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Encyclopedia > Government of Ohio
The Rhodes State Office Tower adjacent to the Statehouse
The Rhodes State Office Tower adjacent to the Statehouse

The Government of the State of Ohio comprises three branches -- executive, legislative, and judicial. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2616 × 3488 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2616 × 3488 pixel, file size: 1. ... The James A. Rhodes State Office Tower is a 629-foot skyscraper located in Columbus, OH. The Rhodes Tower, completed in 1977, is currently the tallest building in Columbus. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...

Contents

Executive Branch

The executive branch of Ohio government comprises six officers elected statewide for four-year terms, all on a partisan ballot:

Ohio Governors Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... The position of lieutenant governor of Ohio was established in 1852. ... The governor of Ohio appoints a cabinet, which comprises the heads of several departments of the government. ... The Ohio Secretary of State is responsible for overseeing the elections in the state of Ohio. ... The office of Attorney General of Ohio was first created by the Ohio General Assembly by statute in 1846. ... The Ohio State Auditor is responsible for auditing all the public offices of the state of Ohio, from the largest to the smallest. ... Category: ...

Legislative Branch

The legislative branch, the Ohio General Assembly, is made up of two houses--the senate and the house of representatives. The house of representatives is composed of 99 members elected from single-member districts of equal population. Each of the 33 senate districts is formed by combining three house districts. Senators serve four-year staggered terms and representatives serve two-year terms. The Ohio General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Ohio. ... The Ohio Senate is the upper house in Ohios bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly; the lower house is the Ohio House of Representatives. ... Ohio has a bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly, consisting a House of Representatives and Senate (the Ohio State Senate), based on its constitution of 1851. ...


In order to be enacted into law, a bill must be adopted by both houses of the assembly and signed by the governor. If the governor vetoes a bill, the assembly can override the veto with a three-fifths supermajority of both houses. A bill will also become a law if the governor fails to sign or veto it within 10 days of its being presented.


The Legislative Service Commission is one of several legislative agencies. It serves as a source for legal expertise and staffing. The commission drafts proposed legislation.


In addition to the General Assembly, laws in Ohio may be enacted through the initiative process. initiative, see Initiative (disambiguation). ...


Judicial Branch

The judicial branch is headed by the supreme court, which has one chief justice and six associate justices, each elected to staggered six-year terms. The Ohio Supreme Court is the highest court in the U.S. state of Ohio, with final authority over interpretations of Ohio law and the Ohio Constitution. ...


There are several other levels of elected judiciary in the Ohio court system:

  • State court of claims, which has jurisdiction over all civil actions against the State of Ohio in situations in which the state has waived its sovereign immunity.
  • State courts of appeal (12 district appeals courts): These are the intermediate appellate courts.
  • County courts of common pleas: 88 county common pleas courts -- These are the principal courts of first instance for civil and criminal matters. In populous areas, there are often several divisions, such as general, juvenile, probate, and domestic relations.
  • Municipal courts and county courts -- these court primarily handle minor matters, such as traffic adjudication and other misdemeanor and small claims.

Judges in Ohio are generally elected, except for the Court of Claims, for which judges sit by assignment of the chief justice. When there are temporary vacancies in elected judgeships, those vacancies are also filled by assignment by the chief justice. The Ohio Court of Claims is a court of limited, state-wide jurisdiction. ... Sovereign immunity or crown immunity is a type of immunity that, in common law jurisdictions traces its origins from early English law. ...


Apportionment

The General Assembly, with the approval of the governor, draws the U.S. congressional district lines for Ohio's 18 seats in the United States House of Representatives. The Ohio Apportionment Board draws state legislative district lines in Ohio. The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... The Ohio Apportionment Board, which convenes every 10 years, following the census, draws the single-member legislative districts for the Ohio General Assembly. ...


State Board of Education

The Ohio Department of Education is run by the Ohio State Board of Education, which has 11 elected members and six appointed members. The state is divided into 11 districts by combining three contiguous Ohio Senate districts. The governor appoints six members. All serve four year terms. The elected members' terms are staggered so that half of the board is elected in each even-numbered year. Vacancies in the elected membership are filled by appointment by the governor. The chairman of the Ohio House of Representatives Education Committee and his or her counterpart in the Ohio State Senate are ex officio members. The board employs a Superintendent of Public Instruction, who runs the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio State Board of Education, which has eleven elected members and eight appointed members, oversees primary and secondary education in the State of Ohio and the Ohio Department of Education. ... The Ohio State Board of Education, which has eleven elected members and six appointed members, oversees primary education in the State of Ohio and the Ohio Department of Education. ... Ohio has a bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly, consisting a House of Representatives and Senate (the Ohio State Senate), based on its constitution of 1851. ... The Ohio Senate is the upper house in Ohios bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly; the lower house is the Ohio House of Representatives. ...


