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Encyclopedia > Governor

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A governor or governour (archaic) is a governing official that is in the leglislative branch usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the Head of state. The title also applies to officials with a similar mandate as representatives of a chartered company which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British HEIC or the Dutch VOC. These companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed forces. In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... This is a list of state leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... This is a list of the offices of heads of state, heads of government, cabinet, and legislature, by country. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The arms of the British South Africa Company A chartered company is an association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration and colonisation. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India. ... This article is about the trading company. ...


In assotiations, a governor can be the title of each appointed or (as in the US) elected politician who governs a constitutive state. Most countries in the world have some sort of official known or rendered as "governor," though in some countries the heads of the constitutive states, provinces, communities and regions may have a different title. This is particularly common in European nations and many of their former colonies, with titles such as President of the Regional Council in France and minister-president in Germany. Other countries using different titles for sub-national units include Spain, Italy and Switzerland. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


There can also be non-political governors: high ranking officials in private or similar governance such as commercial and non-profit management, styled governor(s), who simply govern an institution, such as a corporation or a bank. For example, in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries there are prison governors ("warden" in the United States), school governors and bank governors. For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... In the United Kingdom, School Governors are the largest volunteer force in the country and have an important part to play in raising school standards through their three key roles of setting strategic direction, ensuring accountability and monitoring and evaluating school performance (http://www. ...

Contents

Pre-Roman empires

Although the legal and administrative framework of provinces, each administrated by a governor, was created by the Romans, the term governor has been a convenient term for historians to use in describing similar systems in antiquity. Indeed, many regions of the pre-Roman antiquity were ultimately replaced by Roman 'standardized' provincial governments after their conquest by Rome. A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ancient redirects here. ...


Egypt

  • In Pharaonic times, the governors of each of dozens of provinces in the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt (called "nomes" by the Greeks, and whose names often alluded to local patterns of religious worship) are usually known by the Greek word Nomarch.
  • The whole (or most) of Egypt was repeatedly reduced to the status of province of a larger empire under foreign conquerors, notably under an Achaemenid satrap (see below).

The nomes of Ancient Egypt A nome (Greek: district) is a subnational administrative division of Ancient Egypt. ... A nomarch in ancient Egypt was a provincial governor, the regional authority over one of the 40 or so nomes (Egyptian: sepat) into which the country was divided. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Mesopotamia and beyond

Assyria, a ruthless conqueror of a large empire, ...

  • shaknu
  • bel pihati

Pre- & Hellenistic satraps

  • Media and Achaemenid Persia introduced the satrapy, probably inspired by the Assyrian / Babylonian examples
  • Alexander the Great and equally Hellenistic diadoch kingdoms, mainly Seleucids (greater Syria) and Lagids ('Ptolemies' in Hellenistic Egypt)
  • in later Persia, again under Iranian dynasties:
    • Parthia
    • the Sassanid dynasty dispensed with the office after Shapur I (who had still 7 of them), replacing them with petty vassal rulers, known as shahdars

Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Persia redirects here. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... ... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as Soter (saviour). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...

Roman empires and legacy

In ancient Rome

Main article: Roman Governor

From the creation of the earliest Roman subject provinces a governor was appointed each year to administer each of them. The core function of a Roman governor was as a magistrate or judge, and the management of taxation and public spending in their area. A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ...


Under the Republic and the early Empire, however, a governor also commanded military forces in his province. Republican governors were all men who had served in senior magistracies (the consulate or praetorship) in Rome in the previous year, and carried related titles as governor (proconsul or propraetor). The first Emperor, Octavianus Augustus (who acquired or settled a number of new territories; officially his style was republican: Princeps civitatis), divided the provinces into two categories; the traditionally prestigious governorships remained as before (in what have become known as "senatorial" provinces), while in a range of others he retained the formal governorships himself, delegating the actual task of administration to appointees (usually with the title legatus Augusti, although some small provinces received governors with other titles such as procurator). The infamous character of Pontius Pilate in the Christian Gospels is a governor of this sort. This article is about the Roman rank. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a head of state and government. ... Pilate redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ...


