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Encyclopedia > Government of France
France

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
France
This article is about political groups and tendencies in France. ... Image File history File links Logo_de_la_République_française. ... This article is about political groups and tendencies in France. ...



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Symbol of the French government
Symbol of the French government

The government of France is a semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the fifth Republic, in which the nation declares itself to be "an indivisible, secular, democratic, and social Republic". The constitution provides for a separation of powers and proclaims France's "attachment to the Rights of Man and the principles of national sovereignty as defined by the Declaration of 1789." This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Nicolas Sarkozy (IPA: —  ), (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sárközy de Nagy-Bocsa) on 28 January 1955 in Paris, France is the current President of France, elected on 6 May 2007 after defeating Socialist Party contender Ségolène Royal during the second round of the 2007 election. ... // Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 December 1848 - 2 December 1852) Louis Jules Trochu (September 4, 1870 - January 22, 1871) (Interim President) Adolphe Thiers (17 February 1871 - 24 May 1873) (Head of Executive Power to 31 August 1871) Marshal Patrice de Mac-Mahon (24 May 1873 - 30 January 1879) Jules Armand... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This page is a list of French prime ministers. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate (in French : le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The French Congress (French: ) is the name given to the body created when both houses of the present-day French Parliament – the French National Assembly and the French Senate – reunite at the Château of Versailles to vote on revisions to the French constitution. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ... Political parties in France lists political parties in France. ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... France is a representative democracy. ... The French presidential of 1958, the first of the French Fifth Republic, took place on December 21, 1958. ... The 1965 French presidential election was the first presidential election by direct universal suffrage of the French Fifth Republic. ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: | | ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: | | ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in France | 1988 elections ... Second Round First Round See also: President of France, France, Politics of France Categories: Elections in France | 1995 elections ... The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002, and a runoff election between the top two candidates (Jacques Chirac and Jean-Marie Le Pen) on 5 May 2002. ... The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. ... French legislative election took place on March 4 and 11, 1973 to elect the 5th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place on March 12 and 19, 1978 to elect the 6th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place on June 14 and 21, 1981 to elect the 7th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... The French legislative election took place on March 16, 1986 to elect the 8th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place on June 5 and 12, 1988 to elect the 9th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place on March 21 and 28, 1993 to elect the 10th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place in May 25 and June 1, 1997 to elect the 11th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... These are the results of the French legislative election of 2002 Category: ... The French legislative elections took place on 10 June and 17 June 2007 to elect the 13th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, a few weeks after the French presidential election run-off on 6 May. ... In France, the country is often called the patrie des droits de lHomme (human rights homeland), mostly ironically by persons who complain about a perceived violation of theses rights. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... A charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. ... The honour entrance to the Ministry building on the Quai dOrsay The Minister of Foreign Affairs, in the Government of France, is the cabinet member responsible for the Republics network of relationships with foreign nations. ... This is a list of major political scandals in France: 1816 shipwreck of and search for French frigate Medusa off the west coast of Africa Dreyfus Affair, 1894 treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus - exposed by writer Emile Zola on January 13, 1898 The Ben Barka affair, 1965 disappearance of the... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Image File history File links Logo_de_la_République_française. ... Image File history File links Logo_de_la_République_française. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers, is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La...

Contents

General principles

The national government of France is divided into an executive, a legislative and a judicial branch. The President has a degree of direct executive power, but most executive power resides in his appointee, the Prime Minister. The cabinet globally, including the Prime Minister, can be revoked by the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, through a "censure motion"; this insures that the Prime Minister is always supported by a majority of the house. Chamber of the Estates-General, the Dutch legislature. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ...


Parliament comprises the National Assembly and the Senate. It passes statutes and votes on the budget; it controls the action of the executive through formal questioning on the floor of the houses of Parliament and by establishing commissions of enquiry. The constitutionality of the statutes is checked by the Constitutional Council, members of which are appointed by the President of the Republic, the President of the National Assembly, and the President of the Senate. Former Presidents of the Republic also are members of the Council. The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ...


The independent judiciary is based on a civil law system which evolved from the Napoleonic codes. It is divided into the judicial branch (dealing with civil law and criminal law) and the administrative branch (dealing with appeals against executive decisions), each with their own independent supreme court, the courts of cassation for the judicial branch and the Conseil d'Etat for the administrative branch. The French government includes various bodies that check abuses of power and independent agencies. For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... In the common law, civil law refers to the area of law governing relations between private individuals. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ...


France is a unitary state. However, the various legal subdivisions—the régions, départements and communes—have various attributions, and the national government is prohibited from intruding into their normal legal operations. A map showing the unitary states. ...


Constitution

A popular referendum approved the constitution of the French Fifth Republic in 1958, greatly strengthening the authority of the presidency and the executive with respect to Parliament. The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The constitution does contain a bill of rights in itself, but its preamble mentions that France should follow the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, as well as those of the preamble to the constitution of the Fourth Republic. This has been judged to imply that the principles laid forth in those texts have constitutional value, and that legislation infringing on those principles should be found unconstitutional if a recourse is filed before the Constitutional Council.[1] Also, a recent modification of the Constitution has added a reference in the preamble to an Environment charter that has full constitutional value.[2] A bill of rights is a list or summary of rights that are considered important and essential by a group of people. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ...


Among these foundational principles, one may cite: the equality of all citizens before law, and the rejection of special class privileges such as those that existed prior to the French Revolution; presumption of innocence; freedom of speech; freedom of opinion including freedom of religion; the guarantee of property against arbitrary seizure; the accountability of government agents to the citizenry.[3] Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ... This article is about the general concept. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...

The main processes of the French national government (most of the justice system excluded for clarity)
The main processes of the French national government (most of the justice system excluded for clarity)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x883, 118 KB) The main processes of the government of France (justice system mostly excluded) Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux (This is a rendering by Inkscape of a SVG vector image: the MediaWiki renderer used on the site does not render it... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x883, 118 KB) The main processes of the government of France (justice system mostly excluded) Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux (This is a rendering by Inkscape of a SVG vector image: the MediaWiki renderer used on the site does not render it...

Executive branch

France has an original system with an executive branch headed by two officials: the President and the Prime Minister. The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ...


President of the Republic

Main article: President of France

Under the constitution[4], the President was originally elected for a seven-year term; this has been reduced to five years. There is no term limit. The President names the Prime Minister, presides over the gouvernement (cabinet of ministers), commands the armed forces, and concludes treaties. The President may submit questions to national referendums and can dissolve the National Assembly. The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ...


All his powers are subject to countersigning ("contreseing") by the Prime Minister, except in a few cases such as the dissolution of the National Assembly.[5]


In certain emergencies the President may assume special, comprehensive powers.[6] However, in normal times, the President may pass neither legislation nor regulations, though, of course, if the Parliament is from his political side, he may strongly suggest the adoption of certain legislation, or request his Prime Minister to take such or such regulation.


In the original 1958 constitution, the President was elected by an electoral college of elected officials. However, in 1962, Charles de Gaulle obtained, through a referendum, an amendment to the constitution whereby the president would be directly elected by citizens.[7] Given France's runoff voting system,[8] this means that the presidential candidate is required to obtain a nationwide majority of non-blank votes at either the first or second round of balloting, which presumably implies that the president is somewhat supported by at least half of the voting population; this gives him considerable legitimacy. Despite his somewhat restricted de jure powers, the president thus enjoys considerable aura and effective power. An electoral college is a set of electors, who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect a candidate to a particular office. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... An example of runoff voting. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As a consequence, the President is the preeminent figure in French politics. He appoints the Prime Minister;[9] though he may not de jure dismiss him, if the Prime Minister is from the same political side, he can, in practice, have him resign on demand (and it is known that Prime Ministers are asked to sign a non-dated dismissal letter before being nominated). He appoints the ministers, ministers-delegate and secretaries. When the President's political party or supporters control parliament, the President is the dominant player in executive action, choosing whomever he wishes for the government, and having it follow his political agenda (parliamentary disagreements do occur, though, even within the same party).


