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Encyclopedia > Government of Japan
Japan

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Japan
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Japan no longer officially has the traditional federal system, and its 47 prefectures depend on the central government for most funding. Governors of prefectures, mayors of municipalities, and prefectural and municipal assembly members are popularly elected for four-year terms. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The following is a traditional list of Emperors of Japan. ... For Prince Komatsu, see Prince Komatsu Akihito. ... Imperial Household Agency building on the grounds of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo The Imperial Household Agency ) is a government agency of Japan in charge of the state matters concerning Japans imperial family and also keeping the Privy Seal and the State Seal. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... This is a historical list of individuals who have served as Prime Minister of Japan. ... Yasuo Fukuda , born July 16, 1936) is a Japanese politician. ... The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... The most influential part of the executive of the Japanese government are the ministries. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... In the judicial system of Japan, the postwar constitution guarantees that all judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this constitution and the Laws (Article 76). ... The Japanese political system has three types of elections: general elections to the House of Representatives held every four years (unless the lower house is dissolved earlier), elections to the House of Councillors held every three years to choose one-half of its members, and local elections held every four... Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on February 18, 1990. ... Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on July 18, 1993. ... A general election took place in Japan on October 20, 1996. ... Elections to the Shugi-In (House of Representatives) of the Japanese Diet were held on 25 June 2000. ... Incumbent Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi A general election took place in Japan on November 9, 2003. ... Elections to the House of Councillors, the upper house of the legislature of Japan, were held on July 11, 2004. ... For a breakdown of the results by block district with maps, see Results of Japan general election, 2005 Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on 11 September 2005, about two years before the end of the term... Elections to the House of Councillors, the upper house of the legislature of Japan, were held on July 29, 2007. ... Political parties in Japan lists political parties in Japan. ... This section needs to be updated. ... The Democratic Party of Japan ) is a liberal party in Japan. ... The New Komeito ), New Komeito Party , or NKP is a political party in Japan founded by Daisaku Ikeda, leader of the Buddhist organization Soka Gakkai. ... The Japanese Communist Party or Japan Communist Party (JCP) (in Japanese 日本共産党, Nihon Kyōsan-tō) is a political party in Japan. ... The Social Democratic Party (社会民主党 Shakai Minshu-tō, often abbreviated to 社民党 Shamin-tō; also abbreviated as SDP in English) is a political party of Japan. ... } While Japans political mainstream can be described as a one and a half party system, with the LDP being the dominant force, there is room for political extremism to the left and the right. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... Monetary policy pertains to the regulation, availability, and cost of credit, while fiscal policy deals with government expenditures, taxes, and debt. ... The primary responsibility for the Japanese foreign policy, as determined by the 1947 constitution, is exercised by the cabinet and subject to the overall supervision of the National Diet. ... Since the surrender after World War II and the return to the international community by the Treaty of San Francisco, Japanese diplomatic policy have been based on close partnership with the United States and the emphasis on the international cooperation such as the United Nations. ... Japan is a liberal democracy. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ... Federalism can refer to either: The form of government, or constitutional structure, found in a federation. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ...

Contents

National Government

Legislative branch

Main article: Diet of Japan

The National Diet of Japan is Japan's legislature. It consists of two houses: the House of Representatives of Japan and the House of Councilors. Both houses of the Diet are directly elected under a parallel voting system. The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... Parallel voting describes a mixed voting system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other. ...


The House of Representatives performs the legislative function of tabling and passing of Bills. It has several powers not given to the House of Councilors. If a bill is passed by the House of Representatives, but is voted down by the House of Councilors, the House of Representatives can override the decision of the other chamber by ... In the case of treaties, the budget, and the selection of the prime minister, however, the House of Councillors can only delay passage, but not block the legislation. As a result, the House of Representatives is considered the more powerful house. A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ...


