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Encyclopedia > Government of Canada
Canada

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Canada
Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The politics of Canada function within a framework of constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. ...


Federal
Executive (The Crown)
Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II)
Governor General (Michaëlle Jean)

Queen's Privy Council for Canada
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the...

Prime Minister (Stephen Harper)
Cabinet (Twenty-Eighth Ministry)

Government of Canada
Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Cabinet of Canada (French: Cabinet du Canada or Conseil des ministres) plays an important role in the Government of Canada in accordance with the Westminster System. ... Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Governor General Michaëlle Jean with Twenty-Eighth Ministry after the swearing-in ceremony (February 6, 2006) The Twenty-Eighth Canadian Ministry is the federal Cabinet of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, which has governed Canada since the begining of the 39th Parliament of Canada. ...

Ministries
Legislative (Parliament)
Current Parliament (39th)

Senate
The following list outlines the Structure of the Canadian federal government. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The initial seat distribution of the 39th Canadian Parliament The 39th Canadian Parliament is the current Parliament of Canada, and has been in session since April 3, 2006. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...

Speaker of the Senate
Government Leader in the Senate
Opposition Leader in the Senate
Canadian Senate divisions

House of Commons
The Speaker of the Canadian Senate (French: Président du Sénat) is the presiding officer of the Canadian Senate. ... The Leader of the Government in the Senate is a Canadian cabinet minister who leads the government side in the Canadian Senate and is chiefly responsible for promoting and defending the governments program in the Upper House. ... In Canada, the Leader of the Official Opposition in the Senate is the leader of the largest party in the Senate that is not in government. ... Representation in the Canadian Senate is divided into seats on a provincial basis. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ...

Speaker of the House
Government House Leader
Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition
Leader of the Opposition
Opposition House Leader
Shadow Cabinet
Elections
Parliamentary constituencies

Electoral system
Last election
Current house speaker Peter Milliken In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons (French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house and is elected by fellow MPs. ... The Leader of the Government in the House of Commons (French: Leader du gouvernement à la Chambre des communes), more commonly known as the Government House Leader, is the Cabinet minister responsible for planning and managing the governments legislative program in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... In Canada each political party with representation in the House of Commons has a House Leader who is a front bench MP and an expert in parliamentary procedure. ... The outgoing Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet is listed below. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) has two chambers. ... This is a list of Canadas 308 electoral districts (also known as ridings in Canadian English) as defined by the 2003 Representation Order, which came into effect on May 23, 2004. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ...

Judicial
Supreme Court
Chief Justice (Beverley McLachlin)

Lower Courts of Appeal
Constitution
British North America Acts
Peace, Order and Good Government
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Right Hon. ... The Rt. ... List of final courts of appeal in Canada. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom dealing with the government of Canada, which was known as British North America until 1867. ... In Canada, the phrase peace, order and good government (in French, paix, ordre et bon gouvernement), called POGG for short, is often used to describe the principles upon which that countrys Confederation took place. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ...

Provincial and territorial
Politics of the Canadian provinces
General
Regions

Political culture
Foreign relations Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... Canadian political culture is in some ways part of a greater North American and European political culture, which emphasizes constitutional law, freedom of religion, personal liberty, and regional autonomy; these ideas stemming in various degrees from the British common law and French civil law traditions, North American aboriginal government, and... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      // The British North American colonies which today constitute modern Canada had little control over their foreign affairs until the achievement of responsible government in the late 1840s. ...


Other countries · Atlas
 Politics Portal
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The Government of Canada is the federal government of Canada. Powers and structure of the federal government are set out in the Constitution of Canada. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... A federal government is the common government of a federation. ...


In modern Canadian use, the term "government" (or "federal government") refers broadly to the cabinet of the day and the non-political staff within each federal department or agency – that is, the civil service. The legislative and judicial branches, as a whole, are not normally considered part of the government in this sense. The Canadian civil service is the staff or bureaucracy of the federal government of Canada. ...

Contents

Executive power

Head of State

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, wearing the Sovereign's insignia of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, wearing the Sovereign's insignia of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit
Main article: Monarchy in Canada

Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, is the head of state and gives repository of executive power, which the Queen, in practice, does not exercise. As expressed in the constitution: "the Executive Government and Authority of and over Canada is hereby declared to continue and be vested in the Queen." The government acts in Her Majesty's name. The term "the Crown" is usually used to represent the power of the monarch. Government ministers are ministers of the Crown. Criminal prosecutions are made by Crown prosecutors in the name of the monarch. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x2500, 759 KB)Queen of Canada - Wearing the insignia of the Order of Canada (above) & the Order of Military Merit (below) Official Photographic Portrait of Her Majesty The Queen of Canada The official Canadian portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x2500, 759 KB)Queen of Canada - Wearing the insignia of the Order of Canada (above) & the Order of Military Merit (below) Official Photographic Portrait of Her Majesty The Queen of Canada The official Canadian portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... The Order of Military Merit is an Order (decoration) issued by Canada to members of the Canadian Forces who have demonstrated dedication and devotion beyond the call of duty. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... The position of Crown Attorney is unique to Canada in the common law world. ...