State politics

Main article: Politics of Ohio

Historically control of Ohio has oscillated between the two major parties. ...

Local government

There are also several levels of local government in Ohio. Elections for county officials are held in even-numbered years, while elections for officials in the municipalities, townships, and local boards of education are held in odd-numbered years.


County Government

Ohio is divided into 88 counties. Ohio law defines a structure for county government, although each county may choose to define its own. Summit County has chosen an alternate structure, while all of the other counties have a structure that includes the following elected officers: Summit County is a urban county located in the state of Ohio, United States. ...

  • Three county commissioners (the County Board of Commissioners)
  • County sheriff: The highest law enforcement officer in the county. Many cities and villages, and even some townships, have their own police forces which take over the sheriff's patrolling and response duties in their own areas, but the sheriff remains responsible for the remaining areas of the county. In some counties with large municipalities, the sheriff may have no patrolling and response duties, but the sheriff remains responsible for running the county jail, and acting as an officer of the local courts (serving warrants, transporting prisoners, acting as bailiff, etc.)
  • County coroner: Responsible for determining the cause of death in suspicious circumstances. Is the only person in the county with the authority to arrest the sheriff.
  • County auditor
  • County treasurer
  • County clerk of courts
  • County prosecutor: The equivalent of a district attorney in other states. The prosecutor is charged with acting on behalf of the state in criminal matters and also acts as the county government's legal counsel. In rural areas, the elected prosecutor may choose to take a reduced salary and act as a "part-time" prosecutor. In such cases, the prosecutor may offer private legal services, but only in non-criminal matters.
  • County engineer
  • County recorder: Keeps records of changes in title of real property within the county.

See also: Ohio county government The government of Ohios counties is marked by a loose organization and a diffusion of power, the basic framework not having been changed since the Nineteenth century. ...


Municipal Government

In Ohio, there are two kinds of incorporated municipalities, cities and villages. If a municipality has five thousand or more residents as of the last federal census it is a city, otherwise it is a village.[1] Each municipality chooses its own form of government, but most have elected mayors and city councils or city commissions. City governments provide much more extensive services than county governments, such as police forces and professional (as opposed to volunteer) fire departments. // The word village has many meanings relating to local government in the United States. ... The U.S. Census is mandated by the United States Constitution. ...


Township Government

The territory of each county is divided into townships. There are more than 1,000 townships in Ohio, ranging from the very small with only a few hundred inhabitants (e.g. Washington in Warren County) to gigantic townships with tens of thousands of residents and bigger than most cities of the state (e.g. Colerain and West Chester). All land in Ohio is nominally part of some township. However, in many cases, a municipal government has chosen to withdraw from the township as a governmental jurisdiction. As a result, there are many townships that do not exist as functioning legal jurisdictions (e.g. City of Cincinnati is in Millcreek Township but does not exist separately). A township in the United States refers to a small geographic area, ranging in size from 6 to 54 square miles (15. ... The List of Ohio Townships provides an alphabetic list of the 1340 current and historic townships in Ohio. ... Washington Township is one of the eleven townships of Warren County, Ohio. ... Colerain Township is located in northwest Hamilton County, Ohio. ... West Chester Township, formerly known as Union Township, is a township located in the southeast corner of Butler County in southwest Ohio, one of thirteen townships in the county. ... “Cincinnati” redirects here. ... Millcreek Township is a former township of south central Hamilton County, Ohio that was absorbed in the Nineteenth Century by the City of Cincinnati. ...


Townships have four elected officials: A three member board of trustees and a clerk. All are elected to four-year terms in non-partisan elections.


Local Boards of Education

There are more than 600 city, local, and exempted village school districts providing K-12 education in Ohio. The borders of the school district do not strictly follow county, township, or municipal borders. A school district can exist in multiple townships and/or municipalities, but may not exist in multiple counties. Each school district is headed by an elected board of education which has direct authority over the local schools and appoints the local superintendent of schools. There are also about four dozen joint vocation school districts which are separate from the K-12 districts. There are also in most counties an elected county board of education that provides some services to districts in the county.


References

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also


 
 

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