A special case was Egypt, a rich 'private' domain and vital granary, where the Emperor almost inherited the theocratic status of a Pharaoh. The Emperor was represented there by a governor sui generis styled Praefectus Augustalis (the very title evokes the religious cult of the Emperor).


Emperors Diocletian (see Tetrarchy) and Constantine in the third and fourth centuries AD carried out a root and branch reorganisation of the administration with two main features: The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ...

  • Provinces were divided up and became much more numerous (Italy itself, before the 'colonizing homeland', was brought into the system for the first time); they were then grouped into dioceses, and the dioceses in turn into four praetorian prefectures (originally each under a residing co-emperor);
  • Military responsibilities were removed from governors and given to new officials called comes rei militaris (the comital title was also granted to many court and civilian administrative positions) or dux, later also Magister militum.

The prestige governorships of Africa and Asia remained with the title proconsul, and the special right to refer matters directly to the Emperor; the Praefectus Augustalis in Alexandria and the Comes Orientis in Antioch also retained special titles. Otherwise the governors of provinces had various titles without obvious logic, some known as consularis, some as corrector, some as praeses. Apart from Egypt and the East (Oriens - viz greater Syria), each diocese was directed by a governor known as a vicarius. The prefectures were directed by praefecti praetorio (a role transformed from a very different one in the early Empire). Comes,itis (genitive: comitis) is the Latin word for companion, either individually or as a member of a collective known as comitatus (compare comitatenses), especially the suite of a magnate, in some cases large and/or formal enough to have a specific name, such as a cohors amicorum. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Consularis is a Latin word, derived from Consul. ... CORRECTOR is a Latin word, meaning he who practices correction (see that disambiguation page, also for etymology). ...


Byzantium

This system survived with few significant changes until the collapse of the empire in the West, and in the East the breakdown of order with the Persian and Arab invasions of the seventh century. At that stage a new kind of governor emerged, the Strategos a role leading the themes which replaced provinces at this point, and involving a return to the amalgamation of civil and military office which had been the practice under the Republic and the early Empire. Bust of an unidentified strategos with Corinthian helmet; Hadrianic Roman copy of a Greek sculpture of c. ... The themata in 950. ...


Legacy

While the Roman administration in the West was largely destroyed in the barbarian invasions, its model was remembered, and would again be very influential through two particular vehicles: Roman law and the Christian Church.


Holy Roman/ Habsburg Empires and successor states

Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ...

Turkish rule

In the Ottoman empire, all Pashas (generals) administered a province of the Great Sultan's vast empire, with specific titles (such as Mutessaryf; Vali = Wali was often maintained or even revived in oriental successor states; cfr. Beilerbei (rendered as Governor-general, as he is appointed above several provinces under individual governors) and Dey) Pasha, pascha or bashaw (Turkish: paşa) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... The American Captain William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey, circa 1800 Dey (Arabic: داي, from Turkish Dayı [1][2]) was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers (Algeria) under the Ottoman Empire from 1671 onwards. ...


British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations

Flag of the governor of Heligoland until 1890

In the British Empire a governor was originally an official appointed by the British monarch (or in fact the cabinet) to oversee one of his colonies and was the (sometimes notional) head of the colonial administration. A governor's power could diminish as the colony gained more responsible government vested in such institutions as an Executive Council to help with the colony's administration, and in a further stage of self-government, a Legislative Councils and/or Assemblies, in which the Governor often had a role. Image File history File links Heligolandgov. ... Image File history File links Heligolandgov. ... For the landscape in Norway, see Helgeland. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... An Executive Council in Commonwealth constitutional practice based on the Westminster system exercizes executive power and is the top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or Administrator (all governors). Until the advent of responsible government, Executive Councils existed primarily to advise the governor of... A Legislative Council in British constitutional thought is the second-to-top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, inferior to an Executive Council and equal to or superior to a Legislative Assembly. ... A Legislative Assembly in some parts of the Commonwealth refers to a legislature, or a chamber of the legislature. ...


Today crown colonies of the United Kingdom continue to be administered by a governor, who holds varying degrees of power. Because of the different constitutional histories of the former colonies of the United Kingdom, the term "Governor" now refers to officials with differing amounts of power.