Since the monarch does not normally reside in Canada, she appoints a governor general to represent her and exercise most of her powers. The person who fills this role is selected on the advice of the prime minister. "Advice" in this sense is a choice generally without options since it would be highly unconventional for the prime minister's advice to be overlooked; a that protects the monarchy. As long as the monarch is following the advice of her ministers, she is not held personally responsible for the decisions of the government. The governor general has no term limit Рsaid to serve "at Her Majesty's pleasure" Рbut the practice is for the governor general to be replaced after about five years in office. The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure g̩n̩rale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur g̩n̩ral du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. ... -1...


Head of Government

The prime minister is the head of government. The prime minister is appointed by the governor general, but to ensure the continuity of a stable government this person will always be the one who has the confidence of the House of Commons to lead the government. In practice, the position usually goes to the leader of the political party that has the most seats in the lower house. On several occasions in Canadian history no party has had a majority in the House of Commons and thus one party, usually the largest, forms a minority government. As of 2007-2008, Canada's government is a minority government. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... For minority governments in general, see dominant minority. ...


The prime minister holds office until he resigns or is removed by the governor general; therefore, the party that was in government before the election may attempt to continue to govern if they so desire, even if they hold fewer seats than another party. Coalition governments are rare at the federal level: since Sir John A. Macdonald's Liberal-Conservative governments in the mid 1800s, Canada has had only one other coalition government, the Union Government of Sir Robert Borden during World War I. A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Unionist Party was formed in 1917 by MPs in Canada who supported the Union government formed by Sir Robert Borden during World War I. In May 1917, Conservative Prime Minister Borden proposed the formation of a national unity government or coalition government to Liberal leader Sir Wilfrid Laurier in... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC, DCL, LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Political parties are private organizations that are not mentioned in the constitution. By the convention of responsible government, the prime minister and most of his cabinet are members of Parliament so they can answer to Parliament for their actions. But, constitutionally, any Canadian adult is eligible for the jobs, and prime ministers have held office after being elected leader but before taking a seat in the Commons (John Turner, for example), or after being defeated in their constituencies. The prime minister selects ministers to head the various government departments and form a cabinet. The members of the Cabinet remain in office at the pleasure of the prime minister. Political Parties redirects here. ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... John Napier Turner, PC, CC, QC, MA, BCL, LLD (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Cabinet of Canada (French: Cabinet du Canada or Conseil des ministres) plays an important role in the Government of Canada in accordance with the Westminster System. ...


If the Commons passes a motion of no confidence in the government, the prime minister and his cabinet are expected either to resign their offices or to ask for Parliament to be dissolved so that a general election can be held. To avoid a non-confidence motion from passing, parties enforce strong party discipline, in which members of a party - especially from the ruling party - are strongly urged to vote the "party line" (see Chief Government Whip (Canada)) or face consequences. While a member of a governing party is free to vote their conscience, they are constrained by the fact that voting against the party line (especially in confidence votes) might lead to expulsion from their party. Such an expulsion would lead to loss of election funding and the former party backing an alternate candidate. While the government likes to keep control in these circumstances, in unwritten practice, the only time the government can fall is if a money bill (financial or budget) is defeated. However, if a government finds that it can not pass any legislation it is common (but not required) that a vote of confidence should be held. The exception is if the prime minister or the government declared that they consider a given bill to be a matter of confidence (hence how backbenchers are often held to strict party voting). A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... In parliamentary systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... Party discipline is the ability of a political party to get its members to support the policies of the party leadership. ... The ruling party in a parliamentary system is the party or coalition of the majority in parliament. ... In politics, the line or the party line is an idiom for a political party or social movements canon agenda, as well as specific ideological elements specific to the organizations partisanship. ... In Canada the Chief Government Whip is the member of the Canadian House of Commons charged with ensuring party discipline among members of the caucus of the party forming the government. ... A money bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending, as opposed to changes in public law. ... A backbencher is a Member of Parliament or a legislator who does not hold governmental office and is not a Front Bench spokesperson in the Opposition. ...


Members can be elected as independents, such as Chuck Cadman in 2004 and Andre Arthur in 2006. Most independent members are elected under a party, but either chose to leave the party or are expelled from it. When there are enough seats for another party to form a government after the resignation of a prime minister, the governor general may ask the other party to try to form the government. This became clear after the King-Byng Affair in 1926. In practice, it is unlikely there could be a separate and new alliance created. hej sötis! Chuck Cadman Charles Chuck Cadman, (February 21, 1948 – July 9, 2005) was a Canadian politician and Member of Parliament from 1997 to 2005, representing the riding of Surrey North in Surrey, British Columbia. ... André Arthur André Arthur, is a radio host and politician from Quebec City. ... Mackenzie King requested a dissolution of Parliament. ...


