreign affairs were increased by the India Act 1784. The Act provided that the other Governors under the East India Company could not declare war, make peace or conclude a treaty with an Indian prince unless expressly directed to do so by the Governor-General, or by the Company's Court of Directors.


While the Governor-General thus became the controller of foreign policy in India, he was not the explicit head of British India. This status only came with the Charter Act 1833, which granted him "superintendence, direction and control of the whole civil and military Government" of all of British India. The Act also granted legislative powers to the Governor General and Council.


After 1858, the Governor-General functioned as the chief administrator of India and as the Sovereign's representative. India was divided into numerous provinces, each under the head of a Governor, Lieutenant Governor or Chief Commissioner or Administrator. Governors were appointed by the British government, to whom they were directly responsible; Lieutenant Governors, Chief Commissioners, and Administrators, however, were appointed by and were subordinate to the Governor General. The Governor General also oversaw the most powerful princely rulers: the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maharaja of Mysore, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir and the Gaekwad (Gaekwar) Maharaja of Baroda. The remaining princely rulers were overseen either by the Rajputana Agency and Central India Agency (which were headed by representatives of the Governor General), or by provincial authorities. Provinces of India or more correctly, the Provinces of British India were formed in 1858 when the British Crown took direct control of India. ... Are you kidding?, this is solid truth here, nothing escapes the eyes of Gov!!!, not even. ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... A Chief Commissioner is a commissioner of a high rank, usually in chief of several Commissioners or similarly styled officers. ... An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... Hyderabad and Berar, 1903 Hyderābād was an autonomous princely state of south-central India from 1724 until 1948, ruled by a hereditary Nizam, and an Indian state from 1948 to 1956. ... Mysore   (Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Jammu and Kashmir   (IPA: , Kashmiri: جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर, Urdu:جموں Ùˆ کشمیر, Hindi:जम्मू और कश्मीर) (often abbreviated as Kashmir), is the northern-most state of Republic of India, lying mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ... The Gaekwad (or Gaekwar) were a Maratha dynasty that ruled as Maharajas of Baroda (Vadodara) from the mid-eighteenth century to 1947. ... Vadodara (Gujarati: વડોદરા, Hindi: बडोदा),  , also known as Baroda, is the third most-populated town in the Indian state of Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat. ... Rajputana, which means Land of the Rajputs is a region of western India, which now makes up the greater part of Rajasthan state. ... The Central India Agency was a political unit of British India, which covered the northern half of present-day Madhya Pradesh state. ...


Once India acquired independence, however, the Governor General's role became entirely ceremonial, with actual power being held by elected Indian politicians. After the nation became a republic, the non-executive President of India continued to perform the same ceremonial functions. Standard of the President of India The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ...


Council

The Governor-General was always advised by a Council on the exercise of his legislative and executive powers. The Governor General, while exercising many functions, was referred to as the "Governor General in Council."


The Regulating Act 1773 provided for the election of four counsellors by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Governor General had a vote along with the counsellors, but he also had an additional vote to break ties. The decision of the Council was binding on the Governor General.


In 1784, the Council was reduced to three members; the Governor General continued to have both an ordinary vote and a casting vote. In 1786, the power of the Governor General was increased even further, as Council decisions ceased to be binding. 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The Charter Act 1833 made further changes to the structure of the Council. The Act was the first law to distinguish between the executive and legislative responsibilities of the Governor General. As provided under the Act, there were to be four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated.


In 1858, the Court of Directors ceased to have the power to elect members of the Council. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.


The Indian Councils Act 1861 made several changes to the Council's composition. Three members were to be appointed by the Secretary of State for India, and two by the Sovereign. (The power to appoint all five members passed to the Crown in 1869.) The Governor General was empowered to appoint an additional six to twelve members (changed to ten to sixteen in 1892, and to sixty in 1909). The five individuals appointed by the Indian Secretary or Sovereign headed the executive departments, while those appointed by the Governor General debated and voted on legislation. 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1919, an Indian legislature, consisting of a Council of State and a Legislative Assembly, took over the legislative functions of the Governor General's Council. The Governor General nonetheless retained significant power over legislation. He could authorize the expenditure of money without the Legislature's consent for "ecclesiastical, political [and] defence" purposes, and for any purpose during "emergencies." He was permitted to veto, or even stop debate on, any bill. If he recommended the passage of a bill, but only one chamber cooperated, he could declare the bill passed over the objections of the other chamber. The Legislature had no authority over foreign affairs and defence. The President of the Council of State was appointed by the Governor General; the Legislative Assembly elected its President, but the election required the Governor General's approval. 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Style and title