Administrators, Commissioners and High Commissioners exercise similar powers to Governors. (Note: such High Commissioners are not to be confused with the High Commissioners who are the equivalent of Ambassadors between Commonwealth states). An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General. ... Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions, especially referring to a high-ranking public (administrative or police) official, or an analogous official in the private sector (e. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ...


Frequently the name 'Government House' is given to Governors' residences. Government House is the name given to some of the residences of Governors-General, Governors and Lieutenant-Governors in the Commonwealth and the former British Empire. ...

The term can also be used in a more generic sense, especially for compound titles which include it: Governor-General and Lieutenant-Governor.

Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... A Lieutenant Governor or Lieutenant-Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ...

Vice-Regal Governors

United Kingdom overseas territories

In the United Kingdom's remaining overseas territories the governor is normally a direct appointee of the British Government and plays an active role in governing and lawmaking (though usually with the advice of elected local representatives). The Governor's chief responsibility is for the Defence and External Affairs of the colony. A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


In some minor overseas territories, instead of a Governor, there is an Administrator or Commissioner, or the job is ex officio done by a High Commissioner. An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General. ... Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions, especially referring to a high-ranking public (administrative or police) official, or an analogous official in the private sector (e. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ...


Australia

In Australia, each state has the governor as its formal representative of the Queen as head of the state government. It is not a political office but a ceremonial office. Each state governor is appointed by the Queen of Australia on the advice of the Premier who is the political chief executive of the state government (until 1986, they were appointed by the Queen of the United Kingdom on the advice of the British Government). State Governors have emergency reserve powers but these are rarely used. The Territories of Australia other than the ACT have Administrators instead of governors, who are appointed formally by the Governor-General. The Governor-General is the representative of and appointed by the Queen of Australia at a federal level on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia. Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, in 1952 and 2002 The title Queen of Australia has existed since 1973, when the Parliament of Australia passed the Royal Style and Titles Act (1973). ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... The title Administrator of the Government (Administrator) has two uses in Australia. ... Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, in 1952 and 2002 The title Queen of Australia has existed since 1973, when the Parliament of Australia passed the Royal Style and Titles Act (1973). ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ...


As with the Governors-General of Australia and other Commonwealth Realms, State Governors usually exercise their power only on the advice of a government minister.


New Zealand

The Governor-General of New Zealand is always Governor of the Ross Dependency, an Antarctic sector which is claimed by the Realm of New Zealand. The Governor-General of New Zealand is the representative of the Sovereign in right of New Zealand (currently, Queen Elizabeth II). ... Political status Dependency of New Zealand Governor Anand Satyanand Area   – Total  450 000 km² (174 000 mi²) Population Scott Base: 10-80 seasonally McMurdo Station: 200-1000 seasonally Currency New Zealand dollar The Ross Dependency comprises an area of Antarctica (and other land masses in the Southern Ocean) claimed by... The Realm of New Zealand is the territory in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state. ...


Northern Ireland

There was a position of Governor of Northern Ireland from 1922 until the suspension of Stormont in 1973. The Governor of Northern Ireland was the Crown representative in Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the pre-1972 Parliament of Northern Ireland. ...


Elsewhere in the Commonwealth

India

In India each state has a ceremonial Governor appointed by the President of India. These Governors are different from the Governors who controlled the British-controlled portions of the Indian Empire (as opposed to the princely states) prior to 1949. See Governors of India for more information. List of current Governors and Lieutenant Governors of Indian States and Union Territories. ...


Malaysia

In Malaysia the four non-monarchical states -Penang, Malacca, and the two on Borneo: Sabah and Sarawak- each have a ceremonial Governor styled Yang di-Pertua Negeri, appointed by the federal King Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, with a seat but no vote in the federal majlis Raja-raja (council of rulers). These states have a separate head of government who is the Chief Minister or Ketua Menteri. State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... Yang di-Pertua Negeri, literally the head of state in Malay, is the title of the largely symbolic state Governors of the Malaysian states of Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak, who are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia. ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ...