Legislative power

Canada's Parliament consists of the Monarch and a bicameral legislature: an elected House of Commons and an appointed Senate. The governor general appoints Canadians, who are recommended by the prime minister, to the Senate according to a constitutionally-entrenched formula that distributes the seats among the provinces. In practice, legislative power rests with the party that has the majority of seats in the House of Commons, which is elected from 308 constituencies (or electoral districts) for a period not to exceed five years. Canada's highly disciplined political parties and first-past-the-post electoral system have, since the 1970s, usually given one political party control of the Commons. The five-year period has only been extended once, in 1916. The prime minister may ask the governor general to dissolve Parliament and call new elections at virtually any time. That request was refused only once, during the minority government of 1926. By custom, prime ministers usually call new elections after four years in power. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The First Past the Post electoral system, is a voting system for single-member districts. ...


The Senate is not without power. Its influence is usually the greatest after a party has been in power a long time (and hence nominated senators who would most likely support their policies), and a new party forms the government. Brian Mulroney used a special provision to recommend the appointment of an additional eight senators so that he could get bills he wanted passed through the Senate[citation needed]. Also, after the abortion law was found to be contrary to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms by the Supreme Court of Canada[citation needed], a new bill was prepared by Kim Campbell, who was then Minister of Justice. While it passed in the House of Commons, there was a tied vote in the Senate. In the case of tied votes, a bill is not passed. For more on this particular example, see the page on abortion in Canada. Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... International status of abortion law  Legal on demand  Legal for rape, maternal life, health, mental health, socioecomic factors, and/or fetal defects  Legal for or illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, fetal defects, and/or mental health  Illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, and/or mental... The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the bill of rights which forms part of the Constitution of Canada adopted in 1982. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... This article is about the former Canadian Prime Minster. ... The Minister of Justice (French: Ministre de la Justice) of Canada is the minister in the Cabinet of Canada who is responsible for the Department of Justice and is also Attorney General of Canada. ... Abortion in Canada is not limited by law. ...

Judiciary

Criminal law, most of which is contained in the federal Criminal Code (R.S.C. 1985, Chapter C-46), is uniform throughout the nation and is under federal jurisdiction. Civil law is based on the common law of England, except in Quebec, to which Britain granted the right in 1774 to retain the French civil code. While legislation regarding non-criminal matters is, generally speaking, different from province to province, there are some non-criminal legislation, such as the federal Divorce Act (R.S.C. 1985, Chapter 3 (2nd Supp.)), that is applicable throughout the nation. Justice is administered by federal, provincial, and municipal courts. The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... The Canadian Criminal Code (formal title An Act respecting the Criminal Law) is the codification of most of the criminal offenses and procedure in Canada. ... Key concepts in general federal law in the USA (other countries using a federal system differ), at all court levels, include standing and the Case or Controversy Requirement. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ...


The Supreme Court of Canada is the court of last resort. The Supreme Court has nine justices, led by the Chief Justice of Canada, and are appointed by the governor general. This court hears appeals from decisions rendered by the various appellate courts from the provinces and territories. A trial-level court from a common law province is required to follow previous decisions from both the Supreme Court of Canada and the appellate court of its respective province or territory. In contrast, a Quebec trial-level court may treat judgements from higher courts to be persuasive but not binding. See Courts of Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, is the highest court in that jurisdiction and functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be appealed. ... The Right Hon. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... The Canadian court system is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction. ...


Federalism

Further information: Canadian federalism

Residual power — that is, all powers not specified in the Constitution — resides with the federal government; the original intent of this provision was to avoid the sectionalism which had resulted in the American Civil War. However, in 1895 the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council ruled that the federal government could exercise its residual power only in wartime. As a result, responsibilities for new functions of government such as labour law or social welfare had to be accommodated under powers specified in the British North America Act. Many ended up being assigned to provincial areas of jurisdiction, so that Canada today is a highly decentralized federation. Further decentralization of functions has been implemented to accommodate provincial aspirations, chiefly those of Quebec. However, all provinces have the right to assume the powers now exercised only by Quebec, and Alberta and Ontario have expressed interest in doing so. Canadian federalism is one of the three pillars of the constitutional order, along with responsible government and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. ... Intentionalism redirects here. ... Sectionalism is a tendency among sections in bureaucracy to blindly focus on the interest of a section at the expense of the whole. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Decentralisation (American: decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...


Each province has a lieutenant-governor, a premier, and a single (unicameral), elected legislative chamber. Provincial governments operate under a parliamentary system similar in nature to that of the federal government, with the premier chosen in the same manner as the Canadian prime minister. The lieutenant-governor, recommended by the prime minister and then appointed by the governor general, represents the Crown in each province. Lieutenant-governors, like the governor general, have broad powers that are only rarely used. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


References

External links


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