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Encyclopedia > Governor General of Canada
Governor General of Canada

Crest
Incumbent:
Michaëlle Jean
Style:
Her Excellency
The Right Honourable
Appointed by:
Elizabeth II
as Queen of Canada
First viceroy:
Viscount Monck
Formation:
July 1, 1867
Canada

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Canada
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Crest_of_the_Governor-General_of_Canada. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 426 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (718 × 1009 pixel, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated Rt Hon, The Rt Hon, The Right Hon, Right Hon) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary [1]; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, and their respective overseas territories and dependencies. ... Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, wearing the Sovereigns insignia of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit The style of the Canadian Sovereign has varied over the years. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Viscount Monck, 1868 Charles Stanley Monck, 4th Viscount Monck (October 10, 1819 – November 29, 1894) was the last Governor General of the Province of Canada and the first Governor General of Canada after Canadian Confederation. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The politics of Canada function within a framework of constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. ...


Federal
Executive (The Crown)
Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II)
Governor General (Michaëlle Jean)

Queen's Privy Council for Canada
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Queen of Canada redirects here. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the...

Prime Minister (Stephen Harper)
Cabinet (Twenty-Eighth Ministry)

Government of Canada
Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Cabinet of Canada (French: Cabinet du Canada or Conseil des ministres) plays an important role in the Government of Canada in accordance with the Westminster System. ... Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Governor General Michaëlle Jean with Twenty-Eighth Ministry after the swearing-in ceremony (February 6, 2006) The Twenty-Eighth Canadian Ministry is the federal Cabinet of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, which has governed Canada since the begining of the 39th Parliament of Canada. ... The Government of Canada is the federal government of Canada. ...

Ministries
Legislative (Parliament)
Current Parliament (39th)

Senate
The following list outlines the Structure of the Canadian federal government. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The initial seat distribution of the 39th Canadian Parliament The 39th Canadian Parliament is the current Parliament of Canada, and has been in session since April 3, 2006. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...

Speaker of the Senate
Government Leader in the Senate
Opposition Leader in the Senate
Canadian Senate divisions

House of Commons
The Speaker of the Canadian Senate (French: Président du Sénat) is the presiding officer of the Canadian Senate. ... The Leader of the Government in the Senate is a Canadian cabinet minister who leads the government side in the Canadian Senate and is chiefly responsible for promoting and defending the governments program in the Upper House. ... In Canada, the Leader of the Official Opposition in the Senate is the leader of the largest party in the Senate that is not in government. ... Representation in the Canadian Senate is divided into seats on a provincial basis. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois...

Speaker of the House
Government House Leader
Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition
Leader of the Opposition
Opposition House Leader
Shadow Cabinet
Elections
Parliamentary constituencies

Electoral system
Last election
Current house speaker Peter Milliken In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons (French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house and is elected by fellow MPs. ... The Leader of the Government in the House of Commons (French: Leader du gouvernement à la Chambre des communes), more commonly known as the Government House Leader, is the Cabinet minister responsible for planning and managing the governments legislative program in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... In Canada each political party with representation in the House of Commons has a House Leader who is a front bench MP and an expert in parliamentary procedure. ... The outgoing Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet is listed below. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) has two chambers. ... This is a list of Canadas 308 electoral districts (also known as ridings in Canadian English) as defined by the 2003 Representation Order, which came into effect on May 23, 2004. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ...

Judicial
Supreme Court
Chief Justice (Beverley McLachlin)

Lower Courts of Appeal
Constitution
British North America Acts
Peace, Order and Good Government
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Right Hon. ... The Rt. ... List of final courts of appeal in Canada. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom dealing with the government of Canada, which was known as British North America until 1867. ... In Canada, the phrase peace, order and good government (in French, paix, ordre et bon gouvernement), called POGG for short, is often used to describe the principles upon which that countrys Confederation took place. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ...

Provincial and territorial
Politics of the Canadian provinces
General
Regions

Political culture
Foreign relations Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... Canadian political culture is in some ways part of a greater North American and European political culture, which emphasizes constitutional law, freedom of religion, personal liberty, and regional autonomy; these ideas stemming in various degrees from the British common law and French civil law traditions, North American aboriginal government, and... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      // The British North American colonies which today constitute modern Canada had little control over their foreign affairs until the achievement of responsible government in the late 1840s. ...


Other countries · Atlas
 Politics Portal
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The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the same person as their respective sovereign. The monarch appoints the Governor General on the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister. There is no specific term. As with other appointments, the incumbent is said to serve "at Her Majesty's pleasure," but by convention usually serves for approximately five years. Also by convention, the position tends to alternate between the anglophone and francophone communities. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Queen of Canada redirects here. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... -1... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The current constitution of the Office of Governor General is laid out by Letters Patent of King George VI, issued in 1947.[1] By the Constitution Act, 1982, any constitutional amendment that affects the Crown, including the Office of Governor General, requires the unanimous consent of the provincial legislatures as well as the federal parliament. The 1904 Militia Act granted the governor general permission to use the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian military, in the name of the sovereign.[2] Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The Constitution Act, 1982 (Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.)) is a part of the Constitution of Canada. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the unified armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Act, which states: The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces. ...


Michaëlle Jean, the current governor general, has served since September 27, 2005. Former Liberal Prime Minister Paul Martin recommended her to replace Adrienne Clarkson.[3] Jean-Daniel Lafond, the vice-regal consort, is her husband.[4] Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... Adrienne Louise Clarkson (née Poy) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Hakka: Ńg Pên-kî, Cantonese: Ng5 Bing1 zi1), PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, LL.D (honoris causa) (born February 10, 1939) is an accomplished Canadian journalist and stateswoman. ... Jean-Daniel Lafond, CC (b. ... The Viceregal consort is the spouse of the Governor General of Canada. ...

Contents

History

Sir George Prévost, Governor General of British North America, 1812–1815
Sir George Prévost, Governor General of British North America, 1812–1815

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... George Prevost Sir George Prévost (Hackensack May 19, 1767 – January 5, 1816 London) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ...

Colonies

French colonization of North America began in 1580s,[5] but the vast colony of New France (composed of Canada, Louisiana, and Acadia) grew only during the early and middle seventeenth century. The explorer Samuel de Champlain became the first unofficial Governor of New France in about 1613. However, the King formally appointed Charles Huault de Montmagny to the post in 1636. The French Company of One Hundred Associates administered New France until King Louis XIV took control of the colony, appointing Augustin de Saffray de Mésy as the first governor general in 1663. Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... The United States in 1810, following the Louisiana Purchase. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Statue symbolizing Samuel de Champlain in Ottawa. ... The Governor of New France was the head of state representing the King of France in North America. ... Charles Jacques Huault de Montmagny (c. ... The Company of One Hundred Associates was a business enterprise created at a time when all territories explored by the French and seized as a part of the French colonial empire were the property of the King of France. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Augustin de Saffray de Mésy was the first Governor General of New France in 1663, a position held until 1763 when much of New France became British North America. ...


