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Encyclopedia > Government of California

California is governed as a republic, with three branches of government, the executive branch consisting of the Governor of California and the other elected constitutional officers, the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate, and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. The State also allows direct participation of the electorate by referendum, recall, and ratification. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... California State Senate chamber The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. ... Justices of the Supreme Court of California (circa May 2005). ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ...

Contents

Constitution and Law

California's constitution is one of the longest collections of laws in the world, taking up 110 pages. Part of this length is caused by the fact that many voter initiatives take the form of a constitutional amendment. The 1849 Constitution was signed in Colton Hall in Monterey. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Many of the individual rights clauses in the state constitution have been construed as providing rights even broader than the Bill of Rights in the federal constitution. An excellent example is the Pruneyard Shopping Center case, in which "free speech" rights beyond those required by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution were found in the California Constitution by the California courts. A bill of rights is a list or summary of which is considered important and essential by a group of people. ... The PruneYard Shopping Center is a sprawling 250,000 sq. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights. ...


Executive branch

Main article: California executive branch

California's executive branch is headed by the Governor. Other executive positions are the Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Controller, Insurance Commissioner, and the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. All offices are elected separately to concurrent four-year terms. Each officer may be elected to an office a maximum of two times. Other statewide elected offices that no longer exist include the Comptroller (which became Controller in 1862), the Surveyor General (1849–1926), and the Clerk of the Supreme Court. The California executive branch of the state of California includes many California state agencies including those listed below ordered in a heiarchy designated by California state law. ... Image File history File links Edmund G. Pat Brown State Office Building, San Francisco, California. ... Image File history File links Edmund G. Pat Brown State Office Building, San Francisco, California. ... California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) is a commision of the State of California tasked with regulating utilities which operate as monopolies. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x1152, 398 KB) The Ziggurat Building in West Sacramento, California is home to the headquarters of the California Department of General Services. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x1152, 398 KB) The Ziggurat Building in West Sacramento, California is home to the headquarters of the California Department of General Services. ... DGS headquarters in West Sacramento The California Department of General Services (DGS) is a government agency in the U.S. state of California which provides a large number of services to other state government agencies. ... West Sacramento is a city located in Yolo County, California. ... This a List of Lieutenant Governors of the State of California, 1850-present. ... The duty of California Attorney General is to ensure that the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced (California Constitution, Article V, Section 13. ... The Secretary of State of California is the states chief elections officer. ... The California State Treasurer is responsible for the states investment and finance. ... The State Controller is the Chief Financial Officer of the State of California. ... California Insurance Commissioners ... California Superintendent of Public Instruction List of Superintendents External Links California Superintendent of Public Instruction Homepage 2006 Candidates for Superintendent of Public Instruction ...


The Governor has the powers and responsibilities to: sign or veto laws passed by the Legislature, including a line item veto; appoint judges, subject to ratification by the electorate; propose a state budget; give the annual State of the State Address; command the state militia; and grant pardons for any crime, except cases involving impeachment by the Legislature. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor also serve as ex officio members of the University of California Board of Regents. Look up sign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... In government, the line-item veto is the power of an executive to veto parts of a bill, usually budget appropriations. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... In politics, an electorate is the group of people entitled to vote in an election. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... The State of the State Address (alternatively Condition of the State Address) is a speech customarily given once each year by the governors of many states of the United States. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... A Board of governors is usually the governing board of a public entity. ...


The Lieutenant Governor is the President of the California Senate and acts as the governor when the Governor is unable to execute the office, including whenever the Governor leaves the state. As the offices are elected separately, the two could conceivably be from separate parties; currently this is the case with Republican Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and Democratic Lieutenant Governor John Garamendi. This has led to interesting scenarios; when Republican Lieutenant Governor Mike Curb was temporarily in power while Democratic Governor Jerry Brown was out of the state, Curb appointed judges to vacant seats and signed or vetoed bills which Brown would have vetoed or signed, respectively. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation (IPA): ) (born on July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, actor and an American politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... John Raymond Garamendi (born January 24, 1945) is a U.S. politician and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Michael Curb (born December 24, 1944 in Savannah, Georgia) is an American musician, record company executive, NASCAR owner and politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of California from 1979 until 1983. ... For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ...