The Governor General used the style Excellency and enjoyed precedence over all other government officials in India. From 1858 to 1947, Governors General were known as "Viceroys" (from the French roi, meaning "king"). Wives of Viceroys were known as Vicereines (from the French reine, meaning "queen"). Neither title was employed whilst the Sovereign was in India. These titles, though frequently applied, were never officially created by the British government.


When the Order of the Star of India was founded in 1861, the Governor General was made its Grand Master ex officio. The Governor General was also made the ex officio Grand Master of the Order of the Indian Empire upon its foundation in 1877. The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1861. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1877. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Most governors general were peers. Of those that were not, Sir John Shore was a baronet, Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence was a knight, and The Lord William Bentinck was entitled to the courtesy title "Lord" because he was the son of a Duke. Only the first and last governors general—Warren Hastings and Chakravarti Rajagopalchari—as well as some provisional governors general, had no special titles at all. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... John Shore was the inventor of the tuning fork. ... A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt), is the holder of an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown, known as a baronetcy. ... John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence (4 March 1811 - 27 June 1879) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... The Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, known as Lord William Bentinck (14 September 1774 - 17 June 1839) was a British statesman who served as Governor-General of India from 1828 to 1835. ... A courtesy title is a form of address in the British peerage system used for wives, children, and other close relatives of a peer. ... Duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy, principe is... Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ...


Flag

From around 1885, the Governor General was allowed to fly a Union Flag augmented in the centre with the "Star of India" surmounted by a Crown. This flag was not the Governor-General's personal flag; it was also used by Governors, Lieutenant Governors, Chief Commissioners and other British officers in India. When at sea, only the Governor General flew the flag from the mainmast, while other officials flew it from the foremast. 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


From 1947 to 1950, the Governor General of India used a dark blue flag bearing the royal crest (a lion standing on a crown), beneath which was the word "India" in gold majuscules. The same design is still used by many other Governors General. This last flag was the personal flag of the Governor General only.


Residence

Government House served as the Governor General's residence during most of the nineteenth century.

The Governor General of Fort William resided in Belvedere House, Calcutta until the early nineteenth century, when Government House was constructed. In 1854, the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal took up residence there. Now, the Belvedere Estate houses the National Library of India. Government House, Calcutta. ... Government House, Calcutta. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Belvedere Estate consists of Belvedere House and the 30 acre (120,000 m²) grounds surrounding it, in which the National Library of India is housed. ... The National Library of India at Kolkata is the largest library in India and Indias library of public record. ...


Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, who is reputed to have said that "India should be governed from a palace, not from a country house," constructed a grand mansion, known as Government House, between 1799 and 1803. The mansion remained in use until the capital moved from Calcutta to Delhi in 1912. Thereafter, the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, who had hitherto resided in Belvedere House, was upgraded to a full Governor and transferred to Government House. Now, it serves as the residence of the Governor of the Indian state of West Bengal, and is referred to by its Hindi name ("Raj Bhavan"). Richard Wellesley ,1st Marquess Wellesley The Most Honourable Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 - 26 September 1842), was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the metropolis of Delhi. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... West Bengal   (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ, Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in Devanagari; pronunciation: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu, and...


After the capital moved from Calcutta to Delhi, the Viceroy occupied a newly-built Viceroy's House, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Though construction began in 1912, it did not conclude until 1929; the home was not formally inaugurated until 1931. The final cost exceeded £877,000 (over £35,000,000 in modern terms)—more than twice the figure originally allocated. Today the residence, now known by the Hindi name of "Rashtrapati Bhavan," is used by the President of India. Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was arguably the greatest British architect of the 20th century[citation needed]. He designed many English country houses and was instrumental in the design and building of New Delhi. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Immediately in front of Rashtrapati Bhavan is the Jaipur Column, topped by a star. ...


