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Encyclopedia > Government of Ontario
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The Province of Ontario is governed by a unicameral legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, which operates in the Westminster system of government. The political party that wins the largest number of seats in the legislature normally forms the government, and the party's leader becomes premier of the province, i.e., the head of the government. The functions of the sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II, are exercised by the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario. The Lieutenant-Governor is appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th) Land 917,741 km² Water 158,654 km² (14. ... The Ontario Legislature Building at Queens Park The Legislative Assembly of Ontario, is the legislature of the Canadian province of Ontario. ... The Westminster System is a democratic system of government modelled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace of Westminster, the location of the UK parliament. ... Dalton McGuinty The Premier of Ontario is the first minister for the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor), born 21 April 1926) is the Queen regnant of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda... This is a list of Lieutenant Governors of the Canadian province of Ontario. ... The Prime Minister of Canada, the head of the Canadian government, is usually the leader of the political party with the most seats in the Canadian House of Commons. ...


Ontario's primary political parties are the centre-right Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party), the centre-left Ontario Liberal Party and the social democratic Ontario New Democratic Party (NDP). The Christian fundementalist Ontario Family Coalition Party and the environmentalist Ontario Green Party have gained some support, but have failed to win any seats in the Legislature. The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party of Ontario, also known as Tories) is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. ... The Ontario Liberal Party is a centrist provincial political party in the province of Ontario, Canada. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The Ontario New Democratic Party (formerly known as the Ontario Cooperative Commonwealth Federation) is a social democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. ... The Family Coalition Party is a political party in Ontario, Canada that was founded in 1987 with a social conservative platform. ... The Green Party of Ontario contests provincial elections in Ontario, Canada. ...

Contents


The Big Blue Machine, 1943-1985

The Progressive Conservative Party dominated Ontario's political system from 1943 to 1985 and earned the nickname of the Big Blue Machine. During this period the party was led by Red Tory (moderate) premiers: George Drew, Leslie Frost, John Robarts and Bill Davis. These governments were responsible for some of the province's most progressive social legislation (including the Ontario Code of Human Rights), the creation of most of Ontario's welfare state and social programs, the creation of many Crown Corporations, and strong economic growth. However, in 1985, the party took a shift to the right, electing Frank Miller as leader at a leadership convention, following the retirement of popular longtime Red Tory Premier Bill Davis. This shift in policy proved to be unpopular. After 42 years of governing Ontario, the 1985 election reduced the Tories to a minority in the Legislature, with only four seats more than the opposition Liberals. The Tories won fewer votes over all than the Liberals. Miller attempted to forge an alliance with the NDP, as Bill Davis did during his minority terms (1975-1981), but this turned out not to be the case. The Liberals of David Peterson and the New Democrats of Bob Rae decided to form a coalition, ousting Frank Miller, and ending the longest political dynasty in Canadian history. Jump to: navigation, search 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Big Blue Machine can refer to: Big Blue Machine (Ontario) - the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party political machine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Red Tory is a nickname given to a political tradition in Canadas conservative political parties. ... Colonel The Honourable George Alexander Drew, PC , CC , QC (May 7, 1894 - January 4, 1973) was a Canadian conservative politician who founded a Progressive Conservative dynasty in Ontario that lasted 42 years. ... The Honourable Leslie Miscampbell Frost, PC , CC (September 20, 1895-May 4, 1973) was a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross see John Robarts (VC). ... For the actor, professor, and waterskiier, see William B. Davis The Honourable William (Bill) Grenville Davis, PC , CC , O.Ont. ... This article is about Frank Miller, the Canadian politician. ... In 1985, the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party held two leadership conventions: one in January, and one in November. ... David Petersons Liberals, with support from Bob Raes New Democrats, form a minority government despite having fewer seats than Frank Millers Progressive Conservatives. ... The Honourable David Robert Peterson, PC , LL.B , BA (born December 28, 1943 in Toronto, Ontario) was the twentieth Premier of the Province of Ontario, Canada, from June 26, 1985 to October 1, 1990. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Honourable Robert Keith (Bob) Rae, PC , OC , O.Ont , QC , LL.B , LL.D (born August 2, 1948 in Ottawa, Ontario) was the 21st premier of Ontario, and the first leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party (NDP) to serve in that capacity. ...