However, when the President's political opponents control parliament, the President's dominance can be severely limited, as he must choose a Prime Minister and cabinet who reflect the majority in parliament, and who will implement the agenda of the parliamentary majority. When parties from opposite ends of the political spectrum control parliament and the presidency, the power-sharing arrangement is known as cohabitation. Cohabitation used to happen from time to time before 2002, because the mandate of the President was 7 years and the mandate of the Assemblée Nationale was 5 years. Now that the mandate of the President has been shortened to 5 years, and that the elections are separated by only a few months, this is less likely to happen. Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ...


Nicolas Sarkozy became President on 2007 May 16, succeeding Jacques Chirac. Nicolas Sarkozy (IPA: —  ), (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sárközy de Nagy-Bocsa) on 28 January 1955 in Paris, France is the current President of France, elected on 6 May 2007 after defeating Socialist Party contender Ségolène Royal during the second round of the 2007 election. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ...

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 22 April and 6 May 2007 French presidential election results
Candidates – Parties 1st round 2nd round
Votes % Votes %
Nicolas Sarkozy Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire) 11,448,663 31.18% 18,983,138 53.06%
Ségolène Royal Socialist Party (Parti socialiste) 9,500,112 25.87% 16,790,440 46.94%
François Bayrou Union for French Democracy (Union pour la démocratie française) 6,820,119 18.57%
Jean-Marie Le Pen National Front (Front national) 3,834,530 10.44%
Olivier Besancenot Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) 1,498,581 4.08%
Philippe de Villiers Movement for France (Mouvement pour la France) 818,407 2.23%
Marie-George Buffet Popular and anti-liberal Left, supported by the French Communist Party (gauche populaire et antilibérale, soutenue par le Parti communiste français) 707,268 1.93%
Dominique Voynet The Greens (Les Verts) 576,666 1.57%
Arlette Laguiller Workers' Struggle (Lutte ouvrière) 487,857 1.33%
José Bové Alter-globalization activist 483,008 1.32%
Frédéric Nihous Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Tradition (Chasse, pêche, nature, traditions) 420,645 1.15%
Gérard Schivardi Workers' Party (Parti des travailleurs) 123,540 0.34%
Total 36,719,396 35,773,578
 
Votes cast 36,719,396 98.56% 35,773,578 95.80%
Spoilt and null votes 534,846 1.44% 1,568,426 4.20%
Voters 37,254,242 83.77% 37,342,004 83.97%
Abstentions 7,218,592 16.23% 7,130,729 16.03%
Registered voters 44,472,834 44,472,733
Table of results - ordered by number of votes received in first round, official results by Constitutional Council. List of candidates source: Decision of March 19, 2007 by the Constitutional Council.

First round results source: Official first round results announced on April 25, 2007.
Second round results source: Official second round results announced on May 10, 2007. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Nicolas Sarkozy (IPA: —  ), (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sárközy de Nagy-Bocsa) on 28 January 1955 in Paris, France is the current President of France, elected on 6 May 2007 after defeating Socialist Party contender Ségolène Royal during the second round of the 2007 election. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... Marie-Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953 in Dakar, Senegal, then a French colony), known as  , (IPA: ) is a French politician. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is one of the largest political parties in France. ... François Bayrou François Bayrou (IPA: ) is a leading candidate for the French Presidental election of 2007. ... The Union for French Democracy, also known by its French acronym UDF (Union pour la Démocratie Française), is a French centrist political party. ... Jean-Marie Le Pen Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party, and a candidate for the French presidency. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... Olivier Besancenot Olivier Besancenot (born April 18, 1974) is a French left-wing political figure. ... LCR protesters marching in a workforce demonstration in favour of public services and against privatisation The Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) (LCR) is a French Trotskyist political party. ... Philippe de Villiers in Toulouse in April 2007 Philippe de Villiers (born Viscount Philippe Le Jolis de Villiers de Saintignon on March 25, 1949) was the Mouvement pour la France nominee for the French presidential election of 2007. ... The Movement for France (French: Mouvement pour la France), or MPF, is a French conservative, traditionalist and nationalist party, founded on November 20, 1994, with a marked regional implementation in Vendée. ... Marie-George Buffet. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Dominique Voynet Dominique Voynet (born 4 November 1958 in Montbéliard, Doubs département, France) is a French senator for the département of Seine-Saint-Denis, and a member of the The Greens. ... Les Verts (or The Greens) are an ecologist political party to the left of the political spectrum in France. ... Arlette Laguiller (born March 18, 1940) is the spokeswoman and by far the best known leader of the Lutte Ouvrière French Trotskyist political party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anti-globalization. ... Frédéric Nihous during the 2007 presidential campaign Frédéric Nihous (born August 15, 1967) is a French politician from the Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Traditions party. ... CPNT symbol Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Tradition (French: Chasse, Pêche, Nature, Traditions) is a French political party of the right, which aims to defend the traditional values of rural France. ... Gérard Schivardi Gérard Schivardi (born April 17, 1950) is a French politician. ... The Party of the Workers (Parti des Travailleurs or PT), is a French Trotskyist party. ...

The Government

The gouvernement is headed by the Prime Minister.[10] It has at its disposal the civil service, the government agencies, and the armed forces.[11] (The term "cabinet" is rarely used to describe the gouvernement, even in translation, as it is used in French to mean a minister's private office, composed of politically-appointed aides. In French, the word gouvernement can refer to government in general, but generally refers to the cabinet.) The French Civil Service (French: fonction publique française) is the set of civil servants (fonctionnaires) working for the French government. ... The Military of France has a very long history, greatly influential in World history, of serving its country. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...


The gouvernement is responsible to Parliament,[12] and the National Assembly may pass a motion of censure,[13] forcing the resignation of the cabinet. This, in practice, forces the gouvernement to be from the same political stripe as the majority in the Assembly. Ministers have to answer questions from members of Parliament, both written and oral; this is known as the questions au gouvernement (questions to the government).[14] In addition, ministers attend meetings of the houses of Parliament when laws pertaining to their areas of responsibility are being discussed.


Government ministers cannot pass legislation without parliamentary approval, though the Prime Minister may issue autonomous regulations or subordinated regulations (décrets d'application) provided they do not infringe on the Parliament domain, as detailed in the constitution. Ministers, however, can propose legislation to Parliament; since the Assembly is from the same political stripe as the ministers, such legislation is, in general, very likely to pass. However, this is not guaranteed, and, on occasion, the opinion of the majority parliamentarians may differ significantly from those of the executive, which often results in a large number of amendments. French government ministers are members of the Prime Ministers cabinet, although in French the term cabinet is rarely used to describe the gouvernement, even in translation (as it is used in French to mean a ministers private office, composed of politically-appointed aides). ...


The Prime Minister can engage the responsibility of his government on a law, under article 49-3 of the Constitution. The law is then considered adopted unless the National Assembly votes a motion of censure, in which case the law is refused and the government has to resign. As of 2006, the last time this article was invoked was for the "First Employment Contract" proposed by Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin,[15] a move that greatly backfired.[16] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Demonstration against CPE, March 28, 2006, Paris Jussieu en lutte (Jussieu is fighting), Villepin va précariser. ...