France gave up most of its North American territories, including Canada, to Great Britain via the Treaty of Paris, following the Seven Years' War (1756–1763).[6] The Royal Proclamation of 1763 established the Office of Governor of Quebec to preside over the then named Province of Quebec. Lieutenant-General Sir Jeffrey Amherst governed the province during the last years of the Seven Years' War, but the first civilian to hold the position was James Murray (appointed 1764). The province of Nova Scotia remained separate with its own colonial governor. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 Proclamation line is the border between the red and the pink areas. ... Province of Quebec (COLONIAL PERIOD, 1763-1791) Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris (1763) when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France, which was viewed as a vast, frozen wasteland... Jeffrey Amherst, painted by Joshua Reynolds in 1765 Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, or Jeffrey, he himself spelled his name as Jeffery) (January 29, 1717 – August 3, 1797) served as an officer in the British Army. ... Portrait of James Murray as a young man by Allan Ramsay (1742) (Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh) James Murray (Ballencrieff, East Lothian, Scotland, 21 January 1721– 18 June 1794 Battle) was a British military officer, whose lengthy career included service as colonial administrator and governor of Quebec. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867...


In the 1780s, the British government of Prime Minister William Pitt accepted the idea that the provinces of Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick should share a single governor-in-chief (afterwards termed the governor general). The first individual to occupy this office was Lord Dorchester (appointed 1786). However, the governor-in-chief or governor general only directly governed the province of Lower Canada; Upper Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were instead headed by their own lieutenant governors. William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester. ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council...


In 1840 Upper and Lower Canada were united into the Province of Canada, which remained under the governor general's authority. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Responsible government

The role of the governor general changed greatly after the Rebellions of 1837, soon after which the British government agreed to grant the Canadian provinces responsible government. As a result the governor general and lieutenant governors became largely nominal heads while democratically-elected legislatures and provincial premiers held real authority. This arrangement continued after the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. The Governor General remained representative of the Crown and of the British government vested with executive authority via the monarch, and Lieutenant Governors remained representatives of the Dominion government, while political power was actually exercised by the Canadian Prime Minister and the Premiers, in the federal and provincial jurisdictions respectively. The Marquis of Lorne tested the political neutrality of the Governor General when he disagreed with his prime minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, over the dismissal of Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Luc Letellier de St-Just. He eventually conceded, on the advice of the Colonial Secretary in London, to avoid conflict with the Cabinet.[7] In May 1891 a cabinet crisis occurred when Sir John A. Macdonald died. Governor General Lord Stanley called on Thompson to form a government, but Thompson declined so Lord Stanley chose John Abbott who accepted the premiership. The Rebellions of 1837 were a pair of Canadian armed uprisings that occurred in 1837 and 1838 in response to frustrations in political reform and ethnic conflict. ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Prime Minister of Canada, the head of the Canadian government, is usually the leader of the political party with the most seats in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Marquess of Lorne John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th and 2nd Duke of Argyll, KG, KT, GCMG, GCVO, PC (6 August 1845 – 2 May 1914), usually better known by the courtesy title Marquess of Lorne, by which he was known before 1900, was a British nobleman and... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Lieutenant Governors of the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Honourable Luc Letellier de Saint-Just, PC (May 12, 1820 – January 28, 1881) was a Canadian politician. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... The 16th Earl of Derby Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, KG, GCB, GCVO, PC (15 January 1841 – 14 June 1908), known as Frederick Stanley until 1886 and as The Lord Stanley of Preston between 1886 and 1893, was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who served... The Honourable Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott, PC , QC , KCMG , BCL , DCL (March 12, 1821 – October 30, 1893) was the third Prime Minister of Canada from June 16, 1891 to November 24, 1892. ...


The position of Governor General greatly changed during the late 1920s and early 1930s in the aftermath of the King-Byng Affair. In 1926 the Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King requested that Governor General Lord Byng of Vimy dissolve parliament. The Governor General however, used his reserve power to refuse the request, citing both the fact that King actually held the minority of seats, and the general election that had been held only months earlier. Accordingly, King resigned, and Lord Byng appointed Arthur Meighen to replace him. Within a week however, Meighen's Conservative government lost a no-confidence vote in the House of Commons, forcing the Governor General to dissolve Parliament and call elections. After Mackenzie King returned to power with a clear parliamentary majority, he sought to redefine the role of the governor general. Mackenzie King requested a dissolution of Parliament. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy (11 September 1862–6 June 1935) was a career British Army officer who served as commander of the Canadian army in World War I, and later became Governor General of Canada. ... In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... ...


At an Imperial Conference held later in 1926 the United Kingdom, Canada, and other Dominions all accepted the Balfour Declaration. The declaration acknowledged that the Dominions were equal in status to the United Kingdom, and that each governor-general would henceforth function solely as a representative of the Crown within their respective dominions, and not as an agent of the British government.[8] Instead, the latter function would be taken over by high commissioners akin to ambassadors. The principle of the equality of the Dominions was further extended by the Statute of Westminster, 1931. The declaration abandoned the idea that the British Crown owned the territory of the entire empire, instead granting the status of a kingdom to each Dominion and separating the King's status as monarch of one realm from another. Though the declaration officially recognized the independence of the Dominion of Canada and its equality to the United Kingdom, persons born outside Canada continued to serve as Governor General until the appointment of Vincent Massey in 1952. Imperial Conferences were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930 and 1937. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a report of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... Charles Vincent Massey, PC, CH, CC, CD [1] (February 20, 1887 – December 30, 1967) was the eighteenth Governor General of Canada and the first who was born in Canada. ...


The wars and beyond

Until the 1970s, Governors General wore the Windsor uniform, a form of court dress which resembles military uniform, as depicted in the above photograph of the Duke of Devonshire, Governor General of Canada from 1916 until 1921.
Until the 1970s, Governors General wore the Windsor uniform, a form of court dress which resembles military uniform, as depicted in the above photograph of the Duke of Devonshire, Governor General of Canada from 1916 until 1921.