All other states have royalty as head of state, no governor: a raja in Perlis, a Yang di-pertuan besar (elected from local rulers) in Negeri Sembilan, or a Sultan in the states of Selangor, Pahang, Johore, Perak, Kelantan and Kedah. For other uses, see Raja (disambiguation). ... In Malay, Yang di-Pertuan Besar is literally He Who Is Made Great or This is a royal tile used by: The elected monarch of the state of Negeri Sembilan in Malaysia. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ...


Nigeria

In Nigeria (once a colony governed by a single British Governor before independence), the leaders of the regions, which in 1967 were divided into states, have been known as governors since 1954. Following a military coup in November 1993, President Sani Abacha suspended all the governors, and appointed administrators. When democracy was restored in 1999, the office of governor was revived and new governors were elected. The president of Nigeria can suspend state governors in a state of emergency and replace them with administrators. They are elected by popular vote. Sani Abacha General Sani Abacha (Kano, 20 September 1943 – Abuja, 8 June 1998) was a Nigerian politician and military leader. ...


Pakistan

In Pakistan, each of the four provinces has a Governor who is appointed by the Prime Minister The Prime Minister of Pakistan, in Urdu وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam meaning Grand Vizier, is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ...


Papua New Guinea

In Papua New Guinea, the leaders of the provinces have been known as governors since August 1995. Previously they had been known as premiers.


Sri Lanka

The provinces of Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon, a colony governed by a single British Governor before independence) are led by governors, as representatives of the President. These Governors are different from the Governor of Ceylon who controlled the British Ceylon prior to 1948. The President of Sri Lanka is the head of state and dominant political figure in Sri Lanka. ... Flag of Governor of Ceylon The Governor of Ceylon was a British official who ruled Ceylon(currently Sri Lanka) during the colonial period between 1798 and 1948. ... The Arms of the Ceylon Government(1875-1948) The British started their rule in 1798. ...


Russia and former Soviet Union

A special case was the Chinese Eastern Railroad Zone, which was governed as a concession granted by Imperial China to the Russian 'Chinese Eastern Railroad Society' (in Russian Obshchestvo Kitayskoy Vostochnoy Zheleznoy Dorogi; established in 17 December 1896 in St. Petersburg, later moved to Vladivostok), which built 1,481 km of tracks (Tarskaya - Hilar - Harbin - Nikolsk-Ussuriski; 3 November 1901 traffic opened) and established on 16 May 1898 the new capital city, Harbin; in August 1898, the defense for Chinese Eastern Railroad (CER) across Manchuria was assumed by Russia (first under Priamur governor). In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by another entity than the state which holds sovereignty over it. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


On 1 July 1903, the Chinese Eastern Railroad was opened and given authority of its own CER Administration (Russian: Upravleniye KVZhD), vested in the Directors of the Chinese Eastern Railroad, with the additional quality of Governors of the Chinese Eastern Railroad Zone (in Harbin; as such being 12 August 1903 - 1 July 1905 subordinated to the imperial Viceroyalty of the Far East, see Lüshunkou). The post continued to function despite various political changes until after World War II. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Currently, some of the administrative divisions of Russia are headed by governors, while others are headed by Presidents or heads of administration. From 1991 to 2005 they were elected by popular vote, but since 2005 they have been appointed by the federal president and confirmed by the province's legislature. Federal subjects of the Russian Federation Being the largest country in the world, and one of the most populated, Russia incorporates several types and levels of subdivisions. ...


Other Colonial empires

  • Other European naval powers than the UK with colonies in Asia, Africa and other areas, which sometimes chartered companies to rule the colonies instead, gave or still give some, but not always all, of the top representatives of (or rather in) their colonies the title of governor.

See:

The same goes for the Empire of Japan and the USA. Denmark-Norways possessions c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dutch Empire. ... -1... This article is about former colonies of Germany. ... The Italian empire in 1941 The Italian Empire (Italian: Impero Italiano) was a 19th and 20th century colonial empire, which lasted from 1889 to 1943. ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... The Swedish colonial empire existed from 1638 to 1663 and from 1785 to 1878. ...