Politics of France
Government of France
President of the Republic
Prime Minister

Ministers: This article is about political groups and tendencies in France. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... French government ministers are members of the Prime Ministers cabinet, although in French the term cabinet is rarely used to describe the gouvernement, even in translation (as it is used in French to mean a ministers private office, composed of politically-appointed aides). ...

Presidents of the Senate

and National Assembly The honour entrance to the Ministry building on the Quai dOrsay The Minister of Foreign Affairs, in the Government of France, is the cabinet member responsible for the Republics network of relationships with foreign nations. ... The entrance to the Ministry in Place Beauvau is guarded by one gendarme (to the left) and one policewoman (to the right). ... The new ministry building in Bercy, Paris The Minister of the Economy, Finance and Industry (Ministre de lEconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrie), or Minister of Finances for short, is one of the most prominent positions in the cabinet of France after the Prime Minister. ... The Minister of Defence (Ministre de la Défense) is the French government cabinet member charged with running the military of France. ... The French Minister of Justice (Ministre de la Justice) is an important cabinet official in the Government of France. ... Categories: French government | France-related stubs | Education in France ... The Minister of Culture and Communications is, in the Government of France, the cabinet member in charge of national museums and monuments; promoting and protecting the arts (visual, plastic, theatrical, musical, dance, architectural, literary, televisual and cinematographic) in France and abroad; and managing the national archives and regional maisons de... The Minister of Public Works was a cabinet member in the Government of France. ... The Minister of Tourism is a cabinet member in the Government of France, frequently combined with Minister of Transportation, Minister of Public Works (Ministre de lEquipement), Minister of Housing (Logement), Minister of Territorial Development (Aménagement du territoire) and Minister of the Sea. ... The Minister of the Sea is a cabinet member in the Government of France. ... The Minister of Social Affairs and Employment is a cabinet member in the Government of France. ... The Minister of Housing (French: ) is a cabinet member in the Government of France. ... The Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports (Ministre de la Jeunesse et des Sports, alternatively translated Minister of Youth and Sports) is, in the Government of France, the cabinet member in charge of national and public sport associations, youth affairs, public sports centers and national stadia (like the Stade de... The Minister of Overseas France (Ministre de lOutremer, formerly Minister of Overseas France and her Colonies) is a cabinet member in the Government of France responsible for overseeing French overseas departments and territories (such as the département doutre-mer). ... The French Senate is the Upper House of the French Parliament. ... This page lists Presidents of the French parliament (or, as the case may be, of its lower Chamber). ...

edit box

Traditionally, the gouvernement comprises members of three ranks. Ministers are the most senior members of the government; ministers-delegate (ministres délégués) assist ministers in particular areas of their portfolio; secretaries of state (secrétaires d'État) assist ministers in less important areas, and attend cabinet meetings only occasionally. Before the Fifth Republic, some ministers of particular political importance were called "ministers of state" (ministres d'État); the practice has continued under the Fifth Republic in a purely honorific fashion: ministers styled Minister of State are supposed to be of a higher importance in the gouvernement. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The number of ministries and the splitting of responsibilities and administrations between them varies from government to government. While the name and exact areas of responsibility of each ministry may change, one generally finds at least:

(For more on French ministries, see French government ministers) The Minister of the Economy, Finance and Industry (Ministre de lEconomie, des Finances et de lIndustrie), or Minister of Finances for short, is arguably the third most important official in the French government, after the President and Prime Minister. ... Categories: French government | Stub ... Categories: French government | Stub ... Categories: French government | France-related stubs | Education in France ... Categories: French government | Stub ... In 1589, the four French Secretaries of State became specialized, with one of the secretaries responsible for foreign affairs. ... The Minister of Transporation is a cabinet member in the Government of France. ... French government ministers are members of the Prime Ministers cabinet, although in French the term cabinet is rarely used to describe the gouvernement, even in translation (as it is used in French to mean a ministers private office, composed of politically-appointed aides). ...


The gouvernement has a leading role in shaping the agenda of the houses of Parliament. It may propose laws to Parliament, as well as amendments during parliamentary meetings. It may make use of some procedures to speed up parliamentary deliberations.


The cabinet has weekly meetings (usually on Wednesday mornings), chaired by the President, at the Élysée Palace. The entrance to the Élysée Palace. ...


Following the election of Nicolas Sarkozy as President of the French Republic, François Fillon replaced Dominique de Villepin as the French Prime Minister on May 17, 2007. Nicolas Sarkozy (IPA: —  ), (born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sárközy de Nagy-Bocsa) on 28 January 1955 in Paris, France is the current President of France, elected on 6 May 2007 after defeating Socialist Party contender Ségolène Royal during the second round of the 2007 election. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ...


Executive-issued regulations and legislation

The French executive has a limited power to establish regulation or legislation. (See below for how such regulations or legislative items interact with statute law.)


Decrees and other executive decisions

Only the President and Prime Minister sign decrees (décrets), which are akin to US executive orders. Decrees can only be taken following certain procedures and with due respect to the constitution and statute law. Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... The presidential seal was used by Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ...

  • The President signs decrees naming and dismissing most senior civil and military servants, for positions listed in the Constitution or in Statutes. He also signs decrees establishing some regulations (décrets en conseil des ministres). All such decrees must be countersigned by the Prime Minister and the ministers concerned.
  • The Prime Minister signs decrees establishing regulations, which the concerned ministers countersign. In some areas, they constitute primary legislation, in some others they must be subordinate to an existing statute. In some cases, statutes impose a compulsory advisory review by the Conseil d'État (décrets en Conseil d'État), as opposed to décrets simples.[17]

The individual ministers take administrative decisions (arrêtés) in their fields of competence, subordinate to statutes and decrees. Primary legislation is legislation made by the legislative branch of government. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ...


Contrary to a sometimes used polemical cliché, that dates from the third republic, with its decrees-law (décrets-lois), neither the president nor the prime minister may rule by decree (outside of the narrow case of presidential emergency powers). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators and absolute monarchs. ...


Ordinances

The executive cannot issue decrees in areas that the Constitution puts under the responsibility of legislation, issued by Parliament. Still, Parliament may, through a habilitation law, authorize the executive to issue ordinances (ordonnances), with legislative value, in precisely defined areas.[18] Habilitation laws specify the scope of the ordinance. After the ordinance is issued, Parliament is asked whether it wants to ratify it. If Parliament votes no to ratification, the ordinance is cancelled. Most of the time, ratification is made implicitly or explicitly through a Parliament act that deals with the subject concerned, rather than by the ratification act itself.[19] Decree is an order that has the force of law. ...


The use of ordinances are often reserved for urgent matters, or for technical, uncontroversial texts (such as the ordinances that converted all sums in French Francs to Euros in the various laws in force in France).[20] There is also a practice to use ordinances to transpose European Directives into French law, in order to avoid late transposition of Directive, which is often happening and is criticized by the EU Commission. Ordinances are also used to codify law into codes, in order to rearrange them for the sake of clarity without substantially modifying them. They are also sometimes used to push controversial legislation through, such as when Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin created new forms of work contracts in 2005.[21] The use of ordinances in such contexts is then criticized by the opposition as anti-democratic, and demeaning to Parliament. It must be said, however, that since the National Assembly can dismiss the government through a motion of censure, the government necessarily relies on a majority in Parliament, and this majority would be likely to adopt the controversial law anyway. ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... The legislative acts of the European Union (EU) can have different forms: regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Internal limits of the executive branch; checks and balances

The general rule is that government agencies and the civil service are at the disposal of the gouvernement, or cabinet. However, various agencies[22] are independent agencies (autorités administratives indépendantes)[23] that have been statutorily excluded from the executive's authority, although they belong in the executive branch.