During the First and Second World Wars, the Governor General's role turned from one of cultural patron and state ceremony to one of military inspector and morale booster. Starting in 1914, Governor General Prince Arthur donned his Field Marshal's uniform and put his efforts into raising contingents, inspecting army camps, and seeing troops off before their voyage to Europe. These actions led to conflict with the Prince's prime minister at the time, Robert Borden; though the latter placed blame on the military secretary Edward Stanton, he also opined that the Duke "laboured under the handicap of his position as a member of the Royal Family and never realized his limitations as Governor General."[9] Prince Arthur's successor, the Duke of Devonshire, faced the Conscription Crisis of 1917. Though the Governor General remained a representative of the British government, Cavendish still held discussions with his Canadian Prime Minister as well as His Majesty's Loyal Opposition members on the matter. Once the government implemented conscription, Cavendish, after consulting with Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Vincent Massey, Henri Bourassa, Archbishop of Montreal Paul Bruchési, Duncan Campbell Scott, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, and Stephen Leacock on the pulse of the nation, made efforts to conciliate Quebec, though he had little real success.[10] See [1]. Copyright: Expired. ... See [1]. Copyright: Expired. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Court dress comprises two forms of dress: dress prescribed for Royal courts; and dress prescribed for courts of law. ... The Duke of Devonshire As Governor General The Most Noble Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire (London May 31, 1868–May 6, 1938 Chatsworth House), was a Liberal Unionist Member of Parliament for West Derbyshire (1891-1908), Governor General of Canada (1916-1921), and Colonial Secretary (1922-1924). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 1850 – 16 January 1942) was a member of the British Royal Family, a son of Queen Victoria. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of facts that are not logically necessary. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... The Duke of Devonshire As Governor General The Most Noble Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire (London May 31, 1868–May 6, 1938 Chatsworth House), was a Liberal Unionist Member of Parliament for West Derbyshire (1891-1908), Governor General of Canada (1916-1921), and Colonial Secretary (1922-1924). ... The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. // At the outbreak of war in 1914, over 30,000 volunteers joined the army, far more than expected. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... “Laurier” redirects here. ... Charles Vincent Massey, PC, CH, CC, CD [1] (February 20, 1887 – December 30, 1967) was the eighteenth Governor General of Canada and the first who was born in Canada. ... Henri Bourassa Joseph-Napoléon-Henri Bourassa (September 1, 1868- August 30, 1952) was a French Canadian political leader and publisher. ... This is a list of the bishops of the Roman Catholic diocese of Montreal. ... Cardinal Vannutelli (sitting) and Mgr. ... Dr. Duncan Campbell Scott Source: Library and Archives Canada, PA-165842 Duncan Campbell Scott (August 2, 1862-December 19, 1947) was a Canadian poet and prose writer. ... Vilhjalmur Stefansson (Icelandic: Vilhjálmur Stefánsson / Vilhjálms Stefánssonar) (November 3, 1879 – August 26, 1962) was a Canadian Arctic explorer and ethnologist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Though the Governor General had been venturing to Washington to meet informally with the president of the United States since the time of Lord Monck, the first official visit was of Lord Willingdon at the invitation of Calvin Coolidge. Willingdon was accorded the full honours of representative of the head of state, at the insistence of Vincent Massey.[11] During the Great Depression, Lord Bessborough voluntarily cut his salary by ten percent.[12] For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Viscount Monck, 1868 Charles Stanley Monck, 4th Viscount Monck (October 10, 1819 – November 29, 1894) was the last Governor General of the Province of Canada and the first Governor General of Canada after Canadian Confederation. ... The Right Honourable George Freeman Thomas, PC later Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon of Ratton (September 12, 1866 - August 12, 1941) was a British Liberal politician who served as Governor General of Canada and Viceroy of India. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Charles Vincent Massey, PC, CH, CC, CD [1] (February 20, 1887 – December 30, 1967) was the eighteenth Governor General of Canada and the first who was born in Canada. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Lord and Lady Bessborough, 1933 Vere Brabazon Ponsonby, 9th Earl of Bessborough (October 27, 1880 - March 10, 1956) was Governor General of Canada. ...


Thereafter, the next period of important change for the office came around the time of Roland Michener's tenure (19671974). In light of changing attitudes towards Canadian identity and the rise of the Quebec sovereignty movement, the images and role of the monarchy were cautiously downplayed. Paralleling the earlier changes in constitutional law, the cultural role of the Canadian monarchy, including that of the Governor General, altered accordingly. The federal and provincial governments began to recognize and promote the fact of the Queen's role as monarch of Canada being separate to her position as monarch of the United Kingdom.[13][14][15] Additionally, with the creation of the distinct Canadian honours system, an increase of state visits coming with Canada's growing role on the world stage, and the more prevalent use of television to visually broadcast ceremonial state affairs, the governor general became more publicly active in national life. Michener also relaxed protocols and formalities surrounding the office; for instance, the long-standing custom of bowing or curtsying before the governor general was abandoned. Michener did retain the traditional military uniform associated with the office, becoming the last governor general to do so. The Right Honourable Daniel Roland Michener, PC , CC , CMM , CD , LL.D (April 19, 1900 - August 6, 1991) was Governor General of Canada from 1967 to 1974. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The province of Quebec shown in red. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... The Queen of Canada, Elizabeth II, is the font of the Canadian honours system, pictured here wearing her insignias as Sovereign of the Order of Canada and of the Order of Military Merit The Canadian honours system has developed as a unique entity since the centennial of Canadian Confederation in... State visits usually involve a military review. ...


Controversy

The Office of Governor General has occasionally been a controversial subject in Canada, mostly over costs associated with running the office and household. As early as 1880 the viceroy attracted some ridicule: in July that year someone under the pseudonym "Captain Mac" issued a pamphlet called Canada: from the Lakes to the Gulf, in which he included a coarse satire of an investiture ceremony at Rideau Hall, where a retired inn-keeper and his wife undergo the rigorous protocol of the royal household and sprawl on the floor before the Duke of Argyll, so as to be granted the knighthood for which they had "paid in cold, hard cash."[16] Prior to the arrival of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, uncle of King George V, to take his post as Governor General, there was "a feeble undercurrent of criticism," centering on worries about a rigid court at Rideau Hall; worries that turned out to be unfounded as the royal couple was more relaxed than their predecessors.[17] For other uses, see Alias. ... Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ... The Marquess of Lorne John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th and 2nd Duke of Argyll, KG, KT, GCMG, GCVO, PC (6 August 1845 – 2 May 1914), usually better known by the courtesy title Marquess of Lorne, by which he was known before 1900, was a British nobleman and... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 1850 – 16 January 1942) was a member of the British Royal Family, a son of Queen Victoria. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...


Georges Vanier, who, as Governor General, always fostered unity and biculturalism, found himself the target of Quebec sovereigntists in Montreal, on Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day, 1964, wherein a group of separatists held placards reading "Vanier vendu" ("Vanier sold out") and "Vanier fou de la Reine" ("Vanier Queen's jester").[18] For other uses, see Georges Vanier (disambiguation). ... The province of Quebec shown in red. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Fête Nationale parade, Montreal The Fête nationale du Québec (Quebec National Holiday) is an official holiday of Quebec, Canada. ...


Spending became an issue for Adrienne Clarkson during her time as viceroy; under her governor generalcy the budget for her office doubled to $41 million, which included renovations to Rideau Hall and La Citadelle's visitor centres, as well as upgrades of the public facilities and barrier-free access, and restoration work. What garnered the most attention, however, was a nineteen day circumpolar "northern identity" tour comprised of state visits to Russia, Finland, and Iceland, with her husband and fifty other Canadians prominent in various fields, in 2003, which cost in excess of $5 million. The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade commissioned and for the trip but Clarkson's office controlled the general itinerary. The overall spending by the Office of the Governor General led to a parliamentary committee review in 2004, resulting in a cut back for the Governor General's budget for that year. Adrienne Louise Clarkson (née Poy) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Hakka: Ńg Pên-kî, Cantonese: Ng5 Bing1 zi1), PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, LL.D (honoris causa) (born February 10, 1939) is an accomplished Canadian journalist and stateswoman. ... C$ redirects here. ... Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ... The Citadel (fr: Citadelle) is a military fort atop Cape Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... State visits usually involve a military review. ... C$ redirects here. ... The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), more commonly known as Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, is a department in the Government of Canada which has responsibility for foreign policy and diplomacy, as well as import/export and international trade policies. ...