The government proper

As for the actual state government that the Governor oversees, it is organized into several dozen departments, of which most (but not all) have been grouped together (somewhat confusingly) into agencies to reduce the number of people who report directly to the Governor. For example, the California Department of Transportation and the California Highway Patrol are part of the Business, Transportation, and Housing Agency. Caltrans logo The soaring ramps in the stack interchanges favored by Caltrans often provide stunning views. ... The California Highway Patrol (CHP) is a state agency that acts as the state police force of California. ...


Many of the groupings are bizarre and counterintuitive. The Department of Managed Health Care is part of Business, Transportation, and Housing, rather than the Health and Human Services Agency. And the Department of Industrial Relations (which, among many duties, inspects most elevators in California) is part of the Labor and Workforce Development Agency, not Business, Transportation and Housing.


In November 2006, the official state website arranged many of the 500+ agencies, departments, and commissions into eight categories:[1] This List of State of California agencies, departments, and commissions is a list of the more than 500 California state government agencies, departments, and commissions. ...

  1. California Business
  2. California Consumers and Families
  3. California Education and Training
  4. California Environment and Natural Resources
  5. California Health and Safety
  6. California History and Culture
  7. California Labor and Employment
  8. California Travel and Transportation

The official state website subsequently was revised to remove these eight categories.[2]


The overregulation issue

Most consumers encounter the DCA indirectly, through its mandatory signs.

During the 2001–2002 recession, California was heavily criticized by conservatives as unfriendly to business, and one of the major reasons given was that it "overregulates" everything so much in comparison to the majority of states. The strongest example is in the area of consumer protection. The California Department of Consumer Affairs has many constituent agencies that closely regulate a huge number of jobs in California, beyond the traditional professions that are regulated by all states (law, medicine, engineering, and accounting). Image File history File links Cdcacarrepairnotice. ... Image File history File links Cdcacarrepairnotice. ... Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. ... One of DCAs ubiquitous signs. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ...


Examples include: acupuncturists, barbers and hairdressers, electronic and appliance repair technicians, physical therapists, family therapists, guide dog trainers, cemetery owners, vocational school operators, landscape architects, anyone involved in boxing and martial arts, pest exterminators, and geologists. Overall, DCA regulates over 2.3 million professionals in over 230 different professions through 40 separate regulatory entities. An Acupuncturist is a person who practices acupuncture professionally. ... A boy visiting a barber A barber (from the Latin barba, beard) is someone whose occupation is to cut any type of hair, give shaves, and trim beards. ... A hairdresser is someone whose occupation is to cut or style hair, in order to change or maintain a persons image as they desire. ... Physical therapy can help restore lost functionality in many people. ... Castle Ashby Graveyard Northamptonshire A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Landscape architecture. ... Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left, throwing a left uppercut) versus Rafael Ortiz Boxing, also called prizefighting or pugilism is a sport and martial art in which two participants of similar weight fight each other with their fists in a series of one to three-minute intervals called... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... the are cool The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ...


In 2004, Governor Schwarzenegger proposed that as part of his "blowing up the boxes" plan, nearly all DCA agencies would be consolidated into the Department—at present, each agency is separate from the others and has its own offices and staff. After much public uproar, Schwarzenegger abandoned his proposal. His critics had argued that the advantage of the current system is that the personnel of each agency have developed in-depth experience with the particular nuances of the job that they regulate; the line between professional and unprofessional conduct is not always easy to draw. shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Legislative branch of California

The State Capitol in Sacramento
The State Capitol in Sacramento

California State Capitol building, from public domain site http://democrats. ... California State Capitol building, from public domain site http://democrats. ... Californias Capitol, where the State Legislature meets California State Assembly chamber California state Senate chamber The California Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of California. ...