A decade of political upheaval, 1985-1995

Peterson was able to reenergize his party and lead them back into office. The Liberal-NDP coalition of 1985-1987 worked very well with David Peterson at the helm as Premier. In exchange for supporting certain Liberal policies and not defeating Peterson's government in the Legislaure, the Liberals agreed to pass certain NDP policies to which Miller had been unwilling to agree. In the 1987 election, Peterson's Liberals won a substantial majority in the Legislature, ending the two-year-long coalition with the NDP. Peterson's record in office was a mixed one. During his five years in power, Ontario recorded some of its best economic times; however towards the end of his tenure government spending increased. Although his government predicted a surplus, the Liberals plunged the Government of Ontario into a $3 billion deficit by 1990. David Petersons Liberals were returned to power with a large majority. ... In the Westminster System, a majority government is one in which the government enjoys an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or Parliament. ...


The Social Contract

The Liberals paid dearly by holding an election three years into their mandate in 1990. Before Peterson called the election, his government stood at a 54% approval rating in the polls, but the early election call which most people took as arrogance, coupled with the high expectations of teachers, environmentalists, and doctors who came out against him proved to be his undoing. In the most surprising election results in Ontario's history, the NDP was able to win a majority government, however with only 37% of the vote. This government would be Ontario's second socialist government (after the United Farmer's government of Ernest Drury 1919-1923), and its track record would keep the NDP out of serious contention for power in Ontario for another decade. Jump to: navigation, search 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest Charles Drury (January 22, 1878-February 17, 1968) was a farmer, politician and writer who served as Premier of Ontario from 1919 to 1923 as the head of a United Farmers of Ontario - Labour coalition government. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The NDP campaigned predominantly on the promise of a public auto insurance system that they did not implement after taking power. They also broke promises of a new electoral system and increased social spending. To cope with a mounting recession, the New Democrats introduced cutbacks to social spending as well as the Social Contract, which forced public-sector workers to take unpaid "holidays" or "Rae Days" every year. They also introduced wage freezes. Auto insurance (or car insurance, motor insurance) is insurance consumers can purchase for cars, trucks, and other vehicles. ... For political policies of the same name see Bob Raes Social Contract (Ontario) and Harold Wilsons Social Contract (Britain) Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the...


The Social Contract led to most of the labour movement, especially longtime NDP ally Buzz Hargrove and the CAW (Canadian Auto Worker's Union), along with the Ontario Public Service Employees Union and other public sector unions turning its backs on Bob Rae, many of their members vowing to bring his government down. Rae also introduced unpopular revenue-raising taxes and operations (like photo radar) that seriously hurt his election prospects. Thousands of party members resigned from the NDP and it became evident that the party was headed for a defeat in the 1995 election. Basil Buzz Eldon Hargrove (born March 8, 1944, Bath, New Brunswick) is the current National President of the Canadian Auto Workers trade union. ... Canadian Auto Workers Logo The Canadian Auto Workers (CAW) is one of Canadas largest and highest profile trade unions. ... The Ontario general election of 1995 was held on June 8, 1995, to elect members of the Legislative Assembly of the province of Ontario, Canada. ...


By 1995, Ontario's unemployment rate was skyrocketing and the deficit was growing bigger, leaving most people convinced that the government of Bob Rae had become ineffective. Commentators predicted an easy win for Lyn Macleod's Liberals, but the resurgent Progressive Conservative Party of Mike Harris, which had been reduced to third-party status since 1987, made a tremendous comeback and won a majority. Macleod alienated voters by flip-flopping on campaign issues such as civil unions for same-sex couples. Towards the end of the campaign, the Liberals attempted to copy many Tory policies. Mike Harris, on the other hand campaigned on a controversial, but straightforward agenda known as the Common Sense Revolution, promising to solve Ontario's economic woes and problems with lower taxation, smaller government and pro-business policies to create jobs. The 1995 election gave the PC Party a large majority, bringing the Tories back into power, however not under their traditional centrist or Red Tory agenda. Michael Deane Harris (born January 23, 1945, in Toronto, Ontario) was the twenty-second Premier of Ontario from June 26, 1995 to April 15, 2002. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage, and—less frequently—homosexual marriage) refers to marriage between partners of the same gender (for other forms of same-sex unions that are different from marriages, see the articles linked in that section). ... The phrase Common Sense Revolution was used as a political slogan to describe common sense conservative platforms in New Jersey, Ontario and Australia in the 1990s. ...