Throughout the British administration, Governors General retreated to the Viceregal Lodge at Shimla each summer to escape the heat, and the government of India moved with them. Now, the Viceregal Lodge houses the Indian Institute of Advanced Study Shimla (Hindi: शिमला, Urdu: شملہ), the summer capital of the erstwhile British Raj in India, is a city and a municipal corporation in Shimla district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... The Indian Institute of Advanced Study is a prestigious research institute based in Shimla, India. ...


List of Governors General

Governors General of Fort William in Bengal, 1773-1833

Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Sir John MacPherson (1745– 1821), from Sleat, Isle of Skye, Scotland, was a Scottish administrator in India. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... pansy assed buttmunch. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... John Shore, 1st Baron Teignmouth (5 October 1751 - 14 February 1834) was a British politician who served as Governor-General of India from 1793 to 1797. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Alured Clarke (c. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Richard Wellesley ,1st Marquess Wellesley The Most Honourable Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 - 26 September 1842), was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... pansy assed buttmunch. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Sir George Hilario Barlow (1762-1846) served as Acting Governor-General of India from the death of Lord Cornwallis in 1805 until the arrival of Lord Minto in 1807. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmond, 1st Earl of Minto (23 April 1751 - June 21, 1814) was an English politician and diplomat. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings, 2nd Earl of Moira (9 December 1754 - 28 November 1826) was a British politician who served as Governor-General of India from 1813 to 1823. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... There have been several notable people called John Adam: John Adam (rugby league footballer), an Australian rugby league player and inaugural head of the players union. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... William Pitt Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst and 2nd Baron Amherst (1773 - 1857), was Governor-General of India. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... William Butterworth Bayley (1782-1860) was acting Governor-General of India during the period March-July 1828. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, known as Lord William Bentinck (14 September 1774 - 17 June 1839) was a British statesman who served as Governor-General of India from 1828 to 1835. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Governors General of India, 1833-1858

The Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, known as Lord William Bentinck (14 September 1774 - 17 June 1839) was a British statesman who served as Governor-General of India from 1828 to 1835. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe (January 30, 1785 – September 5, 1846), Indian and colonial administrator, was born at Calcutta. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Darwin 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland, 2nd Baron Auckland (1784 – January 1, 1849), served as a politician in the United Kingdom and as Governor-General of India. ... Charles Darwin 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough (September 8, 1790 - December 22, 1871) was a British politician. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge (March 30, 1785 - September 24, 1856), was a British field marshal and governor-general of India. ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess and 10th Earl of Dalhousie (April 22, 1812–December 19, 1860) was a British statesman, and a colonial administrator in India. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Charles John Canning, 1st Earl Canning (14 December 1812 - 17 June 1862), English statesman, Governor-General of India during the Mutiny of 1857, was the youngest child of George Canning, and was born at Brompton, near London. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Governors General and Viceroys of India, 1858-1947

