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Encyclopedia > Government in exile

A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a country's legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually operate under the assumption that they will one day return to their native country and regain power.


Governments in exile frequently occur during wartime occupation. For example, during the German expansion of the Second World War, numerous European governments and monarchs were forced to seek refuge in the United Kingdom, rather than face certain destruction at the hands of the Nazis. This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...

Contents

Current governments in exile

Currently, there are few governments in exile. They include:

Image File history File links Flag_of_Chechen_Republic_of_Ichkeria. ... Official language Chechen Capital Grozny (Dzhokharabad, after 1996) President Doku Umarov Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Russia  â€“ November 1, 1991  â€“ Georgian Republic National anthem Death or Freedom The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria IPA: (Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь) is the unrecognized secessionist government of Chechnya. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Western_Sahara. ... Motto: حرية ديمقراطية وحدة (Arabic) Liberty, Democracy, Unity Anthem: Yābaniy Es-Saharā  listen This map indicates the territory claimed by the SADR, viz. ... Tindouf, also written Tinduf, (Arabic: تندوف) is a city and wilaya in the west of Algeria, population 30,000. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aceh. ... ASNLF Flag The Free Aceh Movement (Indonesian: Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or simply GAM), also known as the Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front (ASNLF), is an armed separatist group seeking independence for the Aceh region on Sumatra from Indonesia. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... The province (Indonesian: provinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus_1991. ... map of the Belarusian National Republic, 1918 National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile National anthem Vajacki marÅ¡ Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian Peoples Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, eng. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Ivonka Symaniec-Survilla (born 1936) is the current chairperson of the Belarusian Peoples Republic rada (BNR), the Belarusian government in exile. ... This article describes the history of Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tibet. ... Official language Tibetan Headquarters Dharamsala, India Head of State Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama Head of Government Professor Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche National Anthem Tibetan National Anthem, (Link) The Central Tibetan Administration (CTA), officially the Central Tibetan Administration of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a government in exile headed by... The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933). ... Legitimacy is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law. ... A variety of rulers A 2 metre carpenters rule Retractable flexible rule A ruler or rule is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing and engineering/building to measure distances and/or to rule straight lines. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Vietnam. ... Official language Vietnamese Headquarters In Exile in Garden Grove, California Head of State Nguyen Khanh Provisional Government of Free Vietnam (GFVN; Vietnamese: Chính Phủ Lâm Thời Việt Nam Tá»± Do) is an exile government headquartered in Garden Grove, California. ... Nguyen Khanh Nguyen Khanh (1927-) was a former Chief of State and Prime minister of South Vietnam. ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809 km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Kalev Ots Kalev Ots (January 11, 1949) is an Estonian statesman. ... Image File history File links Flagofabkhazia. ... Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Location Kodori Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers Malkhaz Akishbaia Chairman of the Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia The Government of Abkhazia-in-exile (Georgian: , Abkhaz: ) is the only body internationally recognized as a legal authority of Abkhazia, Georgia’s autonomous republic which has been largely out of... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... The Kodori Gorge of Upper Abkhazia The Kodori Valley (also known as the Kodori Gorge; Georgian: ) is a river valley in Abkhazia, Georgias breakaway autonomous republic which serves as the de facto boundary between the Georgian government and the secessionist-controlled territories. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ... Politics of Equatorial Guinea Categories: Politics stubs | Equatorial Guinean political parties ... Severo Moto Nsá (November 6, 1943) is the most notable opposition politician in Equatorial Guinea, and leader of the Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea. ... Motto: La Suma de Todos (The Sum of Everyone) Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burma_(1948-1974). ... Official language Burmese Headquarters In Exile in Rockville, Maryland,United States Prime Minister Sein Win Constitution December 18, 1990 national anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Web site Website of the NCGUB National Coalition Government of the Union Burma (NCGUB; Burmese: ???) is an exile government headquartered in Rockville, Maryland. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gabon. ... Image File history File links Serbian_Krajina1991. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... Combatants Croatian Army Paramilitary organisations Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (President... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Moluccas. ... Flag of Republik Maluku Selatan, see also article at Flags of the World The South Moluccas, or Republik Maluku Selatan (RMS), was a self-proclaimed republic in the Maluku Islands, founded April 25, 1950. ... Image File history File links Iran_flag_with_emblem_1964-1979. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of the Persian Empire to the establishment of modern day Iran. ... Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cabinda-shield-medium. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...

