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Encyclopedia > Government of India

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of India Image File history File links Emblem_of_India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


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 view  talk  edit  India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... The Governors and Lieutenant-Governors of the states and territories of India have similar powers and functions at the state level as that of the President of India at Union level. ... Vidhan Sabha, the name of the state-level legislature assemblies in India. ... A Legislative Council in British constitutional thought is the second-to-top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, inferior to an Executive Council and equal to or superior to a Legislative Assembly. ... The Panchayat is a South Asian political system. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ...

The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of India. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the Indian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code, etc. The federal (union) and individual state governments consist of executive, legislative and judicial branches. The legal system as applicable to the federal and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law. India accepts International Court of Justice jurisdiction with several reservations. At the local level, the Panchayati Raj system has several decentralised administrative functions. Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Statutory law is written law (as opposed to oral or customary law) set down by a legislature or other governing authority such as the executive branch of government in response to a perceived need to clarify the functioning of government, improve civil order, answer a public need, to codify existing... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Panchayat is a South Asian political system. ...

Contents

Legislative branch

India's bicameral parliament (also known as the Sansad) consists of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The Union Council of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha. In India's parliamentary system, the executive is nominally subordinate to the legislature. There are maximum 545 members in the Lok Sabha that are now 643 members are elected from the various states on the basis of proportional representation. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ...


The Indian Government uses two official languages: Hindi and English.


Executive branch

President of India

Main article: President of India

The President's actual role is mostly ceremonial. He or she is the Supreme Commander of the nation's armed forces, has the authority to dissolve Parliament and call fresh elections, declare a state of emergency, and dismiss governments in the states, but all upon the counsel of the Prime Minister and the elected government. The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ...


The Council of Ministers

Real national executive power is centered in the Council of Ministers, the Union Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister of India, who is the Head of Government. The President appoints the Prime Minister, who is the designated leader of the political party or coalition commanding parliamentary majority. All Central Government decisions are nominally taken in the name of the President. List of Indian ministers in the current government elected in 2004: Names in italics are women ministers. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ...


The Ministers may be of 3 types - Cabinet Minister, Minister of State (Independent Charge) and deputy ministers, in order of seniority. Cabinet Ministers and Ministers of State with independent charge may usually attend Cabinet meetings. This article is about the governmental body. ...


The Union Ministries

The North Block situated at Raisina Hill, Delhi houses Finance and Home Ministries and Department of Personnal and Training (Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions)
The North Block situated at Raisina Hill, Delhi houses Finance and Home Ministries and Department of Personnal and Training (Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions)

The day-to-day enforcement and administration of national laws lies in the hands of the various federal Union Ministries and Departments, created by the Indian Parliament to deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. In matters delegated to the States, Ministries act in advisory and funding capacity. Image File history File links Indiagovtdelhi. ... Image File history File links Indiagovtdelhi. ... Situated on Raisina Hill, New Delhi, India Secretariat Building is a set of two buildings on the opposite side of Rajpath that are home to many important Ministries of the Government of India. ... Raisina Hill is the most priced estate in Lutyens Delhi. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ...