Charles John Canning, 1st Earl Canning (14 December 1812 - 17 June 1862), English statesman, Governor-General of India during the Mutiny of 1857, was the youngest child of George Canning, and was born at Brompton, near London. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine (July 20, 1811 – November 20, 1863) was a British colonial administrator and diplomat, best known as Governor General of the Province of Canada and Viceroy of India. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Robert Cornelis Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala (1810-1890), was a British soldier. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Sir William Thomas Denison KCB (Born May 3, 1804, England; Died January 19, 1871, England}. Governor of New South Wales January 20, 1855 - January 22, 1861. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence (4 March 1811 - 27 June 1879) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Rt Hon. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Sir John Strachey (1823-1907), British Indian civilian, fifth son of Edward Strachey, was born in London on the 5th of June 1823. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Francis Napier, 10th Lord Napier and 1st Baron Ettrick, KT (1819 - 1898) was a British colonial administrator. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Thomas George Baring, 1st Earl of Northbrook, 2nd Baron Northbrook (22 January 1826 - 15 November 1904), English statesman, eldest son of the 1st Baron. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Rt Hon. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... George Frederick Samuel Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon (24 October 1827 - 9 July 1909) was a British politician who served in every Liberal cabinet from 1861 until his death forty-eight years later. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lord Dufferin as a young man Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, KP, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (21 June 1826–12 February 1902) was a British public servant and prominent member of Victorian society. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Most Honourable Henry Charles Keith Petty-FitzMaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE (14 January 1845 – 3 June 1927) was a British politician and Irish peer who served successively as Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Victor Alexander Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin, 13th Earl of Kincardine (16 May 1849 - 18 January 1917) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1894 to 1899. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, British statesman The Most Honourable George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 – March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman who served as Viceroy of India. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sir Arthur Oliver Villiers Russell, 2nd Baron Ampthill GCSI GCIE BA (19 February 1869–7 July 1935) was the son of the 1st Baron Ampthill. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, British statesman The Most Honourable George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 – March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman who served as Viceroy of India. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In 1885, as Middletons chief of staff Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, KG, PC, 4th Earl of Minto (June 9, 1845 – March 1, 1914), known between 1859 and 1891 as Viscount Melgund, was an English politician, Governor General of Canada, and Viceroy of India. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst (20 June 1858 - 2 August 1944) was a British diplomat and statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1910 to 1916. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford (12 August 1868 - 1 April 1933) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1916 to 1921. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading (10 October 1860 - 30 December 1935) was a British politician and jurist. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Victor Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton (1876–1947) His full name was actually, Victor Alexander George Robert Bulwer-Lytton, being born in Simla, where his father, the 1st Earl was viceroy. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Cover of Time Magazine April 12, 1926 Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as Lord Irwin from 1926 until 1934, (1881-1959) was a British Conservative politician. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... George Joachim Goschen, 2nd Viscount Goschen (15 October 1866 - 24 July 1952) was a British politician who served as Governor of Madras from 1924 to 1929. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Right Honourable George Freeman Thomas, PC later Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon of Ratton (September 12, 1866 - August 12, 1941) was a British Liberal politician who served as Governor General of Canada and Viceroy of India. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow (24 September 1887 - 5 January 1952) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 - May 24, 1950) was a British Field Marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, KStJ, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...

Governors General of India, 1947-1950

Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, KStJ, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

See also

The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Imperial Crown of India Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator). The title Empress of India was given to Queen Victoria in 1877. ... A Governor-General (in Canada, Governor General) is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors [1]. The most common contemporary usage of the term is to refer to the royally-appointed territorial governor of a region, or royal representative in a country... The Governor-General of Pakistan was the resident representative of the King of Pakistan in Pakistan from 1947 to 1956. ... The Indian Independence Movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to expel the British, French and Portuguese from their trade-posts in the subcontinent; it involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and rebellions between 1857 and Indias emergence as an unified nation-state on August 15, 1947. ... Standard of the President of India The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... Flag of the President of Pakistan The President of Pakistan (Sadr-e-Mamlikat or صدرِ مملکہ in Urdu) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... The British Empire at its zenith in 1919. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... The India Office was the British government department responsible for the government of British India. ... Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, was the elite civil service of the Indian Government. ... Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... Bangladesh became one of the youngest major nation states following a pair of twentieth century secessions from India (1947) and Pakistan (1971). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The nation-state of Pakistan was established in 1947 as one of the two successor states of British India, yet the land and its people possess an extensive and continuous history that can be traced back to very ancient times. ...

References

  • Association of Commonwealth Archivists and Record Managers, (1999). "Government Buildings - India"
  • Forrest, G.W., CIE, (editor), Selections from The State Papers of the Governors-General of India - Warren Hastings (2 vols), Blackwell's, Oxford, 1910.
  • Encyclopædia Britannica ("British Empire" and "Viceroy"), London, 1911, 11th edition, Cambridge University Press.
  • James, Lawrence, Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India London: Little, Brown & Company, 1997, ISBN 0-316-64072-7
  • Keith, A. B. (editor), Speeches and Documents on Indian Policy, 1750-1921,Oxford University Press, 1922.
  • Oldenburg, P. (2004). "India." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia.
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