Other modern Asian countries

Japan

In Japan,[1] the title "Governor" (知事 chiji?) refers to the highest ranking executive of a Prefectural Government. The Governor is elected by a direct vote from the people and had a fixed term of four years. He / she can be subjected to a recall referendum. In case of death, disability, or resignation, a government official known as Vice Governor would stand in as Governor or acting Governor. The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circonscription of a Prefect. ...


See List of governors of Japan for a list of the current governors.


People's Republic of China

In the People's Republic of China, the title "Governor" (省长) refers to the highest ranking executive of a Provincial Government. The Governor is usually placed second in the provincial power hierarchy, below the Secretary of the provincial Communist Party of China (CPC) committee (省委书记), who serves as the highest ranking Party official in the Province. A Governor can be also used when referring to a County Governor (县长). A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng (省 shÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... A name for a position of responsibility for certain portfolios within a political party. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ...


Philippines

In the Republic of the Philippines, the title "Governor" refers to the highest ranking executive of a Provincial Government. The Governor is elected by a direct vote from the people and had a fixed term of three years. An incumbent Governor can only serve only up to three consecutive terms. He may however be suspended by either the Ombudsman or President (through the Secretary of Interior and Local Government). He may be removed by the President if he was found guilty of an administrative case or a criminal act during his incumbency. He can be subjected by a recall vote, but unlike a referendum, people would elect the governor of their choice. If in case of death, disability, resignation, forced removal or suspension, a government official known as Vice Governor would replace as Governor or acting Governor. The Republic of the Philippines is a country of South East Asia, located in the western Pacific Ocean some 1,210 km (750 mi) from mainland Asia. ... Map of the Philippines showing all the regions and their provinces. ...


In the Autonomous Region on Muslim Mindanao, a Regional Governor and Regional Vice Governor is elected by a block vote similar to the United States President. The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao or ARMM of the Philippines is composed of five provinces and one city namely: Basilan, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and the Marawi City. ...


Other modern countries in North America

United States

See also: United States Governors

In the United States, the title governor refers to the chief executive of each state, not directly subordinate to the federal authorities, but the political and ceremonial head of the state. Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


The United States Constitution preserves the notion that the country is a federation of sovereign states, and that powers not specifically granted to the federal government are retained by the states - states are therefore not merely provinces or subdivisions of federal administration. State governments in the U.S. are therefore relatively powerful; each state has its own independent criminal and civil law codes, and each state manages its internal government. Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


The governor thus heads a powerful executive branch in each state and, depending on the state, may have considerable control over government budgeting, the power of appointment of many officials (including many judges) and a considerable role in legislation. The governor may also have additional roles, such as that of Commander-in-Chief of the state's National Guard (when not federalized), and in many states the governor has partial or absolute power to commute or pardon a criminal sentence. U.S. Governors serve forty-year terms except those in New Hampshire and Vermont, who serve two-year terms. Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... Commutation of sentence involves the reduction of legal penalties, especially of terms of imprisonment. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In all states, the governor is directly elected, and in most cases has considerable practical powers, though this may be moderated by the state legislature and in some cases by other elected executive officials. They can veto state bills. In some cases legislatures can override a gubernatorial veto by a two-thirds vote, in others by three-fifths. In Tennessee and Kentucky, the governor's veto can be overridden by a simple majority vote, making it virtually useless, though they both have a line-item veto. The Governor of North Carolina had no veto power until a 1996 referendum. In most states, whenever there is a sudden vacancy of one of the state's U.S. Senate seats, that state's governor appoints someone to fill the vacancy until a special election is held, although the governors of Oregon, Massachusetts and Alaska no longer have this power. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... A simple majority is the most common requirement in voting for a measure to pass, especially in deliberative bodies and small organizations. ... In government, the line-item veto is the power of an executive to nullify or cancel specific provisions of a bill, usually budget appropriations, without vetoing the entire legislative package. ... The Governor of North Carolina is the top executive of the government of the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


A state governor may give an annual State of the State Address in order to satisfy a constitutional stipulation that a governor must report annually, or in older constitutions described as being "from time to time," on the state or condition of a U.S. state. Governors of states may also perform ceremonial roles, such as greeting dignitaries, conferring state decorations, issuing symbolic proclamations or attending the state fair. The governor may also have an official residence. The State of the State Address (alternatively Condition of the State Address) is a speech customarily given once each year by the governors of many states of the United States. ... A state fair is a competitive and recreational gathering of a U.S. states population. ... // An official residence is the residence at which heads of state, heads of government, gubernatorial or other senior figures officially reside. ...


