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Encyclopedia > Government

For the 'government' in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ...


A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group .[1] why can u change this im serious. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ...


Depending on closeness to those who are governed, a government consists of different levels including: local governments, regional governments and national governments.

Contents

Types of Government

  • Monarchy - Rule by an individual who has inherited the role and expects to bequeath it to their heir.
  • Dictatorship - Rule by an individual who may hope to found a monarchy.
  • Oligarchy - Rule by a small group of people who share the same interests.
  • Democracy - Rule by a government where the people as a whole hold the power. It may be exercised by them (direct democracy), or through representatives chosen by them (representative democracy).
  • Anarchy - A lack of government or imposed rule.
  • Theocracy - Rule by a religious elite

Some countries have hybrid form of Government such as modern Iran with its combination of democratic and theocratic institutions, and constitutional monarchies such as The Netherlands combine elements of monarchy and democracy. For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... For other uses, see Anarchy (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


In the 19th and 20th centuries many oligarchies such as the UK and USA evolved into supposed democracies through a series of extensions of the franchise, as restrictions on gender, wealth, and race were abolished, and in some cases the voting age was lowered. The boundaries between some of the above forms of government are not absolutely clear. For example most democracies deprive some people of the vote such as those in prison or insane asylums (parts of the USA also deprive ex-convicts of the vote).


A defining characteristic of government is how it collects resources such as money or forced labour. Some governments use taxation while others rely on customers (like Disneyland) or members (like the Catholic Church) to trade for goods and services or to donate their resources. As a general rule, governments that do not use taxes must obey governments "over" them that do. Disneyland is a theme park that is located at 1313 South Harbor Boulevard in Anaheim, California, USA. It opened on July 17, 1955. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ...


Order and tradition

The various forms of conservatism, by contrast, generally see the government as a positive force that brings order out of chaos, establishes laws to end the "war of all against all", encourages moral virtue, while punishing vice, and respects tradition. Sometimes, in this view, the government is seen as something ordained by a higher power, as in the divine right of kings, which human beings have a duty to obey. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Bellum omnium contra omnes, a Latin phrase meaning the war of all against all, is the description that Thomas Hobbes gives to human existence in the state of nature thought experiment that he conducts in Leviathan (1651). ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Vice is a practice or habit that is considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ...


The legitimacy of government is based entirely upon the willingness of the individuals over which it exercises authority to support it. As a famous author has written, when in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, the legitimacy of the their government, if that be the "other," is lost. That actual moment in a person's life when it becomes necessary is up to that person, and when enough people reach that point, it usually takes a revolutionary war.


Natural rights

Main article: Natural rights

Natural rights are the basis for the theory of government shared by most branches of liberalism (including libertarianism). In this view, human beings are born with certain natural rights, and governments are established strictly for the purpose of protecting those rights. What the natural rights actually are is a matter of dispute among liberals; indeed, each branch of liberalism has its own set of rights that it considers to be natural, and these rights are sometimes mutually exclusive with the rights supported by other liberals. As a result, there is some debate between natural rights theorists, ranging from modern writers such as Tibor Machan to Enlightenment thinkers such as Locke, Kant, or Jefferson. Today, natural rights are the basis for many issues involving the scope of governmental powers. For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... Tibor R. Machan, professor emeritus in the department of philosophy at Auburn University, holds the Freedom Communications Professorship of Free Enterprise and Business Ethics at the Argyros School of Business & Economics at Chapman University in Orange, California. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Kant redirects here. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


Fiduciary Control


International equity expert Professor Paul Finn has underlined, “the most fundamental fiduciary relationship in our society is manifestly that which exists between the community (the people) and the state, its agencies and officials. "


Some suggest the basic problem of stopping Human Rights violations and political negligence stems from the lack of understanding by media and politicians on the laws of fiduciary control. In equity fiduciary control suggests obligations that not only comprise of duties of good faith and loyalty, but also include duties of skill and competence in managing the people's interests. After all, Government is a trust structure created by people to manage certain services within society with the politicians depended on by the people to do that task. Therefore the relationship between government (and it's politicians) and the governed is clearly a fiduciary one.


Rules such as Sovereign Immunity and Crown and Judicial immunity are now being targeted as the tools of oppression that are preventing victims from taking action against the people controlling the country who are causing the failure of care (Originating from within the Courts of Equity, the fiduciary concept was partly designed to prevent those holding positions of power from abusing their authority.) Sovereign immunity or crown immunity is a type of immunity that, in common law jurisdictions traces its origins from early English law. ... Judicial Immunity is a form of legal immunity which protects judges and others employed by the judiciary from lawsuits brought against them for official conduct in office. ...


This new thinking suggests anyone accepting any political or government control over the interests of people should be judged by the most exacting fiduciary standards given politicians are the most important fiduciaries in any society given they hold power over the people with power that comes from the people through elections. The fiduciary relationship arises from the government and it's politicians ability to control people with the exercise of that power. In effect the argument is, if politicians have the power to abolish or ignore any rights they should be burdened with the fiduciary duty to protect people's rights because the government (or others engaging politicians on their behalf) would benefit from the exercise of discretion to extinguish rights which it alone had the power to dispose of.