Central Government (Independent Departments): the currnet union minister of agriculture under the UPA government is Sharad Pawar Categories: | ... The Ministry of Agro and Rural Industries (MoARI) was set up in September, 2001. ... The Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers is the administrative unit of two departments namely:- Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals Department of Fertilizers The ministry is headed by Minister of Chemicals and fertilizers. ... Ministry of Civil Aviation, is the nodal Ministry responsible for the formulation of national policies and programmes for development and regulation of Civil Aviation and for devising and implementing schemes for the orderly growth and expansion of civil air transport. ... The Ministry of Coal has the overall responsibility of exploration and development of coal and lignite reserves of India. ... The Ministry of Commerce and Industry administers two departments namely, The Department of Commerce and Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion. ... The administration of Ministry of Communication and Information Technology extends to three departments:- Dept. ... The Ministry of Company Affairs(MCA) administers the Companies Act, 1956 and other allied acts; mainly for regulating the functioning of the corporate sector in accordance with law. ... The Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution is divided into Department of Food and Public Distribution and Department of Consumer Affairs. ... The Ministry of Culture, Government of India is assigned the functions to preserve and promote all art and culture of India. ... The Defence Minister of India is a cabinet position in the Government of India. ... The Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region(DoNER) rather than a Administrtive unit acts as a facilitator between the Central Ministries/ Departments and the State Governments of the North Eastern Region including Sikkim in the economic development including removal of infrastructural bottlenecks, provision of basic minimum services, creating an... The Ministry of Earth Sciences formed in 2006 from a merger of the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), the Pune and Earth Risk Evaluation Centre (EREC), and the Ministry of Ocean Development. ... The Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests is a cabinet ministry in the Government of India, and is responsible for the planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of environmental and forestry programmes in the country. ... The Ministry of External Affairs is Indias equivalent of State Department of the United States. ... // The Union Finance Ministry of India comprises of four departments: Department of Economic Affairs Department of Expenditure Department of Revenue Department of Disinvestments DEA is mainly responsible for economic policies of the Government of India. ... The Ministry of Food Processing Industries was set up in the year 1988, with a view to develop a strong and vibrant food processing industry,and to create increased employment in rural sector and enable farmers to reap the benefits of modern technology, creatation of surplus for exports and stimulating... The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is one of the most important Ministries of the Government of India. ... The Home Minister, or more properly the Minister for Home Affairs, is a position in the Indian Cabinet, at both State and Union levels. ... The Seventh Schedule of Indian Constitution has allocated the matters pertaining to Housing and Urban Development to the State; and further with The Constitution 74th Amendment Act, 1993 these have been delegated further to the Local Bodies. ... The Ministry of Human Resources Development of the Government of India came into being on September 1985, to provide a common platform for those relevant instruments and agencies which were contributing or reaponsible for the integrated development of citizens of India. ... Ministry of Law and Justice is one of the oldest ministry 1 of the Govt. ... Ministry of New and Renewable Energy came into existence in 1992 and was known as Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources before October 2006. ... The Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs is part of the Government of India. ... In a federation the powers and functions of the government are divided among two governments. ... The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs handles the enormous and diverse parliamentry affairs of India. ... The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions is the Union Govt. ... The Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas is entrusted with the responsibility of exploration and production of oil and natural gas, their refining, distribution and marketing,import, export, and conservation of petroleum products and Liquified Natural Gas. ... A Ministry of Power is a government department dealing with matters concerning power: this could include fuel, electricity, and other connected matters. ... The Ministry of Railways in India is in charge of the Indian Railways, the state-owned company that enjoys a monopoly in Rail transport in India. ... The Ministry of Rural Development is entrusted with the task of accelearting socio-economic development of rural India. ... The Ministry of Small Scale Industries provides the policy framework, projetcs and schemes,and monitor their implementation and progress to assist the promotion and growth of micro and small enterprises (MSEs). ... The Ministry of Steel is the apex body for formulating all policies regarding steel production, distribution and pricing in India. ... The Ministry of Textiles is responsible for the formulation of policy, planning, development, export promotion and regulation of the textile sector in India. ... The Ministry of Tribal Affairs was setup in 1999 after the bifurcation of Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment to have a more focused approach on the integrated socieconomic development of the Schedule Tribes(STs), the most underprivileged of the Indian Society. ...

An Indian government department responsible for administration of Indias nuclear programme. ... The Department of Space is an Indian government department responsible for administration of the Indian space program. ...

Judicial branch

India's independent judicial system began under the British, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. The Supreme Court of India consists of a Chief Justice and 25 associate justices, all appointed by the President on the advice of the Chief Justice of India. In the 1960s, India moved away from using juries for most trials, finding them to be corrupt and ineffective, instead almost all trials are conducted by judges. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... The Chief Justice of India is the highest position obtainable by a judge in India. ...


Unlike its US counterpart, the Indian justice system consists of a unitary system at both state and federal level. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of India, High Courts at the state level, and District and Session Courts at the district level. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ...