Clarkson's successor, Michaëlle Jean, after clearing up speculations about her being a supporter of Quebec sovereignty just prior to her appointment as Governor General, faced another backlash at the end of November, 2007, when the Chancellery of Government House refused to process the application for Constable Chris Garrett, who was killed in the line of duty in Cobourg, Ontario, to posthumously receive the Cross of Valour; the application was submitted eight months after the deadline. This resulted in condemnation from the Premier of Ontario and a public outcry from members of the police forces across Canada, with many officers sending their 20 year service medals to Rideau Hall in protest; Julian Fantino, Commissioner of the Ontario Provincial Police, began organizing a delegation to appeal directly to Queen Elizabeth II.[19][20] The Governor General, in response, expressed recommendations to the ministry as to how to resolve the issue. This move was a first in that it was done publicly, via a press release from Rideau Hall, as opposed to in confidence, as is usually the case with communications between the viceroy and prime minister.[21] Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... The province of Quebec shown in red. ... Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ... For the painter, see John Constable. ... Cobourg (2001 population 17,172) is a town some 75 km east of Toronto. ... Cross of Valour The Cross of Valour (official post-nominal letters CV) is the highest ranking of the Canadian Bravery Decorations. ... The Premier of Ontario is the first minister for the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Julian Fantino, O.Ont Julian Fantino O.Ont, C.O.M. (born 1942 in Vendoglio, Italy) was Torontos Chief of Police from 2000 to 2005, and is currently Ontarios Commissioner of Emergency Management. ... The Ontario Provincial Police (O.P.P.) is the provincial police force for the province of Ontario, Canada. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary [1]; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, and their respective overseas territories and dependencies. ... Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ...


The group Citizens for a Canadian Republic advocate codifying the office in preparation for what they sees as the eventual transformation into a presidency, thus completely replacing the monarchy. On the other hand, organizations such as the Monarchist League of Canada support the retention of the governor general as the representative of the reigning Canadian monarch. Since the failure of the Meech Lake Accord in 1987 and the Charlottetown Accord in 1992, Canadian politicians have shown little appetite for opening discussions on constitutional matters, especially on a polarizing topic such as the monarchy. Logo of the Citizens for a Canadian Republic Citizens for a Canadian Republic (CCR) is a non-partisan, not-for-profit Canadian organization founded in 2002 that advocates the abolition of the monarchy in Canada and its replacement with a president who would either be chosen through a general election... The Coat of Arms of the Monarchist League of Canada, granted with permission of Her Majesty The Queen in 2000. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Appointment

Vincent Massey, the first Canadian-born person appointed, in 1952, to the vice-regal post since Confederation.
Vincent Massey, the first Canadian-born person appointed, in 1952, to the vice-regal post since Confederation.

The Canadian monarch appoints the Governor General on the advice of her Canadian Prime Minister. The 1947 Letters Patent, issued by King George VI, state: "We do hereby constitute, order, and declare that there shall be a Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada, and appointments to the Office of Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada shall be made by Commission under Our Great Seal of Canada."[1] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Charles Vincent Massey, PC, CH, CC, CD [1] (February 20, 1887 – December 30, 1967) was the eighteenth Governor General of Canada and the first who was born in Canada. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Queen of Canada redirects here. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Great Seal of Canada is a seal used for official purposes of state in Canada such as the certification of Acts of Parliament. ...


Upon taking office, the governor general-designate must take the Oath of Allegiance:

"I, .............. do swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Her Heirs and successors, according to law. So Help me God."[1]

From 1867 to 1952 every Governor General was born beyond Canada's borders, and was a member of the Peerage. Though these viceroys spent a relatively limited time in Canada, their travel schedules were so extensive that they could "learn more about Canada in five years than many Canadian in a lifetime."[22] It was at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference that Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden consulted Prime Minister of South Africa, Louis Botha, on the topic of appointments of governors general; the two agreed that the appointee should be a resident of their respective Dominion.[23] However, it was not until Vincent Massey's appointment by Queen Elizabeth II in 1952 that the position was filled by a Canadian resident; though, it should be remembered that prior to 1947 all residents of Canada were as equally British subjects as their British counterparts. This continued until the practice of appointing non-Canadian-born persons was revived with the calling of Adrienne Clarkson, born in Hong Kong, to serve as Governor General. Moreover, by tradition, the post has been held alternately by anglophone Canadians and francophone Canadians. Beginning in 1967, the Prime Minister has forwarded the Queen a single name when proposing a vice-regal appointment; previously a list of several names had been given to the monarch. In general, the sovereign is bound by constitutional convention to almost always follow the advice of his or her prime minister, as long as the Prime Minister maintains the confidence of the House of Commons and acts within constitutional limits, though she retains the right to encourage, advise, and warn. For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... Paris 1919 redirects here. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... Louis Botha Louis Botha (September 17, 1862-August 27, 1919) was an Afrikaner and first Prime Minister of the modern South African state, then called the Union of South Africa. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Charles Vincent Massey, PC, CH, CC, CD [1] (February 20, 1887 – December 30, 1967) was the eighteenth Governor General of Canada and the first who was born in Canada. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ... Adrienne Louise Clarkson (née Poy) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Hakka: Ńg Pên-kî, Cantonese: Ng5 Bing1 zi1), PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, LL.D (honoris causa) (born February 10, 1939) is an accomplished Canadian journalist and stateswoman. ... English Canada is a term used to describe either: the anglophone residents of Canada or the Canadian provinces other than Quebec and, sometimes, New Brunswick, in which French is an official language of the provincial governments. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois...


Although non-partisan while in office, Governors General are often former politicians. Since 1952, individuals who previously served as diplomats, cabinet members, or Speakers of the House of Commons have been appointed to the post. Former Governor General Adrienne Clarkson was previously an author and television anchor; she was the first Governor General in Canadian history without either a political or military background. She was also the first Asian-Canadian and the second woman to serve in the position. The first female governor general of Canada was Jeanne Sauvé, who served from 1984 to 1990. The third woman to hold this position, Michaëlle Jean, who took office on September 27, 2005, is also the first black Canadian Governor General. Current house speaker Peter Milliken In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons (French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house and is elected by fellow MPs. ... Adrienne Louise Clarkson (née Poy) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Hakka: Ńg Pên-kî, Cantonese: Ng5 Bing1 zi1), PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, LL.D (honoris causa) (born February 10, 1939) is an accomplished Canadian journalist and stateswoman. ... An Asian Canadian is a Canadian of Asian ancestry. ... Jeanne Mathilde Sauvé, PC, CC, CMM, CD (née Benoît) (April 26, 1922 – January 26, 1993) was a Canadian journalist, politician, and stateswoman. ... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


It is traditional that an appointed individual act as the Queen's representative for a minimum of five years, but in truth the viceroy serves at Her Majesty's pleasure, and the Prime Minister may advise the Queen to retain the Governor General's in her service for longer. For instance, Adrienne Clarkson had been in office for five years as of 2004, but her appointment as Governor General was extended by the Queen on the advice of Prime Minister Paul Martin, who argued that it was preferable to have an experienced Governor General in place while a minority government remained in power. The tenures of other Governors General, including Georges Vanier and Roland Michener, have been extended beyond five years in previous circumstances. Governors General may resign from office, as, for instance, Roméo LeBlanc did in 1999 due to health concerns.-1... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... For minority governments in general, see dominant minority. ... For other uses, see Georges Vanier (disambiguation). ... The Right Honourable Daniel Roland Michener, PC , CC , CMM , CD , LL.D (April 19, 1900 - August 6, 1991) was Governor General of Canada from 1967 to 1974. ... Roméo-Adrien LeBlanc, PC, CC, CMM, ONB, CD (born December 18, 1927 in Memramcook, New Brunswick) is a former Governor General of Canada. ...