Constitutional basis

The basic form of law in California is a republic, governed by democratically elected state Senators and Assembly members. The governing law is a constitution, interpreted by the California Supreme Court, whose members are appointed by the Governor, and ratified at the next general election. The constitution can be changed by initiatives passed by voters. Initiatives can be proposed by the governor, legislature, or by popular petition, giving California one of the most flexible legal systems in the world. The constitution makes the California legislature bicameral, with a Senate and an Assembly. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... In political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizens initiative) provides a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ...


Redistricting

California's legislature has engaged in some rather unusual redistricting practices (noted in detail in Politics of California#Bi-partisan gerrymandering). The result is that virtually all Assembly and Senate district lines have been drawn in a way so as to favor one party or the other, and it is rare for a district to suddenly shift party allegiance. The state government is dominated by the Democratic Party, which controls the heavily populated coastal cities in Central and Southern California. The Republican Party is stronger in the Central Valley, most rural areas, and certain conservative suburban areas like Orange County. The recent and current politics of the U.S. state of California are complex and involve a number of entrenched interests. ... Allegiance is the duty which a subject or a citizen owes to the state or to the sovereign of the state to which he belongs. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Codification in California

In 1872, under the influence of David Dudley Field, California began codifying its laws. California was one of the earliest American states (the first was New York), to codify its statutes into named codes (Civil Code, Code of Civil Procedure, and so on). David Dudley Field (February 13, 1805 - April 13, 1894) was an American lawyer and law reformer. ... NY redirects here. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ...


Prior to the 1840s, legislatures in all common law jurisdictions passed "Acts" in a completely haphazard manner and published them in the order passed. The result was that to determine what the current statutory law was, a lawyer would have to find the earliest relevant act and then trace a path from past to present through a series of acts passed at different dates to determine which rules had been expanded, overruled, or superseded. The advantage of a code is that once the legislature gets into the habit of writing acts as amendments to the code, then the official copy of the code will reflect what the current statutory law is. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same type. ... Amendment may refer to: A change made to a law or bill. ... Statutory law is written law (as opposed to oral or customary law) set down by a legislature or other governing authority such as the executive branch of government in response to a perceived need to clarify the functioning of government, improve civil order, answer a public need, to codify existing...


Since then, virtually all states and the federal government have followed the lead of California and New York and codified their statutes. However, they have preferred to write a single code with a universal numbering system. Today, only California, New York, and Texas have systems of separate subject-specific codes.


Many of the code sections have become famous throughout the U.S., like Business and Professions Code Section 17200 (unfair competition), Code of Civil Procedure Section 425.16 (anti-SLAPP special motion), Penal Code Section 187 (murder), and Penal Code Sections 667 and 1170.12 (both codifying the state three-strikes law). Also, the Federal Rules of Evidence were inspired by the success of the California Evidence Code. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ... Strategic lawsuits against public participation, (SLAPP) refers to litigation filed by a large corporation (or in some cases, a wealthy individual) to silence a less powerful critic by so severely burdening them with the cost of a legal defense that they abandon their criticism. ... The California Penal Code forms the basis for the application of criminal law in the American state of California. ... 187 is a numeric code for the crime of murder used by law-enforcement officials, particularly in the state of California. ... Three strikes laws are a category of statutes enacted by state governments in the United States, beginning in the 1990s, to mandate long periods of imprisonment for persons convicted of a felony on three (or more) separate occasions. ... The Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE) are the rules that govern the admissibility of evidence in the United States federal court system. ...


The Big Five

The Big Five is an informal institution of California government, consisting of the governor, the Assembly speaker, the Assembly minority leader, the Senate president pro tempore, and the Senate minority leader. Members of the Big Five meet in private to discuss bills pending in the legislature. Because the party caucus leaders in California's legislature also control the party's legislative campaign funds, the leaders wield tremendous power over their caucus members. They are thus usually able to guarantee their caucus's votes in Big Five meetings. Therefore, if all five members agree to support a Bill, it will likely pass into law. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... Look up Speaker in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In U.S. politics, the minority leader is the Floor Leader of the second-largest caucus in a legislative body. ... California State Senate chamber The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. ... A President Pro Tempore is a constitutionally recognized officer of the United States Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the President of the Senate. ...