National Judiciary

The Supreme Court of India has original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction. Its exclusive original jurisdiction extends to any dispute between the Government of India and one or more states, or between the Government of India and any state or states on one side and one or more states on the other, or between two or more states, if and insofar as the dispute involves any question (whether of law or of fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ...


In addition, Article 32 of the Indian Constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court in regard to enforcement of Fundamental Rights. It is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari to enforce them. The Supreme Court has been conferred with power to direct transfer of any civil or criminal case from one State High Court to another State High Court, or from a court subordinate to another State High Court.


Public Interest Litigation(PIL): Although the proceedings in the Supreme Court arise out of the judgments or orders made by the Subordinate Courts, of late the Supreme Court has started entertaining matters in which interest of the public at large is involved, and the Court may be moved by any individual or group of persons either by filing a Writ Petition at the Filing Counter of the Court, or by addressing a letter to Hon'ble The Chief Justice of India highlighting the question of public importance for invoking this jurisdiction.


Such a concept is known as Public Interest Litigation, or PIL and several matters of public importance have become landmark cases. This concept is unique to the Supreme Court of India, and perhaps no other Court in the world has been exercising this extraordinary jurisdiction.


State Judiciary

The High Court stands at the head of a State's judicial administration. There are 21 High Courts in the country, three having jurisdiction over more than one state. The Union Territories come under the jurisdiction of different State High Courts. Each High Court comprises a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may, from time to time, appoint. High Court usually refers to the superior court of a country or state. ...


Each High Court has powers of jurisprudence over all subordinate courts within its jurisdiction, namely the District and Sessions courts and other lower courts. It can call for returns from such Courts, make and issue general rules and prescribe forms to regulate their practice and proceedings and determine the manner and form in which book entries and accounts shall be kept.


The District and Session Courts comprise the highest level of courts in a District for Civil and Criminal cases respectively, and may be trial courts of original jurisdiction, applying both federal and state laws. States are divided into districts and within each, a District and Sessions Judge is head of the judiciary. A District Judge presides over civil cases, while a Sessions Judge over criminal cases. These judges are appointed by the Governor of the state in consultation with the state's High Court. There is a hierarchy of judicial officials below the district level, many selected through competitive examination by the state's public service commissions.


Civil cases at the sub district level are filed in sub district or munsif courts. Lesser criminal cases are entrusted to courts of magistrates functioning under the Sessions Judge. At the village level, disputes are frequently resolved by Panchayats or Lok Adalats (Hindi: People's Courts), appealable to the District and Sessions Court. // The Panchayat (पंचायत in Devanagiri) is an Indian political system that groups five villages in a quincunx (four peripheral villages around a central one were laid out as the 5 side of a die). ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...


Note: The judicial system retains substantial legitimacy in the eyes of many Indians despite its politicization since the 1970s. In fact, as illustrated by the rise of social action litigation in the 1980s and 1990s, many Indians turn to the courts to redress grievances with other social and political institutions. It is frequently observed that Indians are highly litigious, which has contributed to a growing backlog of cases.


Indeed, the Supreme Court was reported to have more than 150,000 cases pending in 1990, the high courts had some 2 million cases pending, and the lower courts had a substantially greater backlog. Research in the early 1990s show that the backlogs at levels below the Supreme Court are the result of delays in the litigation process and the large number of decisions that are appealed, and not the result of an increase in the number of new cases filed.

Name Year of Establishment Jurisdiction Seats
Allahabad 1866 Uttar Pradesh Allahabad (Bench at Lucknow)
Andhra Pradesh 1956 Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad
Bombay 1862 Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Bombay (Benches at Nagpur, Panaji and Aurangabad)
Calcutta 1862 West Bengal and Andaman & Nicobar Calcutta (Circuit Bench at Port Blair)
Chhattisgarh 2000 Chhattisgarh Bilaspur
Delhi 1966 Delhi Delhi
Guwahati 1948 Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Guwahati (Benches at Itanagar, Kohima, Aizwal, Imphal, Agartala & Shillong)
Gujarat 1960 Gujarat Ahmedabad
Himachal Pradesh 1971 Himachal Pradesh Shimla
Jammu &Kashmir 1928 Jammu &Kashmir Srinagar &Jammu
Jharkhand 2000 Jharkhand Ranchi
Karnataka 1884 Karnataka Bangalore
Kerala 1958 Kerala and Lakshadweep Ernakulam
Madhya Pradesh 1956 Madhya Pradesh Jabalpur (Benches at Gwalior and Indore)
Madras 1862 Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry Chennai (Bench at Madurai)
Orissa 1948 Orissa Cuttack
Patna 1916 Bihar Patna
Punjab & Haryana 1975 Punjab, Haryana &Chandigarh Chandigarh
Rajasthan 1949 Rajasthan Jodhpur (Bench at Jaipur)
Sikkim 1975 Sikkim Gangtok
Uttarakhand 2000 Uttarakhand Nainital