These independent agencies have some specialized regulatory power, some executive power, and some quasi-judicial power. They are also often consulted by the government or the French Parliament seeking advice before regulating by law. They can impose sanctions that are named "administrative sanctions" sanctions administratives. However, their decisions can still be contested face to a judicial court or an administrative court. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Some examples of independent agencies:

Public media corporations should not be influenced in their news reporting by the executive in power, since they have the duty to supply the public with unbiased information. For instance, the Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an independent public corporation. Its resources must come solely from its commercial sales. The majority of the seats in its board are held by representatives of the French press. One of the Banque de Frances offices in Paris. ... The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) is composed of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 25 EU Member States. ... “TV” redirects here. ... Public broadcasting is a form of public service broadcasting (PSB) intended to serve the diverse needs of the viewing or listening public. ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...


The government also provides for watchdogs over its own activities; these independent administrative authorities are headed by a commission typically composed of senior lawyers or members of the Parliament. Each of the two chambers of the Parliament often has its own commission, but sometimes they collaborate to create a single Commission nationale mixte paritaire. For example: A watchdog originally referred to a dogs job, but now has been used in additional contexts with the same implication of watching or safeguarding: For the dogs job, see guard dog. ...

  • The National Commission for Computing & Freedom (Commission nationale informatique et libertés (CNIL)); public services must request authorization from it before establishing a file with personal information, and they must heed its recommendations; private bodies must only declare their files; citizens have recourse before the commission against abuses.
  • The National Commission for the Control of Security Interceptions (Commission nationale de contrôle des interceptions de sécurité (CNCIS)); the executive, in a limited number of circumstances concerning national security, may request an authorization from the commission for wiretaps (in other circumstances, wiretaps may only be authorized within a judicially-administered criminal investigation).

In addition, the duties of public service limit the power that the executive has over the French Civil Service. For instance, appointments, except for the highest positions (the national directors of agencies and administrations), must be made solely on merit or time in office, typically in competitive exams. Certain civil servants have statuses that prohibit executive interference; for instance, judges and prosecutors may be named or moved only according to specific procedures. Public researchers and university professors enjoy academic freedom; by law, they enjoy complete freedom of speech within the ordinary constraints of academia. The French Civil Service (French: fonction publique française) is the set of civil servants (fonctionnaires) working for the French government. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system. ... Academic freedom is the freedom of teachers, students, and academic institutions to pursue knowledge wherever it may lead, without undue or unreasonable interference. ...


Some important directorates and establishments

The government also provides specialized agencies for regulating critical markets or limited resources, and markets created by regulations. Although, as part of the administration, they are subordinate to the ministers, they often act with high independence.

  • The General Directorate of Competition, Consumption & Repression of Frauds (Direction générale de la concurrence, de la consommation et de la répression des fraudes (DGCCRF)) regulates and controls the legality and safety of products and services available on the markets open to competition for all economical actors and private consumers, and can deliver administrative sanctions in case of abuses.
  • The General Directorate of Civil Aviation (Direction générale de l’aviation civile (DGAC)) regulates the traffic in the national air space and delivers the authorizations for airways companies and other private or public organizations and people.
  • The National Agency for Employment (Agence nationale pour l’emploi (ANPE)) maintained a public registry for the allocation of social benefits to unemployed people (but now a single registry is shared with the independent ASSEDIC paying them, a joint association of employers and workers unions), assists them as well as employers seeking people, and controls them. The French State names its general director and the Paliament provides for its finances and personnel, but it only owns one third of the seats at its decision board of directors (the other seats are shared equally by unions of employers and workers).
  • The National Agency of Frequencies (Agence nationale des fréquences (ANFR)), a public establishment of an administrative character,[24] regulates and maintains the allocation of spectral radiofrequencies resources along with other international frequencies regulators and national regulators (the CSA and ARCEP) or public ministries, controls the operators on the national territory, and publishes compliance standards for manufacturers of radioelectric equipments.

Organization of government services

Each ministry has a central administration (administration centrale), generally divided into directorates. These directorates are usually subdivided into divisions or sub-directorates. Each direction is headed by a director, named by the President in Council. The central administration largely stays the same regardless of the political tendency of the executive in power.


In addition, each minister has a private office, which is composed of members whose nomination is politically determined, called the cabinet. They are quite important and employ numbers of highly qualified staff to follow all the administrative and political affairs. They are powerful, and have been sometimes considered as a parallel administration, especially, but not only, in all matters that are politically sensitive. Each cabinet is lead by a chief of staff named directeur de cabinet.


The state also has distributive services spread throughout French territory, often reflecting divisions into régions or départements. The prefect, the representative of the national government in each région or département, supervises the activities of the distributive services in his jurisdiction. Generally, the services of a certain administration in a région or département are managed by a high-level civil servant, often called director, but not always; for instance, the services of the Trésor public (Treasury) in each département are headed by a treasurer-paymaster general, appointed by the President of the Republic. In the last several decades, the departmental conseil général (see "Local Government" below) has taken on new responsibilities and plays an important role in administrating government services at the local level. France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... The Trésor public (Public treasury) is the national administration of the Treasury in France. ...


The government also maintains public establishments. These have a relative administrative and financial autonomy, in order to accomplish a defined mission. They are attached to one or more supervising authorities. These are classified into several categories:

  • public establishments of an administrative character, including, for instance:
    • universities, and most public establishments of higher education;
    • etablishments of a research and technical character, such as CNRS or INRIA;
  • public establishments of an industrial and commercial character, including, for instance, CEA and Ifremer.

One essential difference is that in administrations and public establishments of an administrative character operate under public law, while establishments of an industrial and commercial character operate mostly under private law. A consequence is that in the former, permanent personnel are civil servants, while normally in the latter, they are contract employees. The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) is one of the most prominent scientific research institutions in France. ... The Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique (INRIA) is a French national research institution focusing on computer science, control theory and applied mathematics. ... The Commissariat à lÉnergie Atomique or CEA, the Atomic Energy Commisson, in English, is a French public establishment of an industrial and commercial character whose mission is to develop all applications of atomic energy, both civilian and military. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...


In addition, the government still owns and controls all the shares or the majority of shares of some companies, like Electricité de France, SNCF or Areva. Électricité de France (EDF) is the main electricity generation and distribution company in France. ... SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company) is a French public enterprise. ... AREVA (Euronext: CEI) is a France-based multinational industrial conglomerate that deals in energy, especially in nuclear power. ...


Social security organizations, though established by statute and controlled and supervised by the state, are not operated nor directly controlled by the national government. Instead, they are managed by the "social partners" (partenaires sociaux) – unions of employers such as the MEDEF and unions of employees. Their budget is separate from the national budget. Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... The Mouvement des Entreprises de France or MEDEF (in English: Movement of the French Enterprises) is the largest union of employers in France. ...


Legislative branch

Main article: Parliament of France

The Parliament of France, making up the legislative branch, consists of two houses: the National Assembly and the Senate; the Assembly is the pre-eminent body. The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ...


Parliament meets for one 9-month session each year: under special circumstances the president can call an additional session. Although parliamentary powers have diminished from those existing under the Fourth Republic, the National Assembly can still cause a government to fall if an absolute majority of the total Assembly membership votes to censure. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The cabinet has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament. The government also can link its term to a legislative text which it proposes, and unless a motion of censure is introduced (within 24 hours after the proposal) and passed (within 48 hours of introduction - thus full procedures last at most 72 hours), the text is considered adopted without a vote.