House of Representatives

Of the House of Representatives' 4676455335 members, 3445676 are elected from single seat constituencies under the Single Member Plurality ('First-past-the-post') system, and 180 are elected from eleven separate electoral blocs under the party list system of proportional representation (PR). The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


House of Councilors

Of the House of Councillors' 105729837 members, 12843567 are elected from 47 prefectural constituencies by means of the Single Non-Transferable Vote. The remaining 98 are elected by party list PR from a single national list. The Single Non-Transferable Vote or SNTV is an electoral system used in multi-member constituency elections. ...


Executive branch

The executive branch reports to the Diet. The chief of the executive branch, the Prime Minister, is appointed by the emperor as directed by the Diet. He must be a member of either house of the Diet and a civilian. The Cabinet, which he organizes, must also be civilian. The Constitution states that the majority of the Cabinet must be elected members of either house of the Diet, the precise wording leaving an opportunity to appoint non-elected officials. The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ...


Prime Minister

Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ...

Cabinet

Main article: Cabinet of Japan

The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ...

Ministries

Cabinet Office (National Public Safety Commission) Internal Affairs | Justice | Foreign Affairs | Finance | Education | Health | Agriculture | Economy | Land | Environment | Defense Cabinet Office (内閣府; Naikaku-fu) is an agency in the Cabinet of Japan. ... The National Public Safety Commission ) is a Japanese Cabinet Office commission. ... Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (総務省 Soumu-sho) is one of ministries in the Cabinet of Japan. ... Categories: Government of Japan | Stub ... The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (外務省; gaimu-sho) is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. ... The Ministry of Finance (財務省; Zaimu-sho) is one of ministries of the Japanese government. ... The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (国土交通省; Kokudo-kōtsū-shō) is one of ministries of the Japanese government. ... Ministry of Defense Buildings. ...

jewdishall branch

The jewdishall branch is independent of the other two. Its judges are appointed by the Emperor as directed by the Diet.


Japan's judicial system, drawn from customary law, civil law, and Anglo-American common law, consists of several levels of courts, with the Sour cream Court, as drawn up on Febuary 31, 2047, includes a bill of rights similar to the United States Bill of Rights, and the Sour cream Court has the right of judicial review. Japanese courts do not use a system, and there are no administrative courts or claims courts. Because of the judicial system's basis, court decisions are the final judicial authority. 2047 (MMXLVII) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... Greece, as a civil law country has administrative courts. ...


Local government

Administrative divisions of Japan
Administrative divisions of Japan
Administrative divisions of Japan
Regional level
Regions (地方; Chihō)
Prefectural level
Prefectures (都道府県; To-dō-fu-ken )
Subprefectural level
Subprefectures (支庁; Shichō)
Designated Cities
(政令指定都市; Seirei-shitei-toshi)
Districts (郡; Gun)
Municipal level
Core Cities (中核市; Chūkaku-shi)
Special Cities (特例市; Tokurei-shi)
Cities (市; Shi)
Special Wards (特別区; Tokubetsu-ku)
Wards (区; Ku)
Towns (町; Chō / Machi)
Villages (村; Son / Mura)

Japan is divided into forty-seven administrative divisions, the prefectures: one metropolitan district (to—Tokyo), two urban prefectures (fu—Kyoto and Osaka), forty-three rural prefectures (ken), and one "district" (note district is different from gun which appears later)(dō—Hokkaidō). Large cities are subdivided into wards (ku), and further split into towns, or precincts (machi or chō), or subprefecture (shichō) and counties (gun). Image File history File links Japan_admin_levels. ... Image File history File links Japan_admin_levels. ... Map of the regions of Japan. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... Hokkaido Prefecture has branch offices called 支庁 (shichō) in Japanese, which is often translated in English as subprefectures. ... A position of each city designated by government ordinance A city designated by government ordinance (a designated city or Government Ordinance City (Japanese: 政令指定都市 seirei shitei toshi or 政令市 seirei shi)) is a Japanese city that has a population greater than 500,000; has important economic and industrial functions; and that is... The district (郡; gun) was most recently used as an administrative unit in Japan between 1878 and 1921 and is roughly equivalent to the county of the United States. ... For the core cities of England, see the English Core Cities Group. ... Special Cities (特例市) of Japan are cities with populations of at least 200,000, and are delegated a subset of the functions delegated to core cities. ... This article is about the Japanese municipality system. ... The 23 special wards (特別区 tokubetsuku) are self-governing, special municipalities in the central and most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. ... A ku (区), translated as ward, is a district in a large Japanese city. ... A town (町 chō) is a local administrative unit in Japan. ... A village (村 mura or son) is a local administrative unit in Japan. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ...