Actions of governments in exile

International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs. These actions include:

  • becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty
  • amending or revising its own constitution
  • maintaining military forces
  • retaining (or "newly obtaining") diplomatic recognition by sovereign states
  • issuing identity cards
  • allowing the formation of new political parties
  • instituting democratic reforms
  • holding elections
  • allowing for direct (or more broadly-based) elections of its government officers, etc.

However, none of these actions can serve to legitimatize a government in exile to become the internationally recognized legal government of its current locality. By definition, a government in exile is spoken of in terms of its native country, hence it must return to its native country and regain power there in order to obtain legitimacy as the legal government of that geographic area.


Past governments in exile

The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a government in exile based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing, during the Japanese occupation of Korea. ... The Crown Council of Ethiopia is the Constitutional body which advises the reigning Emperors of Ethiopia, acts on behalf of the Crown and the council’s members are appointed by the Emperor. ... His Imperial Highness, Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie, is the only son of Prince Sahle Selassie of Ethiopia and Princess Mahisente Hapte Mariam. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as Gdańsk (German: Danzig). ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20th (or possibly 19th) November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Noe Zhordania remained the head of the government in its French exile. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, Republic of Turkey Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Anatoli Gekker, Mikhail Velikanov, Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze, Kazım Karabekir Giorgi Kvinitadze, Giorgi Mazniashvili, Valiko Jugheli Strength ~50,000 (Red Army) ~35,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 5,500 Soviet soldiers Unknown, dead estimated at 3... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ...

World War II

Many countries established a government in exile after loss of sovereignty in connection with World War II: Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

The Provisional Government of Free India (1942-1945) was established by Indian nationalists in exile during the war. May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (131st in leap years). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Edvard BeneÅ¡ Edvard BeneÅ¡ with wife 1921, autochrome portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl Edvard BeneÅ¡ (May 28, 1884 - September 3, 1948) was a leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement and the second President of Czechoslovakia. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (131st in leap years). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (131st in leap years). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Anthem: Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ...


Other exiled leaders in England included King Zog of Albania and Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia. King Zog of Albania King Zog (October 8, 1895–April 9, 1961) was an Albanian politician and the first king of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ...


Notable examples of occupied countries which retained partial sovereignty through their overseas territories included Belgium, Vichy France and Free France. Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Work, family, fatherland Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Head of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 - 1944 Pierre Laval Legislature National Assembly... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet...


The Danish exception

Denmark's occupation (9 April 1940) was administered by the German Foreign Office, contrary to other occupied lands that were under military administration. Denmark did not establish a government in exile, although there was an Association of Free Danes established in London. The King and his government remained in Denmark, and functioned comparatively independently for the first three years of German occupation. Meanwhile, Iceland and the Faroe Islands were occupied by the Allies, and effectively separated from the Danish crown. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The German Foreign Office (in German, Auswärtiges Amt, or AA) is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, and is responsible for both its foreign politics and its relationship to the European Union. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
US-PRC Joint Communique
  • The Status of the Republic of China on Taiwan as a Government in Exile

  Results from FactBites:
 
Polish government in exile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1506 words)
The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939.
The Polish Government in Exile, based first in Paris and then in London, was recognized by all the Allied governments.
Many Polish exiles opposed this action, believing that this government was a façade for the establishment of Communist rule in Poland, a view that was later proven correct; after losing an election which was later shown to have been fraudulent, Mikołajczyk left Poland again in 1947.
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