Members of Parliament enjoy parliamentary immunity.[25] Both assemblies have committees that write reports on a variety of topics. If necessary, they can establish parliamentary enquiry commissions with broad investigative power. Parliamentary immunity is a system in which members of the parliament are granted partial immunity from prosecution. ...


National Assembly

The National Assembly sits in the Palais Bourbon, by the Seine.
The National Assembly sits in the Palais Bourbon, by the Seine.

The National Assembly is the principal legislative body. Its 577 deputies are directly elected for 5-year terms in local majority votes, and all seats are voted on in each election. Download high resolution version (2168x996, 382 KB)View of the Palais Bourbon (French National Assembly), front Copyright (c) 2003 David Monniaux File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2168x996, 382 KB)View of the Palais Bourbon (French National Assembly), front Copyright (c) 2003 David Monniaux File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The Palais Bourbon, a palace located in Paris, France, is the seat of the French National Assembly, the lower legislative chamber of the French government. ... This article is about the river in France; it should not be confused with the Senne, a much smaller river that flows through Brussels. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ...


The National Assembly may force the resignation of the executive cabinet by voting a motion of censure. For this reason, the prime minister and his cabinet are necessarily from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly. In the case of a president and assembly from opposing parties, this leads to the situation known as cohabitation. While motions of censure are periodically proposed by the opposition following government actions that it deems highly inappropriate, they are purely rhetorical; party discipline ensures that, throughout a parliamentary term, the government is never overthrown by the Assembly. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ...


Latest election

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 10 and 17 June 2007 French National Assembly elections results
Parties and coalitions 1st round 2nd round Total seats
Votes % Seats Votes %
Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire) UMP 10,289,028 39.54 98 9,463,408 46.37 313
New Centre (Nouveau centre) NC 616,443 2.37 7 432,921 2.12 22
Miscellaneous right-wing DVD 641 600 2.47 2 238,585 1.17 9
Movement for France (Mouvement pour la France) MPF 312 587 1.20 1 - - 1
Total "Presidential Majority" (Right) 11,859,658 45,58 345
Socialist Party (Parti socialiste) PS 6,436,136 24.73 1 8,622,529 42.25 186
French Communist Party (Parti communiste français) PCF 1 115 719 4.29 0 464,739 2.28 15
Miscellaneous left-wing DVG 513 457 1.97 0 503,674 2.47 15
Left Radical Party (Parti radical de gauche) PRG 343 580 1.31 0 333,189 1.63 7
The Greens (Les Verts) VEC 845 884 3.25 0 90,975 0.45 4
Total "United Left" 9,254,776 35,55 227
Democratic Movement (Mouvement démocrate) MoDem 1,981,121 7.61 0 100,106 0.49 3
Regionalists and separatists 131,585 0.51 106,459 0,52 1
Miscellaneous DIV 267,987 1.03 0 33,068 0.16 1
National Front (Front national) FN 1 116 005 4.29 0 17,107 0.08 0
Other far-left including Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) and Workers' Struggle (Lutte ouvrière) ExG 887 887 3.41 0 - - 0
Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Traditions (Chasse, pêche, nature, traditions) CPNT 213 448 0.82 0 - - 0
Other ecologists 208 465 0.80 0 - - 0
Other far-right including National Republican Movement (Mouvement national républicain) ExD 102 100 0.39 0 - - 0
Total 26 023 052 100 110 21,130,346 100 577
Abstention: 39.56% (1st round), - 40.01% (2nd round)

Source: www.election-politique.com, The seats are confirmed by the Ministry of the Interior. See Députés de la XIIIe législature for a list of elected deputies. The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... New Centre (Nouveau Centre, NC), also known as the European Social Liberal Party (Parti Social Libéral Européen, PSLE) is a political party in France, formed by the members of the Union for French Democracy (UDF) – including a majority of former parliamentarians (18 of 29 members of the UDF... The Movement for France (French: Mouvement pour la France), or MPF, is a French conservative, traditionalist and nationalist party, founded on November 20, 1994, with a marked regional implementation in Vendée. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is one of the largest political parties in France. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Left Radical Party (French: or PRG) is a minor French centre-left, social-liberal party with moderate views, formed in 1972 by a split from the Radical, Republican and Radical-Socialists Party, once the dominant party of the French left. ... Les Verts (or The Greens) are an ecologist political party to the left of the political spectrum in France. ... The Democratic Movement (Mouvement démocrate, MoDem) is a centrist and pro-European French political party that was founded by centrist politician François Bayrou to succeed his Union for French Democracy and to contest the 2007 parliamentary election, after his strong showing in the 2007 presidential election. ... This article is about the French political party, not the WWII French resistance movement Front national. ... LCR protesters marching in a workforce demonstration in favour of public services and against privatisation The Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) (LCR) is a French Trotskyist political party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CPNT symbol Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Tradition (French: Chasse, Pêche, Nature, Traditions) is a French political party of the right, which aims to defend the traditional values of rural France. ... The National Republican Movement (Mouvement National Républicain or MNR) is a French far-right political party, created by Bruno Mégret as a split from Jean-Marie Le Pens National Front. ...

Senate

The Senate's amphitheater
The Senate's amphitheater
Main article: French Senate

Senators are chosen by an electoral college of about 145,000 local elected officials for 6-year terms, and one half of the Senate is renewed every 3 years. Before the law of 30 July 2004, senators were elected for 9 years, renewed by thirds every 3 years. There are currently 321 senators, but there will be 346 in 2010; 304 represent the metropolitan and overseas départements, five the other dependencies and 12 the French established abroad. Image File history File links French_Senate_amphitheater_050917_162927. ... Image File history File links French_Senate_amphitheater_050917_162927. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ...


The Senate's legislative powers are limited; on most matters of legislation, the National Assembly has the last word in the event of a disagreement between the two houses.


Since the beginning of the Fifth Republic, the Senate has always had a right-wing majority. This is mostly due to the over-representation of small villages compared to big cities. This, and the indirect mode of election, prompted socialist Lionel Jospin, who was prime minister at the time, to declare the Senate an "anomaly".[26] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Lionel Robert Jospin (born July 12, 1937 in Meudon, a suburb of Paris) is a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997-2002. ...


Legislation adoption procedures

Statute legislation may be proposed by the government (council of ministers), or by members of Parliament. In the first case, it is a projet de loi; in the latter case, a proposition de loi. All projets de loi must undergo compulsory advisory review by the Conseil d'État before being submitted to parliament.[27] Propositions de loi cannot increase the financial load of the state without providing for funding.[28] In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ...


Projets de loi start in the house the government chooses (except in some narrow cases[29]), propositions de loi start in the house where they originated. After the house has amended and voted on the text, it is sent to the other house, which can also amend it. If the houses do not choose to adopt the text in identical terms, it is sent before a commission made of equal numbers of members of both houses, which tries to harmonize the text. If it does not manage to do so, the National Assembly can vote the text and have the final say on it (except for laws related to the organization of the Senate).[30]


The law is then sent to the President of France for signature.[31] At this point, the President of France, the speaker of either house or a delegation of 60 deputies or 60 senators can ask for the text to undergo constitutional review before being put into force;[32] it is then sent before the Constitutional Council. The President can also, only once per law and with the countersigning of the Prime minister, send the law back to parliament for another review.[33] Otherwise, the President must sign the law. After being countersigned by the Prime minister and the concerned ministers,[34] it is then sent to the Journal Officiel for publication.[35] The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... The Journal Officiel de la République Française (JORF or JO) is the official gazette of the French Republic. ...