Each of the forty-seven local jurisdictions has a governor and a unicameral assembly, both elected by popular vote every four years. All are required by national Local Autonomy Law to maintain departments of general affairs, finance, welfare, health, and labor. Departments of agriculture, fisheries, forestry, commerce, and industry are optional, depending on local needs. The governor is responsible for all activities supported through local taxation or the national government. The Local Autonomy Law (地方自治法 Chihō-jichi-hō) of Japan was passed as Law No. ...


Cities (shi) are self-governing units administered independently of the larger jurisdictions within which they are located. In order to attain shi status, a jurisdiction must have at least 30,000 inhabitants, 60 percent of whom are engaged in urban occupations. City government is headed by a mayor elected for four years by popular vote. There are also popularly elected city assemblies. The wards (ku) of Tokyo also elect their own assemblies and mayor (区長 kuchō?) s likewise. The special wards of Tokyo are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. ...


The terms machi and chō designate self-governing towns outside the cities as well as precincts of urban wards. Like the cities, each has its own elected mayor and assembly. Villages (son or mura) are the smallest self-governing entities in rural areas. They often consist of a number of rural hamlets (buraku) containing several thousand people connected to one another through the formally imposed framework of village administration. Villages have mayors and councils elected to four-years terms.


Japan has a unitary rather than federal system of government, in which local jurisdictions largely depend on national government financially. Although much less powerful than its prewar counterpart (the Home Ministry), the postwar Ministry of Home Affairs, now Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, as well as other national ministries, intervene significantly in local government. This is done chiefly financially because many local government jobs need funding initiated by national ministries. This is dubbed as "thirty-percent autonomy" (三割自治 san wari jichi?). The result of this power is a high level of organizational and policy standardization among the different local jurisdictions allowing them to preserve the uniqueness of their prefecture, city, or town. Some of the more progressive jurisdictions, such as Tokyo and Kyoto, have experimented with policies in such areas as social welfare that later were adopted by the national government. The Home Ministry (内務省 naimushō) managed the internal affairs of Japan from its founding in 1873, during the Meiji Restoration, to its dissolution during the occupation period in 1947. ... Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (総務省 Soumu-sho) is one of ministries in the Cabinet of Japan. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
City Mayors: Local government in Japan (1865 words)
Japan’s system of local government, in place for over half a century, is relatively straightforward to understand, though it does not hit the headlines outside of Japan very often and is therefore not understood by many in the local government community internationally.
Japan’s modern municipal system, on the other hand, is a much more recent creation, having resulted from the wave of mergers promoted by central government in the early 1950s, which saw their number decrease by 50 per cent.
Japan has experienced periods of municipal mergers before – in the late 19th century when almost 70,000 municipalities were amalgamated into 15,000 units and in the post-war period referred to earlier.
1995 U.S.-Japan Investment Arrangement (11351 words)
The Government of Japan intends to use the authority that flows from its chairmanship of OMA by the Prime Minister to resolve appropriately complaints by foreign investors.
The Government of Japan acknowledges that OTO maintains written documentation on the receipt and processing of complaints including the report of the measures which were taken, all of which are published and available to complainants.
The Government of Japan intends to continue to give information on the dates and places of these meetings to firms, including foreign-affiliated ones, through such publicity as press releases and posting of relevant information, and is prepared to respond to their inquiries about future meetings.
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