The Legislature and the Executive Branch

The Governor has the powers and responsibilities to: sign or veto laws passed by the Legislature, including a line item veto; propose a state budget; give the annual State of the State Address and grant pardons for any crime, except cases involving impeachment by the Legislature.


As part of the system of checks and balances, the Legislature has statutory influence over the funding, organization, and procedures used by agencies of the executive branch. It also has the authority to appoint citizens to policy-making committees in the executive branch and to designate members of the Legislature to serve on agency boards. Many appointments made by the governor are subject to legislative approval. The doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability between political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. ... A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Federal independent agencies were established through separate statutes passed by Congress. ...


Judicial branch

The judicial system of California is the largest in the United States, with about 1,600 judges hearing over 8 million cases each year (with the assistance of 19,000 staff members and 400 judicial "equivalents" like commissioners and referees). In comparison, the federal judicial system has only about 840 judges. California's system is divided into three levels, with the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal serving as appellate courts reviewing the decisions of the Superior Courts.


The California Supreme Court

Supreme Court of California headquarters in San Francisco

The California Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and six Associate Justices, who are appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the California Commission on Judicial Appointments. Justices are also ratified by the electorate at the next general election following their appointment and at the end of each twelve year term. The Supreme Court's decisions are binding on all lower state courts. Image File history File links Supremecourtofcaliforniamaincourthouse. ... Image File history File links Supremecourtofcaliforniamaincourthouse. ... The Supreme Court of California is the state supreme court in California. ... Justices of the Supreme Court of California (circa. ...


The Court has original jurisdiction in a variety of cases, including habeas corpus proceedings, and has the authority to review all the decisions of the California Courts of Appeal, as well as an automatic appeal for cases where the death penalty has been issued by the trial court. This does not cite any references or sources. ... In common law, habeas corpus (/heɪbiəs kɔɹpəs/) (Latin: [We command that] you have the body) is the name of a legal action or writ by means of which detainees can seek relief from unlawful imprisonment. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


The Court deals with about 8,800 cases per year, although review is discretionary in most cases, and it dismisses the vast majority of petitions without comment. It hears arguments and drafts full opinions for about 100 to 120 cases each year, of which about 20 are automatic death penalty appeals.


The Supreme Court is headquartered in San Francisco, with branch offices in Los Angeles and Sacramento. It hears oral arguments each year in all three locations. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Government  - Mayor Heather Fargo Area  - City  99. ...


The Supreme Court supervises the lower courts through the Judicial Council of California, and also supervises California's legal profession through the State Bar of California. All lawyer admissions and disbarments are done through recommendations of the State Bar, which are then routinely ratified by the Supreme Court. California's bar is the largest in the U.S. with 200,000 members, of whom 150,000 are actively practicing. The State Bars main office in San Francisco is housed on several floors of this office building The State Bar of California is Californias official bar association. ...


The California Courts of Appeal

The California Courts of Appeal were added to the judicial branch by a constitutional amendment in 1904. The courts are organized into six districts, the First Appellate District in San Francisco, the Second District in Los Angeles, the Third District in Sacramento, the Fourth District in San Diego the Fifth District in Fresno, and the Sixth District in San Jose. The districts are further divided into 19 divisions sitting throughout the state at 9 locations, and there are 105 justices serving on the Courts. The California Court of Appeal or California Courts of Appeal (both usages are common) is/are the state intermediate appellate court in California. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates: Country United States State California County San Diego Founded July 16, 1769 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Mayor Jerry Sanders  - City Attorney Michael Aguirre  - City Council Scott Peters Kevin Faulconer Toni Atkins Tony Young Brian Maienschein Donna Frye Jim Madaffer... Nickname: Location in the state of California County Fresno Government  - Mayor Alan Autry Area  - City 104. ... Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ...


Unlike the state supreme court, the Courts of Appeal have mandatory review jurisdiction under the informal legal tradition in common law countries that all litigants are entitled to at least one appeal. In practice, this works out to about 16,000 appeals per year, resulting in 12,000 opinions (not all appeals are pursued properly or are meritorious enough to justify an opinion).