Budget

See also: Taxation in France.
The first page of the LOLF
The first page of the LOLF

The Finance Bills (lois de finances) and the financing law of social security (lois de financement de la sécurité sociale) are special bills, voted following specific procedures. Taxation in France is determined by the yearly vote of the budget by the French Parliament, which determine what kind of taxes (or quasi-taxes) can be levied and which rates can be applied. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (648x857, 139 KB) Ce document est une reproduction dun texte officiel (loi, règlement etc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (648x857, 139 KB) Ce document est une reproduction dun texte officiel (loi, règlement etc. ...


Because of the importance of allowing government and social security organizations to proceed with the payment of their suppliers, employees, and recipients, without risk of a being stopped by parliamentary discord, these bills are specially constrained. In the past, parliamentarians would often add unrelated amendments (cavaliers budgétaires) to the finance bills, in order to get such amendments passed – because of the reduced time in which the budget is examined. However, these are nowadays considered unconstitutional. If Parliament cannot agree on a budget within some specified reasonable bounds, the government is entitled to adopt a budget through ordinances: this threat prevents parliamentarians from threatening to bankrupt the executive. Decree is an order that has the force of law. ...


The way the Finance Bill is organized, and the way the government has to execute the budget, were deeply reformed in 2001 by the Loi organique n°2001-692 du 1er août 2001 relative aux lois de finances, generally known as the LOLF. Because of the major changes involved, the application of the law was gradual, and the first budget to be fully passed under LOLF will be the 2006 budget, passed in late 2005. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


The LOLF divides expenses according to identifiable "missions" (which can be subdivided into sub-missions etc.). The performance of the administration and public bodies will be evaluated with respect to these missions.


The budget of the national government was forecast to be 288.8 billion Euro in 2005. This includes neither Social Security, nor the budgets of local governments. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Multiple mandates

It has long been customary for members of parliaments to have, in addition to their mandate as deputy or senator, some local mandate, such as mayor of a city; thus, the phrases "deputy-mayor" (député-maire) and "senator-mayor" (sénateur-maire). This is known as the cumul of electoral mandates. Proponents of the cumul allege that having local responsibilities ensures that members of parliament stay in contact with the reality of their constituency; also, they are said to be able to defend the interest of their city etc. better by having a seat in parliament.


In recent years, the cumul has been increasingly criticized. Critics contend that lawmakers that also have some local mandate cannot be assiduous to both tasks; for instance, they may neglect their duties to attend parliamentary sittings and commission in order to attend to tasks in their constituency. The premise that holders of dual office can defend the interest of their city etc. in the National Parliament is criticized in that national lawmakers should have the national interest in their mind, not the advancement of the projects of the particular city they are from. Finally, this criticism is part of a wider criticism of the political class as a cozy, closed world in which the same people make a long career from multiple positions.


As a consequence, laws that restrict the possibilities of having multiple mandates have been enacted.


Economic and Social Council

The Economic and Social Council is a consultative assembly. It does not play a role in the adoption of statutes and regulations, but advises the lawmaking bodies on questions of social and economic policies. The Economic and Social Council of France is a consultative assembly. ... The Consultation was a 19th century meeting of the Texas colonists who were in open rebellion against the Republic of Mexico in 1835. ...


The executive may refer any question or proposal of social or economic importance to the Economic and Social Council.


The Economic and Social Council publishes reports, which are sent to the Prime Minister, the National Assembly, and the Senate. They are published in the Journal Officiel. The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The Journal Officiel de la République Française (JORF or JO) is the official gazette of the French Republic. ...


Judiciary

Main article: Justice in France

France's political system, in keeping with rule of law, has an independent judiciary, meaning that it has court systems whose decisions are not de jure controlled by the executive or legislative branches. France has a system of civil law, but jurisprudence plays an important role similar to that of case law. // Glossary and basic concepts Note: There exist significant problems with applying non-French terminology and concepts related to law and justice to the French justice system. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Case law (precedential law) is the body of judge-made law and legal decisions that interprets prior case law, statutes and other legal authority -- including doctrinal writings by legal scholars such as the Corpus Juris Secundum, Halsburys Laws of England or the doctinal writings found in the Recueil Dalloz...


The most distinctive feature of the French judicial system is that it is divided into the judicial and the administrative orders of courts.


Judicial Order

The judicial order of courts judges civil and penal cases. It consists of, in first instance: courts, courts of appeal, and the Cour de cassation at its helm. The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ...


Judges are civil servants, but enjoy special statutory protection from the executive. They may not be moved or promoted without their consent. Their careers are overseen by the High Council of the Magistracy.


The prosecution service, on the other hand, responds to the Minister of Justice. This has in the past led to suspicions of pressures to drop litigation against politicians suspected of corruption, and the topic of the status of the prosecutors comes up regularly in political discussions.


Trial by jury is used in the judgment of the most severe crimes, by the Courts of Assizes. The full court – 3 judges and 9 jurors (12 jurors on appeal) – determines first guilt, then, if guilty, the sentence. Jurors are drawn at random from voters' rolls. For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ...


Pre-judgment proceedings are inquisitorial, but the actual court appearance is rather adversarial. This article is about the inquisitorial system for organizing court proceedings. ... The adversarial system (or adversary system) of law is the system of law, generally adopted in common law countries, that relies on the skill of the different advocates representing their partys positions and not on some neutral party, usually the judge, trying to ascertain the truth of the case. ...


The burden of proof in criminal proceedings is on the prosecution, and the accused is constitutionally presumed innocent until declared guilty. In the common law, burden of proof is the obligation to prove allegations which are presented in a legal action. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ...


Certain specialized courts of first instance are staffed with elected judges. For instance, courts deciding cases of labor law are staffed with an equal number of judges from employers' unions and employees' unions. A similar arrangement holds for courts dealing with rural land leases.


Administrative Order

The Conseil d'État sits in the Palais Royal

The Administrative Order of Courts judges most litigations against public bodies. It consists of administrative tribunals, administrative courts of appeals, and the Conseil d'État at litigation at its helm. Download high resolution version (2588x1324, 640 KB)Photo of the Palais Royal (Conseil dEtat) in Paris Copyright (c) 2003 David Monniaux File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2588x1324, 640 KB)Photo of the Palais Royal (Conseil dEtat) in Paris Copyright (c) 2003 David Monniaux File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ...


The Conseil d'État hears cases against executive decisions and has the power to squash governmental decisions and regulations if they do not conform to applicable constitutional or statutory law, or to the general principles of law. In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ...


The proceedings are essentially written and inquisitorial, with both parties being called by the judges to explain themselves in writing. Writing is the process of inscribing characters on a medium, with the intention of forming words and other larger language constructs. ... This article is about the inquisitorial system for organizing court proceedings. ...


Constitutional Council

Neither the judiciary nor the administrative courts can rule upon the constitutionality of statutory law. While technically not part of the judiciary, the Constitutional Council examines legislation and decides whether it conforms to the constitution and treaties, prior to its promulgation: in all cases for organic laws, and only under referral from the President of the Republic, the President of the Senate, the President of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister or 60 senators or 60 members of the National Assembly for normal laws. The Constitutional Council may refuse statutes as unconstitutional, including if they contradict the principles of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (cited in the preamble of the Constitution) or the European Convention on Human Rights (accepted by treaty). A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... Statutory law is written law (as opposed to oral or customary law) set down by a legislature or other governing authority such as the executive branch of government in response to a perceived need to clarify the functioning of government, improve civil order, answer a public need, to codify existing... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... “ECHR” redirects here. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Constitutional Council comprises members appointed for nine years (three every three years): three members appointed by the President, three members appointed by the President of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the President of the Senate.