In colonial America, when the governor was the representative of the monarch who exercised executive power, many colonies originally indirectly elected their governors (that is, through assemblies and legislatures), but in the years leading up to the American Revolutionary War, the king began to appoint them directly. During the American Revolution, all royal governors were expelled (except one, see Jonathan Trumbull), but the name was retained to denote the new elected official. This article is about military actions only. ... Gov. ...


Many of the fifty states were, before achieving statehood, territories. Administrated by the federal government, they had governors who were appointed by Washington, D.C., rather than elected by the resident population. Political divisions of the United States as they were from 1868 to 1876, including 9 organized territories and 2 unorganized territories Territories of the United States are one type of political division of the United States, administered by the U.S. government but not any part of a U.S... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Mexico

In the United Mexican States, governor refers to the elected chief and head of each of the the nation's thirty one Free and Sovereign States, and their official title in Spanish is Gobernador. Mexican governors are directly elected by the citizens of each state for six-year terms. The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States of America, to the southeast by Guatemala and Belize, to... This article is about the country in North America. ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) is a federal republic made up of 31 states (estados) and one Federal District, (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... The United Mexican States ( Mexico) is a federal republic comprising 31 states and one federal district (the Mexican Federal District, or Distrito Federal). ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ...


See: List of Mexican state governors The United Mexican States ( Mexico) is a federal republic comprising 31 states and one federal district (the Mexican Federal District, or Distrito Federal). ...


Other modern countries in South America

Many of the South American republics (such as Chile and Argentina) have provinces or states run by elected governors, with offices similar in nature to U.S. state governors. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Brazil

Until the 1930 Revolution, the heads of the Brazilian Provinces then States were styled Presidents (presidentes), later governors (governadores) and intervators (interventores, appointed by the federal government) and finally in 1945 only governors. // Depression, coffee oligarchs, and the Revolution of 1930 The Great Depression The tenente rebellion (See History of Brazil (1889-1930)) did not mark the revolutionary breakthrough of Brazils bourgeois social reformers. ... Province is a name for a secondary, or subnational entity of government in most countries. ... Brazil is divided into twenty-six estados (states; singular estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ...


Other European countries and empires

Benelux monarchies

  • In the Netherlands, the government-appointed heads of the provinces were known as Gouverneur from 1814 until 1850, when their title was changed to King's (or Queen's) Commissioner. In the southern province of Limburg, however, the commissioner is still informally called Governor.
  • In the Dutch crown's Caribbean Overseas territories, the style Governor is still used (alongside the political head of government) in the Netherlands Antilles as well as since 1986 on the neighbouring island of Aruba (separated from the former)
  • In Belgium, each of the ten provinces has a Governor, appointed by the regional government. He represents the central and regional governments in the province. He controls the local governments and is responsible for law and order, security and emergency action. The national capital of Brussels, who is not part of a province, also has a governor with nearly the same competences.

Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Capital Maastricht Queens Commissioner L.J.P.M. (Leon) Frissen (governor) Religion (1999) Roman Catholic 80% Protestant 3% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   2,153 km² (9th) 56 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 1,131,938 (6th) 526/km² (4th) Inclusion 1839 Anthem In t Bronsgroen Eikenhout ISO NL-LI Official... This article is about the settlement itself. ...