The "Common Sense Revolution", 1995-2003

The new rightwing government of Mike Harris implemented a neoconservative program of cuts to social spending and taxes (the "Common Sense Revolution") that balanced the budget and significantly lowered taxes for most Ontarians (both lower and middle class). It was blamed for widespread failure in the quality of health care and education, and for transferring the costs of many programs from the province to the municipalities ("downloading"). In particular, the government's critics alleged that the government's cuts to the Ministry of the Environment and privatization of water-testing laboratories led to the lack of oversight that caused the "Walkerton tragedy". An outbreak of E. coli bacteria from contaminated water in Walkerton, Ontario caused a number of deaths and illnesses in May 2000. In a resulting inquiry, it was revealed that the government had been warned that such an incident was likely to occur with the hasty privatization of water-testing laboratories, but the government ignored the warning. Neoconservatism and neoliberalism in Canada are both labels given to a strain of fiscally-oriented conservatism in Canadian politics, that began in the 1980s and rose to prominence in the 1990s, especially in Ontario, Western Canada and the federal government. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... Walkerton is a small town on the Saugeen River in Bruce County, Ontario, 75 km southwest of Owen Sound. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the year 2000. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or, especially in India, disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership and/or transferring the management of a service or activity from the government to the private sector. ...


However, despite controversies, cuts to social programs and education, and a province-wide anti-government teachers' strike in 1999, Mike Harris was re-elected easily in the 1999 election, defeating Dalton McGuinty's Liberals. His victory was largely due to a poor campaign by McGuinty's Liberals, the creation of many new jobs since Harris had taken office, and his record on tax reduction. Negative campaiging by the Tories, which featured ads claiming that McGuinty was "not up to the job" also helped Harris's re-election bid. 1999 is a common year starting on Friday Anno Domini (or the Current Era), and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Ontario general election of 1999 was held in the Canadian province of Ontario in the late spring of 1999. ... The Honourable Dalton James Patrick McGuinty Jr. ...


Harris stepped down in 2002 and was replaced by Ernie Eves following a leadership election. Eves's government was chiefly notable for stopping Harris's grossly unpopular plan to privatize the public electricity utility, Ontario Power Generation (formerly Ontario Hydro), but not before some parts of the utility had been sold to private interests. Jump to: navigation, search 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest Eves (born June 17, 1946) was the twenty-third Premier of the province of Ontario, Canada, from April 15, 2002, to October 23, 2003. ... The 2002 Ontario Progressive Conservative leadership election was a leadership convention called in the fall of 2001 when Ontario Progressive Conservative Party Premier Mike Harris announced his intention to resign. ... Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is a public company whose shares are wholly owned by the government of Ontario. ...


The Liberals return to power

In the October 2003 election, Dalton McGuinty led the Liberals to an impressive victory against Ernie Eves and his controversy-plagued Tories, coming in with a solid majority. McGuinty's major promises revolved around increasing health care funding, unravelling Mike Harris's education reforms, and not raising taxes. Map of Ontarios ridings and their popular vote for their party elected The Ontario general election of 2003 was held on October 2, 2003, to elect the 103 members of the Legislative Assembly (Members of Provincial Parliament, or MPPs) of the Province of Ontario, Canada. ...