Financial jurisdictions

The Court of Accounts (Cour des Comptes), assisted by regional accounting courts, audits the finances of the State, public institutions (including other jurisditions) and public bodies. It publishes a yearly official report and may refer criminal matters to prosecutors. It can also directly fine public accountants for mishandling of funds, and refer civil servants who misused funds to the Court of Financial and Budgetary Discipline. The Cour des Comptes (Court of Accounts, also translated into Court of Financial Auditors) is a institution of the Government of France whose duty is to audit public institutions, as well as some private institutions. ...


The Court and the chambers do not judge the accountants of private organizations. However, in some circumstances, they may audit their accounting, especially when they are candidate to, or are operating have a concession of a public service or a service requiring the permanent use of the public domain, or when they are candidates for public markets open to competition though calls of offers. The Court is often sollicitated by various state agencies, parlementary commissions and public regulators, but it can also be invoked by any French citizen or organization operating in France.


The Court itself is controlled by financial commissions of the two chambers of the French Parlement who provides its working budget in the yearly Act of finances.


Ombudsman

In 1973 the position of médiateur de la République (the Republic's ombudsman) was created. The ombudsman is charged with solving, without the need to a recourse before the courts, the disagreements between citizens and the administrations and other entities charged with a mission of a public service; proposing reforms to the Government and the administrations in order to further these goals; and actively participating in the international promotion of human rights. For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... An ombudsman (English plural: ombudsmans or ombudsmen) is an official, usually (but not always) appointed by the government or by parliament, who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints reported by individual citizens. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


The ombudsman is appointed for a period of 6 years by the President of the Republic in the Council of Ministers. He cannot be removed from office and is protected for his official actions by an immunity similar to parliamentary immunity. He does not receive or accept orders from any authority. The current ombudsman is Jean-Paul Delevoye. Parliamentary immunity is a system in which members of the parliament are granted partial immunity from prosecution. ...


French law

Basic principles

The basic principles that the French Republic must respect are found in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
The basic principles that the French Republic must respect are found in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

France uses a civil law system; that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it (though the amount of judge interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law). Download high resolution version (476x604, 46 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (476x604, 46 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Case law (precedential law) is the body of judge-made law and legal decisions that interprets prior case law, statutes and other legal authority -- including doctrinal writings by legal scholars such as the Corpus Juris Secundum, Halsburys Laws of England or the doctinal writings found in the Recueil Dalloz...


Many fundamental principles of French Law were laid in the Napoleonic Codes. Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code: laws can only address the future and not the past (ex post facto laws are prohibited); to be applicable, laws must have been officially published (see Journal Officiel). First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... An ex post facto law (Latin for from a thing done afterward), also known as a retrospective law, is a law that is retroactive, i. ... The Journal Officiel de la République Française (JORF or JO) is the official gazette of the French Republic. ...


In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the general rule is that of freedom, and law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society. As Guy Canivet, first president of the Court of Cassation, said about what should be the rule in French law:[36] Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... Guy Canivet in full judicial dress. ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ...

Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality.

That is, law may lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.


France does not recognize religious law, nor does it recognize religious beliefs as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. As a consequence, France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws (the latter being abolished in 1789). In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ... sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ...


Statute law vs executive regulations

French law differentiates between statutes (loi), generally adopted by the legislative branch, and regulations (règlement, instituted by décrets), issued by the prime minister. There also exist secondary regulation called arrêtés, issued by ministers, subordinates acting in their names, or local authorities; these may only be taken in areas of competency and within the scope delineated by primary legislation. There are also more and more regulations issued by independent agencies, especially relating to economic matters. The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


According to the Constitution of France (article 34): The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ...


Statutes shall concern:

  • Civic rights and the fundamental guarantees granted to citizens for the exercise of their public liberties; the obligations imposed for the purposes of national defence upon citizens in respect of their persons and their property;
  • Nationality, the status and legal capacity of persons, matrimonial regimes, inheritance and gifts;
  • The determination of serious crimes and other major offences and the penalties applicable to them; criminal procedure; amnesty ; the establishment of new classes of courts and tribunals and the regulations governing the members of the judiciary;
  • The base, rates and methods of collection of taxes of all types; the issue of currency.

Statutes shall likewise determine the rules concerning: Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Any activity or effort performed to protect a nation against attack or other threats. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ...

  • The electoral systems of parliamentary assemblies and local assemblies;
  • The creation of categories of public establishments;
  • The fundamental guarantees granted to civil and military personnel employed by the State;
  • The nationalization of enterprises and transfers of ownership in enterprises from the public to the private sector.

Statutes shall determine the fundamental principles of: An electoral system is the system used to administer an election. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... Nationalization or nationalisation is the act of transferring assets into public ownership. ...

  • The general organization of national defence;
  • The self-government of territorial units, their powers and their resources;
  • Education;
  • The regime governing ownership, rights in rem, and civil and commercial obligations;
  • Labour law, trade-union law and social security.

Finance Acts shall determine the resources and obligations of the State in the manner and with the reservations specified in an institutional Act. Social Security Finance Acts shall determine the general conditions for the financial balance of Social Security and, in light of their revenue forecasts, shall determine expenditure targets in the manner and with the reservations specified in an institutional Act. Programme Acts shall determine the objectives of the economic and social action of the State. This article is in need of attention. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ...


The provisions of this article may be enlarged upon and complemented by an organic law.


Other areas are matters of regulation. This separation between law and regulation is enforced by the Conseil constitutionnel: the government can, with the agreement of the Conseil constitutionnel, modify by decrees the laws that infringe on the domain of regulations. At the same, the Conseil d'État nullifies decrees that infringe on the domain of the law.


Hierarchy of norms

When courts have to deal with incoherent texts, they apply a certain hierarchy: a text higher in the hierarchy will overrule a lower text. The general rule is that the Constitution is superior to laws which are superior to regulations. However, with the intervention of European law and international treaties, and the quasi-case law of the administrative courts, the hierarchy may become somewhat unclear. The following hierarchy of norms should thus be taken with due caution: Case law (precedential law) is the body of judge-made law and legal decisions that interprets prior case law, statutes and other legal authority -- including doctrinal writings by legal scholars such as the Corpus Juris Secundum, Halsburys Laws of England or the doctinal writings found in the Recueil Dalloz...

  1. The French Constitution (includes the general principles of constitutional values recognized by the laws of the Republic (as defined by the Constitutional Council))
  2. European Union Treaties, Directives and Regulations
  3. International Treaties and Agreements
  4. organic laws
  5. normal laws
  6. general principles of law (as defined by the Conseil d'État)
  7. decrees taken with advisory review by the Conseil d'État
  8. decrees taken without review by the Conseil d'État
  9. arrêtés
    • of several ministers
    • of a single minister
    • of other authorities
  10. regulations and decisions by independent agencies.

In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ...

Local government

Traditionally, decision-making in France used to be highly centralized, with each of France's départements headed by a prefect appointed by the central government, in addition to the conseil général, a locally elected council. However, in 1982, the national government passed legislation to decentralize authority by giving a wide range of administrative and fiscal powers to local elected officials. In March 1986, regional councils were directly elected for the first time, and the process of decentralization has continued, albeit at a slow pace. In March 2003, a constitutional revision has changed very significantly the legal framework towards a more decentralized system and has increased the powers of local governments. The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... In France and many other French-speaking countries, a préfet (English: prefect) is the States representative in a département or région (in the later case, he is called a préfet de région). ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Decentralisation (American: decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


Administrative units with a local government in Metropolitan France (that is, the parts of France lying in Europe) consist of: Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ...

  • about 36,000 communes, headed by a municipal council and a mayor, grouped in
  • 96 départements, headed by a conseil général (general council) and its president, grouped in
  • 22 régions, headed by a regional council and its president.