France

During the Ancien Régime in France, the representative of the king in his provinces and cities was the "gouverneur". Royal officers chosen from the highest nobility, provincial and city governors (oversight of provinces and cities was frequently combined) were predominantly military positions in charge of defense and policing. Provincial governors — also called "lieutenants généraux" — also had the ability of convoking provincial parlements, provincial estates and municipal bodies. The title "gouverneur" first appeared under Charles VI. The ordinance of Blois of 1579 reduced their number to 12, but an ordinance of 1779 increased their number to 39 (18 first-class governors, 21 second-class governors). Although in principle they were the king's representatives and their charges could be revoked at the king's will, some governors had installed themselves and their heirs as a provincial dynasty. The governors were at the height of their power from the middle of the 16th to the middle of the 17th century, but their role in provincial unrest during the civil wars led Cardinal Richelieu to create the more tractable positions of intendants of finance, policing and justice, and in the 18th century the role of provincial governors was greatly curtailed. Louis XIV as the sun For other uses of the term, see Ancien Régime. ... The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. ... New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ...


Italy

  • The essentially maritime empire of the Venetian republic, comprising Terra Ferma, other Adriatic (mainly Istria and Dalmatia) and further Mediterranean (mainly Greek) possessions, used different styles, such as (castelleno e) provveditore (generale), baile
  • In today's Italy, the official name of a head of a Regione (the Italian subnational entity) is Presidente della Giunta regionale (President of the regional executive council), but from 2000, when a constitutional reform decided the direct election of the president by the people, it's usual to call him governatore (governor).

The Italian title provveditore or proveditore (plural -tori), he who sees to things, was the style of various (but not all) local district governors in the extensive, mainly maritime empire of the Venetian dogal republic. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws...

Papal and Vatican particularity

  • In the various Italian provinces (former principalities and city-states) that became amalgamated as the Papal States, the Holy See exerted temporal power via its Legates and Delegates, including some Cardinals
  • Also in Avignon and the surrounding southern French Comté Venaissin, the home of the Popes during their 'Babylonian exile', and retained centuries after, but never incorporated into the Papal States, Legates and Vice-legates were appointed
  • The sovereign modern remnant of the formerly large Papal States, the tiny Vatican City State, is now a mere enclave in Rome, the capital of Italian Republic. As it is too small to have further administrative territorial divisions, it is the equivalent of a Prime Minister, Governor and Mayor all roled in to one post, styled the Governor of Vatican City.

A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... For delegates in the . ... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... The Governor of Vatican City is concurrently the President of the Governatorate of Vatican City and sometimes called the President of Vatican City. ...

Other modern African countries

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Modern equivalents

As a GENERIC term, Governor is used for various 'equivalent' officers governing part of a state or empire, rendering other official titles such as:

  • colonial High Commissioner (not the Ambassadors exchanged within the Commonwealth)

And this also applies to non-western and/or antique cultures High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ...


Other meanings of the word

The word governor can also refer to an administrator and/or supervisor (individually or collectively, see Board of Governors) in the socio-economic spheres of life; the single Governor of a national emission bank often holds ministerial rank. Wooden boards as used in construction. ...

The Governor of the Bank of Canada is chief executive officer and the chairman of the board of directors of the Bank of Canada. ... Categories: Romania-related stubs | Romanian economy | Central banks ... This is a list of governors of national banks of Serbia and Yugoslavia. ... The Fed redirects here. ...

See also

Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Governor-in-chief is a British English colonial title for governing offices with a jurisdictions that comprises -contrary to an ordinary Governor, but like certain Governors-general- several colonies. ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... A Deputy governor is a gubernatorial official who is subordinated to a governor, rather like a Lieutenant governor. ... An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General. ... A minister-president (Ministerpräsident) is the head of government of a German federal state; the office corresponds to the governorship of a state in the United States. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... The Governor of Macau was a Portuguese colonial official who headed the executive branch of the colony of Macau. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... The Governor-General of Finland (in Finnish Suomen kenraalikuvernööri; in Swedish Generalguvernör av Finland) was the head of the Senate of Finland, the government in the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, between 1808 and 1917. ... The Governor-General (Irish: Seanascal) was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. ... This is a List of Governors of the Straits Settlements. ... Flag of the Governor of Hong Kong, 1959–1997 The Governor of Hong Kong (Traditional Chinese: ; abbreviated 港督) was a British official who ruled Hong Kong during the colonial period between 1841 and 1997 and was ex-officio Commander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral of Hong Kong. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... The term Sultana is used for a few Muslim women rulers in history. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ...

References

  1. ^ ’n•ûŽ©Ž¡–@

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