Shortly after the election, however, the former provincial auditor undertook a study that revealed that the Harris-Eves Tories had hidden a deficit of at least $5.6 billion. Minister of Finance Greg Sorbara released a budget introducing tax increases on commodities and businesses, the introduction of health premiums for all but low-income Ontarians, the delisting of health-care services from OHIP. The budget, along with the failure to prevent construction on the environmentally-sensitive Oak Ridges Moraine after his election made the McGuinty government unpopular during its first few months. During his second month in office, McGuinty had an approval rating of only 8%, a record low. Greg Sorbara (born September 4, 1946 in Toronto, Ontario) is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... The Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) is the government-run health plan for the Canadian province of Ontario. ... The Oak Ridges Moraine is a geographic area in southern Ontario, Canada stretching from Milton to Rice Lake, near Peterborough. ...


However, things improved after his first year in office. The Ontario government was able to negotiate a national health accord with the federal government and the other provinces, free immunization for children was introduced, McGuinty announced plans for the creation of a so called "Green Belt" (strongly opposed by most farmers and rural towns) in the Greater Toronto Area to help control urban sprawl, and plans for the creation of a "Citizen's Assembly" to research electoral reform were also announced. The Tories on the other hand took a shift back to the centre and elected John Tory, a former aide of Bill Davis, to lead the party. Tory opposes the privatization that was advocated by Mike Harris and Ernie Eves, supports the elimination of health premiums and socially has a similar agenda to Dalton McGuinty. John Tory, LL.B , BA (born May 28, 1954) is a Canadian businessman and leader of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party. ...


The McGuinty government also brought forward a number of regulatory initiatives including legislation to allow patrons to bring their own wine to restaurants, banning junk food in public schools, outlawing smoking in public places, and requiring students to stay in school until age 18. The government also enacted changes to the Ontario Heritage Act in 2005. Following a series of high-profile maulings, the government also moved to ban pit bulls; a move which has generated stong opposition as well as support. The Ontario Heritage Act allows municipalities and the provincial government to designate properties in the Province of Ontario, Canada as being of cultural heritage value or interest. Once a property has been designated, a property owner must apply to the local municipality for a permit to undertake alterations to any... ...


In the summer of 2003, an Ontario Court of Appeal rulings resulted in Ontario becoming the first of Canada's provinces and territories to legalize same-sex marriage. (See Same-sex marriage in Ontario.) In response to the court decision, the McGuinty Liberals updated the province's legislation relating to married couples to include homosexual couples. Jump to: navigation, search Same-sex marriage is marriage between individuals who are of the same legal or biological sex. ... Flag of Ontario Same-sex marriage was legalized in Ontario in 2003 after the Ontario Court of Appeal upheld a lower court ruling which declared that defining marriage in heterosexual-only terms violated the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. ...


Overview of Ontario federal politics

In general, Ontario is a mixed bag in terms of political trends, despite the fact that the federal Liberals dominated from 1993 to 2004 due to a 'divided right' between the moderate Progressive Conservative party and strongly conservative Canadian Alliance, the united right of the federal Conservatives has reduced the dominance. The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada) is Canadas current governing political party. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... The Canadian Alliance (in full, the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance) was a Canadian right_of_centre conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada) is a right wing political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...

  • The Greater Toronto Area, being a highly diverse and multicultural area, tends to be quite liberal on a federal level. But interestingly enough, the GTA or "905 belt" was solidly Progressive Conservative on the provincial level during the 1995 and 1999 elections. And of course historically supported the Tories during their more liberal Red Tory era. It is now a stronghold for the Ontario Liberals, except for a few downtown districts where the NDP are strong. Conservative support is limited to the outer suburbs, where the Tories hold a few seats.
  • Southwestern Ontario is similar to the adjacent US Midwest, with the urban areas generally leaning left (especially Windsor, which is a union bastion), and the rural areas are moderately conservative, however, they are generally not as conservative as rural parts of surrounding regions of Ontario and neighboring states, primarily due to the industrial nature of the region. The exception is between London and Brantford and areas north and south of that line, which is more conservative and typical of areas in Central Ontario.
  • Central and Eastern Ontario are clearly the most conservative areas in Ontario, due to the strong agricultural and religious base, which makes it more similar to parts of Western Canada and much of the rural United States in terms of social conservatism. The exceptions are in central Ottawa, where activist and labour movements are strong, as well as in the easternmost areas which have a very high Franco-Ontarian population and were strongholds for the Liberals (although there are signs that even those areas are turning conservative), however most of the region tends to vote solidly fo the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party on the provincial level and for the Conservative Party of Canada on the federal level. There is also a strong feeling of rural alienation in this region due to policies such as the proposed "Green Belt", which opponents claim will severly hurt the business of farmers and may not actually reduce urban sprawl; as well as the controversial pit bull ban.
  • Most of Northern Ontario is a hotbed for Liberal and NDP support, primarily owing to the highly unionized nature of the region and the high population of First Nations. The southern border areas are more conservative than the northern areas, however, both fiscally and socially. This is most notable in the Parry Sound and Muskoka districts, in the areas surrounding North Bay and on Manitoulin Island.