The conseil général is an institution created in 1790 by the French Revolution in each of the newly created departments (they were suppressed by the Vichy government from 1942 to 1944). A conseiller général (departmental councillor) must be at least 21 years old and either live or pay taxes in locality from which he or she is elected. (Sociologist Jean Viard noted [Le Monde, Feb. 22, 2006] that half of all conseillers généraux were still fils de paysans, i.e. sons of peasants, suggesting France's deep rural roots). Though the central government can theoretically dissolve a conseil général (in case of a dysfunctional conseil), this has happened only once in the Fifth Republic. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common... A Conseil régional (regional council) is the elected assembly of a région of France. ... In France, the president of the regional council (French: Président du conseil régional) is the elected official who heads the conseil régional of a région, a state-level territory. ...


The conseil général discusses and passes laws on matters that concern the department; it is administratively responsible for departmental employees and land, manages subsidized housing, public transportation, and school subsidies, and contributes to public facilities. It is not allowed to express "political wishes." The conseil général meets at least three times a year and elects its president for a term of 3 years, who presides over its "permanent commission," usually consisting of 5-10 other departmental councillors elected from among their number. The conseil général has accrued new powers in the course of the political decentralization that has occurred past in France during the past thirty years. There are in all more than 4,000 conseillers généraux in France.


Different levels of administration have different duties, and shared responsibility is common; for instance, in the field of education, communes run public elementary schools, while départements run public junior high schools and régions run public high schools, but only for the building and upkeep of buildings; curricula and teaching personnel are supplied by the national Ministry of Education.


The 3 main cities, Paris, Lyon and Marseille have a special statute. Paris is at the same time a commune and a département with an institution, the Conseil de Paris, that is elected at the same time as the other conseil municipaux, but that operates also as a conseil général. The 3 cities are also divided into arrondissement each having its conseil d'arrondissement and its mayor. This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the French city. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M...


French overseas possessions are divided into two groups: The French Overseas Departments and Territories (often abbreviated DOM-TOM for départements doutre-mer, territoires doutre-mer) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ...

  • 4 overseas départements, with some strong similarity of organization to their metropolitan counterparts; in these overseas départements all laws of France are automatically applicable, except if a specific text provides otherwise or provides some adaptation. The 4 départements belong to the European Union, as "overseas regions", which means that European law is applicable;
  • Territories, generally having greater autonomy. In general, French laws are not applicable, except if a specific text provides otherwise. A new Territory has been created in February 2007: Saint-Barthélemy. This Territory used to be part of the overseas département of Guadeloupe. The statute of Saint-Barthélemy provides the automatic application of French law, except mostly in the domain of taxes and immigration, which are left to the Territory. The Territories do not belong to the European Union. However, as "overseas territories" they have association agreements with the EU and may opt-in to some EU' provisions. EU law applies to them only in so far is necessary to implement the association agreements.

All inhabited French territory is represented in both houses of Parliament and votes for the presidential election. Under the 1946 Constitution of the Fourth Republic, the French colonies of Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana in the Caribbean and Réunion in the Indian Ocean became départements doutre-mer (Overseas departments) or DOMs. ... A Territoire doutre-mer (TOM, French for Overseas territory) is an administrative divisions of France. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish...


References

All texts in French unless otherwise noted.


Specific

  1. ^ See decisions 71-44 DC of July 16, 1971 and 73-51 DC of December 27, 1973 citing the preamble of the Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
  2. ^ Constitutional law 2005-205 of March 1, 2005
  3. ^ See preamble of the Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
  4. ^ Title II of the Constitution
  5. ^ Constitution, article 19
  6. ^ Constitution, Article 16
  7. ^ Constitutional law 62-1262 of November 6, 1962
  8. ^ Constitution, article 7
  9. ^ Constitution, article 8
  10. ^ Constitution, article 21
  11. ^ Constitution, article 20
  12. ^ Constitution, article 20
  13. ^ Constitution, article 49
  14. ^ Constitution, article 48
  15. ^ National Assembly, transcripts of the sitting of February 9, 2006: appearance of Dominique de Villepin announcing the application of article 49-3; adopted text
  16. ^ The "first employment contract" was cancelled by a law of April 21, 2006 following massive street protests; see First Employmenty Contract.
  17. ^ Le rôle consultatif du Conseil d'État
  18. ^ Constitution, article 38
  19. ^ On the legal regime of ordinances and explicit and implicit ratification, see Les ordonnances : bilan au 31 décembre 2006 by the legal service of the French Senate.
  20. ^ Law 2000-517 authorized the government to adopt ordinances to convert sums from Francs to Euros in various legislative texts.
  21. ^ Ordinance of August 2, 2005 regarding the "new employment contract"
  22. ^ See this list
  23. ^ See bibliography
  24. ^ Code of postal services and electronic communications, article L43
  25. ^ This immunity is called for in article 26 of the Constitution, as defined by the Constitutional law of August 5, 1995. See: National assembly, L'immunité parlementaire.
  26. ^ L'Humanité, April 21, 1998; L'Humanité, April 23, 1998; L'Humanité, August 13, 2002
  27. ^ Constitution, article 39
  28. ^ Constitution, article 40
  29. ^ Constitution, article 39
  30. ^ Constitution, article 46
  31. ^ Constitution, article 10
  32. ^ Constitution, article 61
  33. ^ Constitution, article 10
  34. ^ Constitution, article 19
  35. ^ Civil Code, article 1
  36. ^ Guy Canivet was saying how the rules governing prisons disregarded the basic rule of law that liberty is the general case and prohibition the exception. See Jacques Floch, Report of the enquiry commission of the French national assembly on the situation in French prisons.

The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ...

General

  • Official documentation
    • General
    • Financial jurisdictions
      • La Cour des Comptes, The Court of Accounts (English)
    • Budget
      • Alain Lambert, Didier Migaud, Réussir la LOLF, clé d'une gestion publique responsible et efficace. Rapport au Gouvernement, September 2005, ISBN 2-11-095515-5 (page, PDF)
      • Presentation of the LOLF
      • Edward Arkwright, Stanislas Godefroy, Manuel Mazquez, Jean-Luc Bœuf, Cécile Courrèges, La mise en oeuvre de la loi organique relative aux lois de finances, La Documentation Française, 2005, ISBN 2-11-005944-3
    • Independent administrative authorities
      • Conseil d'État, rapport public 2001, Les autorités administratives indépendantes (PDF) ISBN 2-11-004788-7

The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... La Documentation française is a French governmental service publishing books, reports and other official documentation in the administrative, political, economic and social fields. ... La Documentation française is a French governmental service publishing books, reports and other official documentation in the administrative, political, economic and social fields. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ...

Further reading

  • Frédéric Monera, L'idée de République et la jurisprudence du Conseil constitutionnel - Paris: L.G.D.J., 2004 [1]-[2];

See also

The Journal Officiel de la République Française (JORF or JO) is the official gazette of the French Republic. ... Légifrance is the official site of the Government of France for the publication of legislation, regulations, and juridical information. ...

External links

All external sites in French unless otherwise noted.

  • General
    • Service Public, Official portal to public services
  • Law
    • Official online repository of laws and regulations (Légifrance)
    • Official online repository of treaties in which France is a party
  • Assemblies
    • Official site of the French National Assembly
    • Official site of the French Senate
    • Official site of the French Economic and Social Council
  • Ombudsman
    • Official site
  • Justice
    • Official site of the Cour de Cassation
    • Official site of the Conseil d'État
    • Official site of the Constitutional Council
    • Official site of the Court of Auditors
    • Official site of the High Council of the Magistracy

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