If the Governor General dies or leaves the country for more than one month, the Chief justice of Canada (or, if that position is vacant, the senior puisne justice of the Supreme Court of Canada) serves as administrator of the government of Canada, and exercises all powers of the governor general. The only individuals to serve as administrators due to the deaths of governors general were Chief Justice Sir Lyman Poore Duff (1940) and Chief Justice Robert Taschereau (1967). The Right Hon. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General. ... Sir Lyman Poore Duff, PC , GCMG (Ontario, January 7, 1865 – April 26, 1955) was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada and briefly served as Acting Governor General of Canada in 1940. ... The Right Honourable Robert Taschereau, PC , CC (Quebec, 1896 – 1970) was a lawyer who became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada and who briefly served as acting Governor General of Canada following the death of Georges Vanier in 1967. ...


Role

The Governor General's main task is to perform the constitutional duties of the sovereign, on his or her behalf, to maintain stability of government within the principles of responsible government. Past Governor General Lord Lorne said of the job: "It is no easy thing to be a governor general of Canada. You must have the patience of a saint, the smile of a cherub, the generosity of an Indian prince, and the back of a camel."[24] Lord Dufferin stated: "A representative of all that is august, stable, and sedate in the country; incapable of partisanship, and lifted far above the atmosphere of fraction, without adherents to reward or opponents to oust from office; docile to the suggestions of his Ministers, and yet securing to the people the certainty of being able to get rid of an Administration of Parliament the moment either has forfeited their confidence."[25] Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... The Marquess of Lorne John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th and 2nd Duke of Argyll, KG, KT, GCMG, GCVO, PC (6 August 1845 – 2 May 1914), usually better known by the courtesy title Marquess of Lorne, by which he was known before 1900, was a British nobleman and... CHERUB is a series of childrens books written by the author Robert Muchamore about a group of children who are trained to be agents working for the British Government in the top secret organisation known as CHERUB. It is similar to the British security service MI5, and is based... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Lord Dufferin as a young man Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, KP, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (21 June 1826–12 February 1902) was a British public servant and prominent member of Victorian society. ...


Governmental role

Main: Monarchy of Canada: Constitutional role

The Governor General is the representative of the Canadian monarch, and may exercise most powers vested in the Crown. The Queen does retain all executive power and her Royal Prerogative, but she very rarely personally intervenes in Canadian politics; most of her duties being exercised by the Governor General, though she does alone hold the power to appoint a governor general, and, as required by the Canadian constitution, to add seats to the Senate, but does so only on the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister. Although the person who is monarch of Canada is also monarch of the United Kingdom, Canada being a sovereign nation, the British government cannot advise the Queen or her Governor General on Canadian matters, or otherwise interfere in Canadian affairs. This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Queen of Canada redirects here. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Queen of Canada redirects here. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... A logo of Her Majestys Government. ...

Further information:Monarchy of Canada: International vs. domestic role
If, and because your Governor-General is in the service of the Crown, he is, therefore... in the service of Canada.
In other words, aloof though he be from actual executive responsibility, his attitude must be that of ceaseless and watchful readiness to take part... in the fostering of every influence that will sweeten and elevate public life; to... join in making known the resources and developments of the country; to vindicate, if required, the rights of the people and the ordinariness and Constitution, and lastly, to promote by all means in his power, without reference to class or creed, every movement and every institution calculated to forward the social, moral, and religious welfare of the inhabitants of the Dominion.
[26]

— Governor General Lord Hamilton-Gordon, September 17, 1893 This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Queen of Canada redirects here. ... His Excellency Lord Aberdeen The Most Honourable John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair, KT, GCMG, GCVO, PC (3 August 1847–7 March 1934 Tarland) was Governor General of Canada from 1893 to 1898. ...

The Governor General's powers are legally extensive, however they are in practise very limited. The Governor General is a symbolic and nominal chief executive, acting within the constraints of constitutional convention and precedent. Most political power is exercised by the Prime Minister and Cabinet, who advise the Governor General, and who are, in turn, accountable to the democratically elected House of Commons, and through it, to the people. Still, part of the Royal Prerogative, known as the reserve powers, however, remain as the Crown's final check against a government's power; as Senator and constitutional expert Eugene Forsey stated: "A Governor General must take all steps necessary to thwart the will of a ruthless prime minister." This power was used by Governor General Lord Byng against Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King in what is known as the King-Byng Affair of 1926. Some, such as the CBC's Larry Zolf, also speculated whether Governor General Adrienne Clarkson would refuse a recommendation from Prime Minister Jean Chrétien to dissolve Parliament in 2002.[27] Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Cabinet of Canada (French: Cabinet du Canada or Conseil des ministres) plays an important role in the Government of Canada in accordance with the Westminster System. ... A reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state of a country in certain exceptional circumstances. ... Hon. ... Julian Hedworth George Byng Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy, GCB, GCMG, MVO (11 September 1862–6 June 1935) was a career British Army officer who served with distinction during World War I with the British Expeditionary Force in France, in the Battle of Gallipoli... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Mackenzie King requested a dissolution of Parliament. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Larry Zolf (born July 19, 1934) is a retired Canadian journalist and commentator. ... Adrienne Louise Clarkson (née Poy) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Hakka: Ńg Pên-kî, Cantonese: Ng5 Bing1 zi1), PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, LL.D (honoris causa) (born February 10, 1939) is an accomplished Canadian journalist and stateswoman. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ...


Through the Constitution Act, 1867, the Governor General is specifically granted the power to appoint, in the Queen's name, the lieutenant governors of the provinces, members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, senators, the speaker of the Senate, Supreme Court justices, and superior and county court judges in each province, except those of the courts of probate in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Effectively, however, the appointees are chosen by the prime minister or other ministers, with the premiers of the provinces concerned playing an advisory role in the appointment of lieutenant governors. The same act states that the governor general alone may summon the House of Commons. Beyond that, the Governor General exercises the other powers that conventionally belong to the monarch. The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867, and still known informally as the BNA Act), constitutes a major part of Canadas Constitution. ... In Canada, the lieutenant-governor (often without a hyphen[1], pronounced ), in French lieutenant-gouverneur/lieutenant-gouverneure (always with a hyphen), is the Canadian Monarchs, or Crowns, representative in a province, much as the Governor General is her representative at the national level. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... In law, and more specifically, in the Anglo-American common law legal tradition, a superior court is a court of general jurisdiction over all, or major, civil and criminal cases. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois...