Social Contract

One of the most influential theories of government in the past two hundred years has been the social contract, on which modern democracy and most forms of socialism are founded. Contemporary liberalism such as in the United States, also tends to work under a social contract theory. The social contract theory holds that governments are created by the people in order to provide for collective needs (such as safety from crime, invasion, natural disasters) that cannot be properly satisfied using purely individual means. Governments thus exist for the purpose of serving the needs and wishes of the people, and their relationship with the people is clearly stipulated in a "social contract" (a constitution and a set of laws) which both the government and the people must abide by. If a majority is unhappy, it may change the social contract. If a minority is unhappy, it may persuade the majority to change the contract, or it may opt out of it by emigration or secession. In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


This theory is based on the idea that all men live in a state of nature which is not ideal to perfect harmony. It is also an agreement among the members of an organized society or between the governed and the government defining and limiting the rights and duties of each. Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Thomas Jefferson are four of the most famous philosophers of contractarianism. State of nature is a term in political philosophy used in social contract theories to describe the hypothetical condition of humanity before the states foundation and its monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members. ...


Governmental operations

Main article: Government operations

Governments concern themselves with regulating and administering many areas of human activity, such as trade, education, or medicine. Governments also employ different methods to maintain the established order, such as secrecy, censorship, police and military forces (particularly under despotism, see also police state), making agreements with other states, and maintaining support within the state. Typical methods of maintaining support and legitimacy include providing the infrastructure for administration, justice, transport, communication, social welfare, etc.; claiming support from deities; providing benefits to elites; providing shops for important posts within the state; limiting the power of the state through laws and constitutions; and appealing to nationalism. The modern standard unit of territory is a country. In addition to the meaning used above, the word state can refer either to a government or to its territory. Within a territory, subnational entities may have local governments which do not have the full power of a national government (for example, they will generally lack the authority to declare war or carry out diplomacy). This article aims to describe the financial expenditure associated with the operations and processes of world governments of all levels. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Secrecy is the condition of hiding information from others. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... Armed forces are the military forces of a state. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... Alternative meaning: Elite (computer game) In sociology as in general usage, the elite (the elect; sometimes the French form élite is used) refers to a relatively small dominant group within a larger society, which enjoys privileged status and, almost invariantly, exploits individuals of lower social status. ... Retail redirects here. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...


Different political ideologies hold different ideas on what the government should or should not do. One political spectrum related to the role of government is that of personal freedom, from authoritarianism (or a lot of government) to liberalism to libertarianism (or very little government). Economic policy can range from a command economy to laissez-faire, with most countries using some form of mixed economy with various degrees of government involvement. Another spectrum, often called left and right relates to the degree of redistribution. At one extreme, Communism, all productive output is divided evenly among the citizenry, also called liberalism at a lesser extreme. At the other extreme, Capitalism, all productive output is retained by those who produced it, for their own use. This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


History of government

Governments arose with the increasing complexity of human society during the history of recorded civilization - the promulgation of the Code of Hammurabi, the formation of theocracies in the middle east, Athenian democracy, the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, and the formation of states in medieval Europe are signal events from which understanding of government and politics arose. The early modern era in the West saw the rise of monarchy, revolutions, democracy, and nationalism, and for parts of the 20th century regimes based on fascism and Communism. In other parts of the world, particularly the Middle East and Africa, religious, tribal and clan-based governments formed and then later interacted with foreign religious and colonial forces during empire building. An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Empire building is a business term that refers to a common problem in larger organizations, in which mid-level managers attempt to gather more control and funding in order to make themselves more powerful within the organization. ...


World government

Main article: World government

A world government is the concept of a political body that would make, interpret and enforce international law.[2] Its ambition has existed in human history since the ancient times among various kings but it has never been realized. [2] It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Inherent to the concept of a world government is the idea that nations would be required to pool or surrender (depending on point of view) sovereignty over some areas. In effect, a world government would add another level of administration above the existing national governments or provide coordination over areas national governments are not capable of adequately addressing as independent polities. “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


Currently, there has not been a nation to officially put forward plans for a world government, although some people do see international institutions (such as the International Criminal Court, United Nations, Bilderberg Group and International Monetary Fund) as the beginning elements of a world government system. An organization comprised of legislators from various nations known as Parliamentarians for Global Action have promoted ideas of democratic global governance, though such promotion has varied in its scope and intensity during the organization's history. The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The front cover of the privately circulated report of the 1980 Bilderberg conference in Bad Aachen, Germany. ... IMF redirects here. ... Parliamentarians for Global Action is an organization of more than 1,300 legislators from more than 114 countries. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... Global governance refers to political interaction aimed at solving problems that affect more than one state or region when there is no power of enforcing compliance. ...


Some see the creation of a world government as a negative, dystopic development, often out of concern over totalitarianism or other kind of world domination or simply the atrophy of freedom. A dystopia (or alternatively cacotopia) is a fictional society, usually portrayed as existing in a future time, when the conditions of life are extremely bad due to deprivation, oppression, or terror. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Global domination, global conquest, taking over the world, world conquest, or world domination is an ambitious goal in which one government, one ideology or belief system, or even one person, seeks to secure complete political control of the entire planet. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia, Government, Columbia University Press.
  2. ^ a b Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, world government
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica 1911: http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Government

[3]


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Government

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Roles

For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Leader redirects here. ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Look up Favorite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ...

Relevant lists


  Results from FactBites:
 
Government - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1464 words)
The Welsh Assembly Government is the name of the executive branch of Wales, and Scottish Government is the unofficial term to describe the Scottish Executive.
Legitimacy is the attribute of a government that prompts the governed to acquiesce willingly to its authority.
Governments thus exist for the purpose of serving the needs and wishes of the people, and their relationship with the people is clearly stipulated in a "social contract" (a constitution and a set of laws) which both the government and the people must abide by.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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