The Greater Toronto Area (called the GTA by local residents) is the largest metropolitan area in Canada and is centred around the fifth largest city in North America, Toronto, after Mexico City, New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. ... Western Ontario is a region of Ontario centred on London, Ontario. ... Midwest States (United States of America, ND to OH) The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Jump to: navigation, search }|135px|City of Windsor, Ontario Official Flag]]|Coat Image=[[Image:{{{Coat Image}}}|135px|City of Windsor, Ontario Coat of Arms]]}} {{Hide = {{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: {{Unhide = {{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} {{Canadian City/Location Image is:{{{Location Image Type}}}|[[Image:{{{Location Image}}}|thumbnail|center|250px|City of Windsor... Motto: Nickname: The Forest City City of London, Ontario, Canada location. ... Brantford (2001 population 86,417)[1] is a city located on the Grand River in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ... Categories: Canada-place stubs | Ontario ... Jump to: navigation, search Eastern Ontario is the region of the Canadian province of Ontario which lies between the Ottawa and St. ... Western Canada is a geographic region of Canada, generally considered to be west of the province of Ontario, although its precise definition is a source of controversy (see below). ... {{Hide = {{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: {{Unhide = {{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant City of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada location. ... Franco-Ontarians (French: Franco-ontarien) are francophone residents of the Canadian province of Ontario. ... The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party of Ontario, also known as Tories) is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada) is a right wing political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Northern Ontario is the part of the province of Ontario, Canada, which lies north of Lake Huron, Georgian Bay, the French River and Lake Nipissing. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada that has widely replaced the use of the word Indian. It refers to the Indigenous peoples of North America located in what is now Canada, and their descendants, who are not Inuit or Métis. ... Parry Sound District is a census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. ... The Muskoka District Municipality (more generally referred to as the District of Muskoka, or simply Muskoka) is a regional municipality in Central Ontario that extends from Georgian Bay in the west, to the northern tip of Lake Couchiching in the south, to the western border of Algonquin Provincial Park in... North Bay (46°32′ N 79°46′ W, time zone EST) is a city in Northeastern Ontario, Canada (2001 population 52,771). ... Manitoulin Island Manitoulin Island is the worlds largest freshwater lake island, with an area of 2,766 square kilometres (1068 square miles). ...

See also


Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... Beginning with the 2003 election, Ontario elections are held every 4 years in October. ...

Politics of Ontario Flag of Ontario
Monarchy | Lieutenant-Governor | Parliament | Cabinet
Premier | List of Premiers
Political parties | Ontario politicians
Court of Appeal | Census Divisions | Ontario electoral districts
Ontario Provincial Police

  Results from FactBites:
 
Politics of Ontario - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1930 words)
The functions of the sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II, are exercised by the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario.
The government's critics alleged that the government's cuts to the Ministry of the Environment and privatization of water-testing laboratories led to the lack of oversight that caused the "Walkerton Tragedy".
In general, Ontario is a mixed bag in terms of political trends, despite the fact that the federal Liberals dominated from 1993 to 2004 against a 'divided right' between the centrist Progressive Conservative Party and strongly conservative Canadian Alliance; the united right of the federal Conservatives has reduced the dominance.
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