Under the common law, judicial opinions themselves have legal effect through the rule of stare decisis. But because of their crushing caseloads (about 200 matters per justice per year), the Courts of Appeal are permitted to take the shortcut of selecting only the best opinions for publication. This way, they can draft opinions fast and quickly dispose of the vast majority of cases, without worrying that they are accidentally making bad law. About 7% of their opinions are ultimately selected for publication and become part of California law. Stare decisis (Latin: , Anglicisation: , to stand by things decided) is a Latin legal term, used in common law to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. ...


Court of Appeal justices are selected, confirmed, and ratified just like the Supreme Court justices, although only the electorate in the appellate district vote to ratify the justices.


The Superior Courts of California

One of the many courthouses of the Los Angeles County Superior Court.

Each of California's 58 counties has its own superior court, which adds up to a total of 58 Superior Courts of California. The Superior Courts have general jurisdiction over all civil and criminal matters, with the exception of certain limited areas like workers' compensation where original jurisdiction is reserved by statute to government agencies. The Stanley Mosk Courthouse in the Downtown area of Los Angeles, California. ... The Stanley Mosk Courthouse in the Downtown area of Los Angeles, California. ... Seal of the Superior Court of California, County of Monterey The Superior Courts of California are the superior courts in California with general jurisdiction to hear and decide any civil or criminal action which is not specially designated to be heard in some other court. ... Workers compensation (colloquially known as workers comp in North American English or compo in Australian English) is a form of insurance that provides medical care and compensation for employees who are injured in the course of employment. ...


Before 1998, each county also had municipal or justice courts that heard some of the cases. In June, 1998, California passed Proposition 220, which allowed the judges in each county to determine if the county should have only one trial court. By 2001, all 58 counties had consolidated their courts into a single Superior Court. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Judges are elected by the county residents for six-year terms in nonpartisan elections. In the case of a vacancy the Governor fills the position by appointment. All Superior Court judges must have been either a member of the State Bar of California or a judge in the state for ten years prior to taking office. There are a total of about 1,500 Superior Court judges, assisted by 380 commissioners and 35 referees. The State Bars main office in San Francisco is housed on several floors of this office building The State Bar of California is Californias official bar association. ...


The power of the Courts of Appeal over the Superior Courts

In California, the power of the intermediate Courts of Appeal over the Superior Courts is quite different from the power of the Courts of Appeals of the federal government over the federal district courts.


The first Court of Appeal to rule on a new legal issue will bind all lower Superior Courts statewide. However, litigants in other appellate districts may still appeal a Superior Court's adverse ruling to their own Court of Appeal, which has the power to fashion a different rule. When such a conflict arises, all Superior Courts have the discretion to choose which rule they like until the California Supreme Court grants review and creates a single rule that binds all courts statewide. However, where a Superior Court lies within one of the appellate districts actually involved in such a conflict, it will usually follow the rule of its own Court of Appeal.


List of agencies, departments, and commissions

The over 500 California state government agencies, departments, and commissions are listed at State of California agencies, departments, and commissions. This List of State of California agencies, departments, and commissions is a list of the more than 500 California state government agencies, departments, and commissions. ...


See also

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The number of elections in California varies by year. ... The recent and current politics of the U.S. state of California are complex and involve a number of entrenched interests. ... California State Capitol in Sacramento, California // Following the declaration of the independent California Republic in 1846, and the armed conquest of California by United States military forces and American volunteers during the Mexican-American War, California was administered by the U.S. military from 1846 to 1850. ...

Acts

The Brown Act, officially known as the Ralph M. Brown Act (California Government Code Sections 54950-54963), authored by Ralph M. Brown, a Central Valley assemblyman representing Turlock, was enacted in 1953 by the California State Legislature in an effort to safeguard the publics right to access and participate... In November, 2004, California voters passed Proposition 63, the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA), which has been designed to expand and transform California’s county mental health service systems by increasing the taxes of high income individuals. ...

References

  1. ^ List of agencies categories obtained on Nov. 18, 2006 from the middle section, left navigation column table at the official state website, Welcome to California.
  2. ^ California Official state website. Obtained March 25, 2007.

 
 

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