Type of Government

The Preamble lays down the type of government that India has adopted - Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ...


Sovereign

The word sovereign means supreme or independent. India is internally and externally sovereign - externally free from the control of any foreign power and internally, it has a free government “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


Socialist

The word socialist was added to the Preamble by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976. It implies social and economic equality for all its citizens. There will be no discrimination on the basis of caste, colour, creed, sex, religion, language etc. Everybody will be given equal status and opportunities. The government will make efforts to reduce the concentration of wealth in a few hands, and provide a decent standard of living to all. The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


India has adopted a mixed economic model, and the government has framed many laws to achieve the goal of socialism, such as Abolition of Untouchability and Zamindari Act, Equal Wages Act and Child Labour Prohibition Act. The economy of India, when measured in USD exchange-rate terms, is the twelfth largest in the world, with a GDP of US $1. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ... Child labour or labor is the phenomenon of children in employment. ...


Secular

The word secular was inserted into the Preamble by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976. It implies equality of all religions and religious tolerance. India does not have any official state religion. Every person has the right to preach, practice and propagate any religion of their own choice. The government does not favour or discriminate any religion. It treats all religions with equal respect. All citizens, irrespective of their religious beliefs are equal in the eyes of law. No religious instruction is imparted in government or government - aided schools.


Democratic

India is a democratic, election from any location, specific seats are allocated for Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes (22%) in parliament called (reserved constituencies), in local body election a percentage of seats are allocated for women candidates. For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ...


There is also a proposal to allocate 33% seats in all elections to woman candidates, currently there is no consensus in how to implement it and which seats should be allocated.


The pillar of Indian Democracy is Election Commission of India, it is one of the most trusted organizations and has been praised by all for conducting free and fair elections. The Election Commission of India is a constitutional body created to hold free and fair elections in India. ...


Republic

As opposed to a monarchy, in which the head of state is appointed on hereditary basis for a lifetime, or until he abdicates, a republic is a state in which the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. The President of India is elected by an electoral college for a term of five years. For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ...


Parliamentary govt.

India has adopted a parliamentary system of government similar to that of the United Kingdom and Japan. It is based on the fusion of powers between the executive and the legislature. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ...


Under the Indian system, the Parliament is supreme as it is an elected body. There is a presence of two executives - the nominal executive and the real executive. The nominal executive is the President of India. He enjoys all the constitutional powers, but exercises them only on the advice of the real executive. The real executive, that is the Prime Minister of India and the Cabinet, enjoy all the real powers and make all the important policy decisions. Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... List of Indian ministers in the current government elected in 2004: Names in italics are women ministers. ...


All the members of the Council of Ministers as well as the Prime Minister have to be members of either house of the Parliament. If they are not, they must get elected within a period of six months from the time they assume their respective office. The Executive, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are responsible to the Lok Sabha, both individually as well as collectively. The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ...


Individual responsibility

Every individual minister is in charge of a specific portfolio or department. He is responsible for any act of failure in all the policies relating to his department. In case of any lapse, he himself is individually responsible to the Parliament. If a vote of no - confidence is passed against the individual minister, he has to resign. Individual responsibility can amount to collective responsibility. Therefore, the Prime Minister, in order to save his government, can ask for the resignation of such a minister. A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


Collective responsibility

The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are jointly accountable to the Lok Sabha. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the council are jointly responsible. If a vote of no - confidence is passed against the government, then all the ministers headed by the Prime Minister have to resign. The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ...