All laws are enacted in the monarch's name; before a bill can become law, Royal Assent (the monarch's approval) is required. The Governor General acts on the monarch's behalf; in theory, he or she has three options: he or she may grant Royal Assent (making the bill law), withhold Royal Assent (vetoing the bill), or reserve the bill for the signification of the Queen's pleasure (allowing the sovereign to personally grant or withhold assent). If the Governor General does grant Royal Assent, the sovereign may, within two years, "disallow" the bill, thereby annulling the law in question. No modern Governor General has disallowed a bill, however provincial lieutenant governors have. A lieutenant governor may, instead of granting the Royal Assent to a bill, reserve the bill for the Governor General. This practice was last invoked by the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan in 1961. The commissioners of the Canadian territories are not appointed by the Governor General; nor do they act as representatives of the Crown. // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions, especially referring to a high-ranking public (administrative or police) official, or an analogous official in the private sector (e. ...


Should the monarch be in Canada to undertake affairs of state, the Governor General removes him or herself from the scene. Governor General Lord Tweedsmuir stated, in relation to King George VI granting Royal Assent to Canadian law in the Canadian Senate in 1939, that when the King of Canada was present "I cease to exist as Viceroy, and retain only a shadowy legal existence as Governor General in Council."[28] However, the presence of the monarch does not undermine the Governor General's ability to perform governmental roles. George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Type Upper House Speaker Noël Kinsella, Conservative since February 8, 2006 Leader of the Government in the Senate Marjory LeBreton, Conservative since February 6, 2006 Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Céline Hervieux-Payette, Liberal since January 18, 2007 Members 105 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party...


By the Letters Patent issued by George VI in 1947, the Governor General must seek the permission of the monarch, via the Prime Minister, before leaving Canada.[29] George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ...


Ceremonial role

Governor General Michaëlle Jean with Order of Canada recipients in the Tent Room of Rideau Hall.
Governor General Michaëlle Jean with Order of Canada recipients in the Tent Room of Rideau Hall.

The Governor General's functions are primarily ceremonial. As representative of the sovereign, the Governor General performs some of the ritual functions normally associated with heads of state. He or she makes state visits abroad, hosts foreign heads of state, receives ambassadors and high commissioners, meets ceremonial groups, and awards medals, decorations, and prizes (including the Governor General's Literary Awards). During an election, the governor general will curtail their public duties, so as not to seem as though they're involving themselves in political affairs. It has become a tradition for every outgoing governor general to establish a trophy or award, usually in sport, to be named after him or her, as well as for the Governor General to tour the country, meeting with Canadians at various types of events. The latter was begun by former Governor General John Young, in 1869.[30] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ... State visits usually involve a military review. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... The Governor Generals Awards are named in honour of Canadas Governor General, and are presented in a number of fields. ... John Young, 1st Baron Lisgar (August 31, 1807 - October 6, 1876) was the second Governor General of Canada. ...

Further information: List of Awards Named After Governors General of Canada

He or she serves the symbolic role as the commander-in-chief of the Canadian Forces. Symbolically, the Governor General fills this position, in the name of the Queen, as the allegiance of Armed Forces members is to the Canadian Crown, and not to the sitting, and transient, government. In practise, it is not clear whether the commanders of the Armed Forces could, in reality, turn to the Governor General if they thought that the orders they were receiving from the Prime Minister and Minister of National Defence were illegal or unethical, or whether the Governor General would be justified in issuing new orders directly. The Governor General is also the colonel of the regiment of Canada's three household regiments: the Governor General's Horse Guards, Governor General's Foot Guards and Canadian Grenadier Guards. This ceremonial position is directly under the position of colonel-in-chief, which is held by the Queen. This is a list of awards named after Governors General of Canada. ... Although the HM Queen Elizabeth II is the Colonel-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces, the Governor General of Canada in the name of the Queen is the official and cermonial head of the Canadian Forces. ... Household Division is a term used principally in the Commonwealth of Nations to describe a grouping of a country’s most elite or historically senior military units, or those military units that provide ceremonial or protective functions associated directly with the Head of state. ... The Governor Generals Horse Guards is an armoured militia (i. ... The Governor Generals Foot Guards is one of three Household regiments in the Primary Reserve of the Canadian Army, along with The Governor Generals Horse Guards and the Canadian Grenadier Guards. ... Categories: Stub | Canadian regiments | Guards Regiments ... In the British and other Commonwealth armies, the Colonel-in-Chief of a regiment is its (usually Royal) patron. ...


Formerly, Letters of Credence and Recall (presented by incoming high commissioners and ambassadors to Canada) were addressed to the Queen; since the beginning of 2005, however, they have been addressed to the Governor General, without reference to the monarch. This decision has caused some controversy, drawing the ire of several monarchists.[31] A Letter of Credence is a formal letter sent by one head of state to another formally accrediting a named individual (usually but not always a diplomat) to be their ambassador in the country of the head of state receiving the letter of credence. ...


Precedence and privileges

In the order of precedence, the Governor General outranks all individuals except the monarch; as direct representative of the sovereign, the Governor General even outranks other members of the Royal Family. Denmark France Germany India Isle of Man Italy Jamaica New Zealand Norway Poland Romania Spain Sri Lanka Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States The Canadian order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the Government of Canada. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ...


While in office the Governor General and his or her spouse, the viceregal consort, is styled "His Excellency" or "Her Excellency." Moreover, Governors General are appointed to the Queen's Privy Council for Canada upon retirement unless they are already members and are entitled to the style "The Right Honourable" for life. However, once they vacate the position the term "Excellency" is dropped. The Governor General is the only Canadian entitled to use the term "Excellency" while in Canada but visiting heads of state are also referred to as "Excellency." During his or her term in office the Governor General is also the Chancellor and Principal Companion of the Order of Canada, the Chancellor of the Order of Military Merit, the Chancellor of the Order of Merit of the Police Forces, and Knight/Dame of Justice, Prior, and Chief Officer of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in Canada, and wearing the white cross of the order. Hence, the Governor General is entitled to wear the badges or insignia of these orders along with any other decorations. At his or her installation ceremony the Governor General is presented with the collars of the Order of Canada, the Order of Military Merit, the Order of Merit of the Police Forces, and the Canadian Heraldic Authority. The Viceregal consort is the spouse of the Governor General of Canada. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... The Right Honourable (abbreviated Rt Hon, The Rt Hon, The Right Hon, Right Hon) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... The Order of Military Merit is an Order (decoration) issued by Canada to members of the Canadian Forces who have demonstrated dedication and devotion beyond the call of duty. ... The Order of Merit of the Police Forces is an Order (decoration) of Canada, established in October 2000. ... This page deals with the order after its revival in the 19th century. ...

Rideau Hall, residence of the Governor General of Canada
The present flag of the Governor General was adopted in 1981. It features a crowned lion holding a red maple leaf.
The present flag of the Governor General was adopted in 1981. It features a crowned lion holding a red maple leaf.

The Governor General's flag is a blue flag bearing a crowned lion holding a red maple leaf in its paw; the design was adopted in 1981. The flag takes precedence over all other flags, save only the Queen's personal Canadian flag. The flag may be flown from a vehicle in which the Governor General is travelling, or from a building in which the governor general is present or is residing. On state visits abroad, however, the governor general typically uses the national flag, which is a more recognizable Canadian symbol. Rideau Hall, Ottawa, ONT, August 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rideau Hall, Ottawa, ONT, August 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Governor-General_of_Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Governor-General_of_Canada. ... The Flag of the Governor General of Canada The Flag of the Governor General of Canada was adopted in 1981. ... A maple leaf with its distinctive shape. ... The Queens Personal Canadian Flag, sometimes called the Royal Standard of Canada, is the personal standard, that is to say official flag, of Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leafed), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ...


The Vice Regal Salute is the anthem used to greet the governor general. The Salute comprises the first six bars of the Canadian royal anthem ("God Save the Queen"), and the first four and last four bars of "O Canada," the Canadian national anthem. On state visits abroad "O Canada" alone is used to salute the Governor General. In the Commonwealth Realms, a Vice Regal Salute is a short piece of music played in front of a governor-general, governor or lieutenant governor as a form of salute to him/her during certain formal ceremonies. ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... For other uses, see O Canada (disambiguation). ...


The Governor General receives an annual salary of $110,126, and under the Constitution Act, payment of that salary is the first claim on the revenue of the federal government. The official residence of the Governor General is Rideau Hall in Ottawa. A Governor General's wife is known as the chatelaine of Rideau Hall, but there is no equivalent term or title for a Governor General's husband. Since 1872, Governors General have also resided in the Citadel (La Citadelle) in Quebec City, Quebec for a part of each year (normally several weeks). C$ redirects here. ... Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Chatelaine (French châtelaine, wife of the lord of a castle) has the following meanings: A woman who owns or controls a large house (for example, the Chatelaine of Rideau Hall). ... View of the fortifications of the Citadel, with the Parliament Building behind The Citadel - the French name is used both in English and French - is a military installation and official residence located atop Cap Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... Motto: « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Québec Official logo Provincial region Province Country Capitale-Nationale Québec Canada Gentilé Québécois, Québécoise Mayor Jean-Paul LAllier 1989-Dec. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The Governor General and his staff also had a suite of offices on Parliament Hill in the East Block until well into World War II.[32] The offices were subsequently incorporated into the Prime Minister's Office (PMO), but have been restored to their 19th century appearance after the PMO moved to the Langevin Block in the 1970s, and are now preserved as a tourist attraction along with other historic offices in the East Block.[33] For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Prime Ministers Office is a small department which provides advice to a Prime Minister. ... The Langevin Block is an imposing office building facing Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Canada. ...


The Governor General's staff is headed by the Secretary to the Governor General, working out of Rideau Hall, although it is referred to as Government House when speaking of its business use.[34] The Secretary to the Governor-General is the head of the office of the Governor-General of Canada, and is based at Rideau Hall, Ottawa. ... Government House is the name given to some of the residences of Governors-General, Governors and Lieutenant-Governors in the Commonwealth and the former British Empire. ...


Canadian institutions established by Governors General or Vice-regal Consorts

The Victorian Order of Nurses (VON) is a non-profit charitable organization founded in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada on January 29, 1897 created for the purposes of homecare and social services. ... Ishbel Maria Hamilton-Gordon, Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair GBE (15 March 1857–18 April 1939), born Ishbel Maria Marjoribanks and known between her marriage and 1916 as The Countess of Aberdeen, was the third daughter of the 1st Baron Tweedmouth and the wife of the 7th Earl of Aberdeen... The Royal Society of Canada, (French: La Société royale du Canada) The Canadian Academy of the Sciences and Humanities, is the senior national body of distinguished Canadian scientists and scholars. ... The Marquess of Lorne John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th and 2nd Duke of Argyll, KG, KT, GCMG, GCVO, PC (6 August 1845 – 2 May 1914), usually better known by the courtesy title Marquess of Lorne, by which he was known before 1900, was a British nobleman and... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... In 1885, as Middletons chief of staff Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (London July 9, 1845 – March 1, 1914 Minto, Roxburghshire), known between 1859 and 1891 as Viscount Melgund, was a British politician, Governor General of Canada, and Viceroy of... The entrance to The Battlefields Park The Battlefields Park combines the Plains of Abraham with Des Braves Park, within Quebec City, and form one of the few Canadian national urban parks. ... Albert Grey Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey (November 28, 1851 – August 29, 1917) was the ninth Governor General of Canada from 1904 to 1911. ... Lord and Lady Bessborough, 1933 Vere Brabazon Ponsonby, 9th Earl of Bessborough (October 27, 1880 - March 10, 1956) was Governor General of Canada. ... For other uses, see Georges Vanier (disambiguation). ... Jeanne Mathilde Sauvé, PC, CC, CMM, CD (née Benoît) (April 26, 1922 – January 26, 1993) was a Canadian journalist, politician, and stateswoman. ...

Former Canadian Governors General

The following is a list of the Governors and Governor General of Canada and the previous territories and colonies that now make up the country. ...

Activities post-commission

Retired Governors General usually withdraw from public life or accept diplomatic postings. Ed Schreyer, who held the position from 1979 to 1984, became High Commissioner to Australia upon his retirement. In 2005 he became the first former governor general to run for elected office in Canada when he ran for a seat in the Canadian House of Commons as a candidate for the New Democratic Party in the riding of Selkirk—Interlake. Schreyer lost the election to Conservative James Bezan. Edward Richard Schreyer (born December 21, 1935, Beausejour, Manitoba) is a former Governor General of Canada (1979-1984) and Premier of Manitoba (1969-1977). ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... Selkirk—Interlake is the name of a federal electoral district in Manitoba, Canada. ... James Bezan (born May 19, 1965 in Russell, Manitoba) is a Canadian politician. ...


There are several examples from the era of British Governors General of Canada where former viceroys returned to a political career in Britain by sitting with party affiliations in the House of Lords and, in some cases, taking positions in the British cabinet. In 1952, Lord Alexander of Tunis resigned as Governor General of Canada to accept an appointment as Sir Winston Churchill's Minister of Defence. Lord Lansdowne and the Duke of Devonshire both served in British cabinets following their vice-regal careers. Lansdowne also went on to serve as leader of the Conservative Party in the House of Lords for over a decade. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... In British politics, the Cabinet is comprised of the most senior government ministers, most of them heads of government departments with the title Secretary of State. The Cabinet is actually a committee of the Privy Council and all Cabinet members are also Privy Councillors and therefore have the prefix of... Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, KG, OM, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCVO, DSO, MC, LL.D, PC (10 December 1891 - 16 June 1969) was a British military commander and field marshal, notably during the Second World War as the commander of the 15th Army... Churchill redirects here. ... The Most Honourable Henry Charles Keith Petty-FitzMaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE (14 January 1845 – 3 June 1927) was a British politician and Irish peer who served successively as Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for... The Duke of Devonshire As Governor General The Most Noble Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire (London May 31, 1868–May 6, 1938 Chatsworth House), was a Liberal Unionist Member of Parliament for West Derbyshire (1891-1908), Governor General of Canada (1916-1921), and Colonial Secretary (1922-1924). ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Autobiographies

Only three former Canadian Governors General have left a written testament about their lives in the form of an autobiography. John Buchan wrote Memory Hold-the-Door, the first autobiographical account, during his time in Rideau Hall and he published Memory in 1940. In 1948 Vincent Massey wrote the first volume of his autobiography, On Being Canadian, and then the second, What's Past is Prologue: the Memoirs of the Right Honourable Vincent. Shortly after leaving Rideau Hall Adrienne Clarkson signed a two book deal with Penguin Canada, the first of which was an autobiography titled Heart Matters. John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir (August 26, 1875 - February 11, 1940), was a Scottish novelist and politician who served as Governor General of Canada. ... Adrienne Louise Clarkson (née Poy) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Hakka: Ńg Pên-kî, Cantonese: Ng5 Bing1 zi1), PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, LL.D (honoris causa) (born February 10, 1939) is an accomplished Canadian journalist and stateswoman. ...