Welfare State

A welfare state is a state in which the government provides for a wide range of social services and carries out a large number of welfare and developmental activities, like providing education, setting up of hospitals, protection of minorities, promoting agriculture and protecting the monuments along with the performance of police functions. A hospital today is an institution for professional health care provided by physicians and nurses. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... A monument is a structure built for commemorative or symbolic reasons rather than for any overtly functional use. ...


The Directive Principles of State Policy, enshrined in Part IV of the Indian Constitution reflects that India is a welfare state. Seats are reserved for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in government jobs, educational institutions, Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha. The government has passed a number of laws for the abolition of untouchability, Begar and Zamindari. The government has opened fair - priced shops, where certain essential commodities are sold at very reasonable prices to the poorer sections of the society. Fundamental Rights are certain basic human rights which every citizen of India has the right to enjoy for a proper and harmonious development of their personality. ... The Constitution of India, the worlds lengthiest written constitution (with 395 articles and 8 schedules) was passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. ... outcaste A noun 1 outcaste a person belonging to no caste Category Tree: entity â•šobject; physical_object â•šliving_thing; animate_thing â•šorganism; being â•šperson; individual; someone; somebody; mortal; human; soul â•šoutcaste B adjective 1 outcaste, casteless not belonging to or having been expelled from a caste and thus having no place or status... This article is on the social structure. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Vidhan Sabha, the name of the state-level legislature assemblies in India. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ... The Zamindari System is a kind of feudal system, introduced by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ... A public distribution shop, part of Indias public distribution system, is a kind of shop in India which is used to distribute rations at a subsidized price to the poor. ...


Revenues of Government

Gross tax revenues of the Government of India has grown steadily from around Rs.1 billion in 1945 to over Rs.1 trillion by 1995. It is expected to reach Rs.8 trillion by 2010 at the current rate of growth. Given below is a chart of trend of gross tax revenues (before splitting shares of States) of the Government of India assessed by the Finance Commissions from time to time with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

Year Gross Tax Revenues Excise Duties Corporation Tax Customs Income Tax Service Tax Wealth Tax
1945 463 753 736 1,023
1950 675 404 1,571 1,327
1955 1,452 370 1,667
1960 3,949 1,375 1,275
1965 16,827 8,141 3,716 4,195 2,940
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995 1,060,220 458,220[1] 145,860 299,010 128,600
2000 1,982,260 768,390[2] 379,780 535,720 315,900
2005 3,437,030 1,147,410 968,450 581,560 559,810 171,220 1,490

^  includes service tax, et al


This is a chart of trend of non-tax revenues of the Government of India assessed by the Finance Commissions from time to time with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

Year Non-tax Revenues Interest Dividend
1995 355,210 180,460 58,210[3]
2000 574,640
2005 701,350

^  includes dividend and profit from public sector undertakings and RBI, et al

See also: Bond Market of India

References

  1. ^ http://www.rajbhasha.gov.in/annualeng.pdf Official Language Resolution, 1968

External links

  • Pan Card - Pan card Tax information for government tax department
  • Directory of official Government websites in India
  • Government of India Portal

Further reading

  • Subrata K. Mitra and V.B. Singh. 1999. Democracy and Social Change in India: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Electorate. New Delhi: Sage Publications. ISBN 81-7036-809-X (India HB) ISBN 0-7619-9344-4 (U.S. HB).
Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Government of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2822 words)
The Government of India (Hindi: Bharat Sarkar), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of India.
The Supreme Court of India consists of a Chief Justice and 25 associate justices, all appointed by the President on the advice of the Chief Justice of India.
India is internally and externally sovereign - externally free from the control of any foreign power and internally, it has a free government which is directly elected by the people, which makes laws which governs the people.
Politics of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1417 words)
According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic;" the largest state with a democratically-elected government.
Like the United States, India has a federal form of government, however, the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and its central government is patterned after the British parliamentary system.
India's bicameral parliament (also known as the Sansad) consists of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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