Spelling

According to the Canadian government the title "Governor General" is not hyphenated, even though a hyphen is used in other Commonwealth realms. Many other media organizations in Canada ignore this rule, however, and use the more conventional "governor-general" spelling. As "governor" is the main noun in the title, it is the term that is pluralized. Moreover, both terms are often capitalized, particularly when preceding an incumbent's name, but sometimes they are not (e.g., Canadian Governors General). This article is about the punctuation mark. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For any word written in a language with whose alphabet or alphabet equivalent has two cases, such as those using the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, or Armenian alphabet, capitalization is the writing of that word with its first letter in majuscules (uppercase) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lowercase). ... The following is a list of the Governors and Governor General of Canada and the previous territories and colonies that now make up the country. ...


See also

Canada

This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Queen of Canada redirects here. ... The Flag of the Governor General of Canada The Flag of the Governor General of Canada was adopted in 1981. ... The Canadian Forces have a number of specialised aircraft to transport the Royal Family, Governor General, senior members of the Government of Canada and other dignitaries. ... The Governor Generals Awards are named in honour of Canadas Governor General, and are presented in a number of fields. ... This is a list of awards presented by the Governor General of Canada. ... In Canada, the lieutenant-governor (often without a hyphen[1], pronounced ), in French lieutenant-gouverneur/lieutenant-gouverneure (always with a hyphen), is the Canadian Monarchs, or Crowns, representative in a province, much as the Governor General is her representative at the national level. ...

Other realms

  • Governor-General of Australia
  • Governor-General of Jamaica
  • Governor-General of New Zealand
  • Governor-General of Papua New Guinea
  • Governor-General of the Solomon Islands
  • Governor General of Tuvalu
  • List of Governors-General of Antigua and Barbuda
  • List of Governors-General of the Bahamas
  • List of Governors-General of Barbados
  • List of Governors-General of Belize
  • List of Governors-General of Grenada
  • List of Governors-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • List of Governors-General of Saint Lucia
  • List of Governors-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. ... This page lists Governors-General of Jamaica. ... The Governor-General of New Zealand is the representative of the Sovereign in right of New Zealand (currently, Queen Elizabeth II). ... The Governor-General of Papua New Guinea is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, known in Tok Pisin as Missis Kwin, Papua New Guineas head of state, performing the same duties as the Queen in the United Kingdom. ... The Governor-General of the Solomon Islands is the de facto Head of State of the Solomon Islands, representing Queen Elizabeth II, who is styled Queen of the Solomon Islands. ... Image:GG-Tuvalu. ... Image:GG-A&B-Flag. ... Flag of the Governor-General of the Bahamas This page contains a list of Governors-General of the Bahamas. ... This page contains a list of Governors-General of Barbados. ... This page contains a list of Governors-General of Belize. ... Flag of the Governor-General of Grenada This page contains a list of Governors-General of Grenada. ... The flag of the Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis This article lists Governors-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis. ... The flag of the Governor-General of Saint Lucia This page lists Governors-General of Saint Lucia. ... The flag of the Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines The position of Governors-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was created in 1979 when the islands gained independence as a Commonwealth realm. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c George R. (1947). Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor General of Canada (HTML). Salon.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-05, 2007.
  2. ^ Governor General of Canada: Commander in Chief (HTML). Governor General of Canada (2005). Retrieved on 2007-11-05, 2007.
  3. ^ Canada governor general sworn in (HTML). BBC News (2005). Retrieved on 2007-11-05, 2007.
  4. ^ Michaëlle Jean (HTML). CBC News (2005). Retrieved on 2007-11-05, 2007.
  5. ^ E. Hoxie, Frederick (1996). Encyclopedia of North American Indians, 284. 
  6. ^ Emerich Edward, John; Dalberg Acton Acton, Ernest Alfred Benians, Sir Adolphus William Ward, and George Walter Prothero (1909). The Cambridge Modern History, 346-34. 
  7. ^ MacNutt, W. Stewart (1955). Days of Lorne, Chapter 2. 
  8. ^ Judd, Denis (2001). Empire: The British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present, 287. 
  9. ^ Borden; Memoires, 1:601-2
  10. ^ Hubbard. Pages 141-142.
  11. ^ Hubbard; p. 166
  12. ^ Cowan, John (1965). Canada's Governors General, Lord Monck to General Vanier, 156. 
  13. ^ Canada: a Constitutional Monarchy
  14. ^ Biography: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II Queen of Canada
  15. ^ Saskatchewan Government Relations: The Crown in Canada
  16. ^ Hubbard. , 55-56. 
  17. ^ Hubbard. , 125. 
  18. ^ Hubbard. , 233. 
  19. ^ Warthington, Peter; Toronto Sun: Our monarch should say 'Off with their heads' for the way slain officer Chris Garrett's legacy is being treated by the G-G's office; November 29, 2007
  20. ^ Martin, Don; National Post: Jean seeks shelter from storm; November 29, 2007
  21. ^ Governor General of Canada: Governor General proposes two new options to recognize Constable Garrett; November 27, 2007
  22. ^ Hubbard; 145
  23. ^ Hubbard; p. 147
  24. ^ MacNutt, W. Stewart; Days of Lorne; Fredricton, 1955; p. 201
  25. ^ Dufferin, Speech, 12 January, 1877; Speeches of the Earl of Dufferin; Toronto; 1878;; p. 88
  26. ^ Saywell; Canadian Journal; 17 September, 1893; Aberdeen; We Twa; 2:13–15
  27. ^ Zolf, Larry; CBC News: Boxing in a Prime Minister; June 28, 2002
  28. ^ Galbraith, William; Canadian Parliamentary Review: Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1939 Royal Visit; Vol. 12, No. 3, 1989
  29. ^ Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor General of Canada; Effective October 1, 1947; George R.; Section XIV
  30. ^ Hubbard, R.H.; Rideau Hall; McGill-Queen’s University Press; Montreal and London; 1977; p. 16
  31. ^ Monarchist League of Canada, Ottawa branch
  32. ^ Office of the Governor General - Parliament Hill
  33. ^ Explore the Hill - East Block
  34. ^ Government of Canada: Office of the Governor General
  35. ^ Unless noted otherwise, source for information in this section is found in: Hubbard, R.H.; Rideau Hall; McGill-Queen’s University Press; Montreal and London; 1977

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

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Preceded by
Governor General of the Province of Canada or Governor in Chief of the Province of Canada
1763–1867
Governor General of Canada
1867–present
Succeeded by
current title

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