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Encyclopedia > Gouverneur Morris
Gouverneur Morris
Gouverneur Morris

Gouverneur Morris (January 31, 1752November 6, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was an author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. He is widely credited as the author of that document's Preamble: "We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union...". Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Gouverneur Morris Member of the Federal Convention of 1787. ... Gouverneur Morris Member of the Federal Convention of 1787. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... We the People redirects here. ...


In an era when most Americans thought of themselves as citizens of their respective states, Morris expounded the idea of being a citizen of a single union of states.[1].

Contents

Political career

Illus. in: Portraits of generals, ministers, magistrates, members of Congress, and others, who have rendered themselves illustrious in the revolution of the United States of North America / Du Simitière. London : R. Wilkinson and J. Debrett, 1783, no. 9. After a drawing by Pierre Eugène Du Simitière.
Illus. in: Portraits of generals, ministers, magistrates, members of Congress, and others, who have rendered themselves illustrious in the revolution of the United States of North America / Du Simitière. London : R. Wilkinson and J. Debrett, 1783, no. 9. After a drawing by Pierre Eugène Du Simitière.

On May 8, 1775[2], Morris was elected to represent his family estate in the Provincial Congress of New York, an extralegal assembly dedicated to achieving independence. His advocacy of independence brought him into conflict with his family, as well as his mentor William Smith, who had abandoned the patriot cause when it moved towards independence. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1137 × 1536 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1137 × 1536 pixel, file size: 2. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Despite an automatic exemption from military duty because of his handicap and his service in the legislature, he joined a special briefs club for the protection of New York City, a forerunner of the modern New York Guard. A man in briefs Briefs are a type of short, tight Y-shaped underwear and swimwear, as opposed to styles where the material extends down the legs. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... New York Guard MPs on post in New York City. ...


As a member of the Provincial Congress of New York, he concentrated on turning the colony into an independent state. He was largely responsible for the 1777 constitution of the new state of New York.


Although he held no military commission, he was considered to be a brilliant military strategist. In May 1777, he was chosen by the state to coordinate the defense of General George Washington's Continental Army and the Continental Congress. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ...


After the Battle of Long Island in August 1776, the British seized New York City and his family's estate. His mother, a Loyalist, gave the estate over to the British for military use. Because his estate was now in the possession of the enemy, he was no longer eligible for election to the New York state legislature and was instead appointed as a delegate to the Continental Congress. Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,719 total (312 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured or missing) 377 total... Britannia gives a heros welcome to returning American Loyalists. ...


He took his seat in Congress on January 28, 1778 and was immediately selected to a committee in charge of coordinating reforms in the military with General Washington. On a trip to Valley Forge, he was so appalled by the conditions of the troops that he became the spokesman for the Continental Army in Congress and went out to help create substantial reforms in the training and methods of the army. He also signed the Articles of Confederation in 1778. is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the American Revolutionary War winter encampment. ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ...


In 1779, he was defeated for re-election to Congress, largely because his advocacy of a strong central government was at odds with the decentralist views in New York. Defeated in his home state, he moved to Philadelphia to work as a lawyer and merchant. This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...


In Philadelphia, he was appointed assistant superintendent of finance 1781-1785, and was a Pennsylvania delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, and returned to live in New York in 1788. During the convention he was a good friend of George Washington, and was responsible for the draft of much of the Constitution. The immortal words of the preamble "We the People..." sprang from his brilliant mind. He was "an aristocrat to the core" and believed that "there never was, nor ever will be a civilized Society without an Aristocracy". [3] He also thought that common people were incapable of self-government and feared that the poor would sell their votes to rich people, and consequently thought that voting should be restricted to property owners. At the Convention he gave more speeches than any other delegate, totaling to 173. He had no role in the ratification of the Constitution. This article discusses the history of the United States Constitution. ...


He went to Europe on business in 1789 and served as Minister Plenipotentiary to France from 1792-1794. His diaries written during that time have become an invaluable chronicle of the French Revolution, capturing much of the turbulence and violence of that era. He returned to the United States in 1798 and was elected in 1800 as a Federalist to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of James Watson, serving from April 3, 1800, to March 3, 1803. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1802. After leaving the Senate, he served as chairman of the Erie Canal Commission, 1810-1813. List of United States ambassadors to France : Benjamin Franklin, Arthur Lee, Silas Deane (substitued by John Adams in 1778) 1776-1779 Benjamin Franklin 1779-1785 Thomas Jefferson 1785-1789 Gouverneur Morris 1792-1794 James Monroe 1794-1796 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 1796-1797 Robert R. Livingston 1801-1804 John Armstrong 1804... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... James Watson (April 6, 1750-May 15, 1806) was a Federalist U.S. Senator from New York. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... // Origins of the Erie Canal Commission As the United States expanded into western New York and the Northwest Territory, the Great Lakes became an essential part of the system of waterways, on which merchants did most of their shipping. ...


Personal life and legacy

Morris graduated from King's College, known since the American Revolution as Columbia University, in 1764. Morris was unhampered by his wooden leg, which he got after an accident that occurred while he was climbing onto a carriage without anyone tending to the horses, which suddenly took off, catching his left leg in one of the carriage wheels on May 14, 1780.[4] Physicians told Morris that they had no choice but to remove the leg below the knee. Morris understood and agreed. At the advanced age of 57, he married Anne Cary ("Nancy") Randolph, who was the sister to Thomas Mann Randolph, husband of Thomas Jefferson's daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph. He died at the family estate of Morrisania and is buried at St. Anne's Episcopal Church in the Bronx borough of New York City. Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Martha Washington Jefferson Randolph (September 27, 1772 – October 10, 1836) , was the daughter of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, and his wife Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson. ... For other uses, see The Bronx (disambiguation). ...


Morris also became an important landowner in northern New York, where the Town of Gouverneur and Village of Gouverneur in St. Lawrence County are named after him. This article is about the state. ... Gouverneur is a town located in St. ... Gouverneur is a village in St. ... St. ...


Morris's half brother Lewis Morris (1726-1798), was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Morris's great-grandson, also named Gouverneur (1876-1953), was an author of pulp novels and short stories during the early twentieth century. Several of his works were adapted into films, including the famous Lon Chaney, Sr. film The Penalty.[5][6] Lewis Morris (April 8, 1726– January 22, 1798) was an American landowner and developer from Morrisania, New York. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lon Chaney (April 1, 1883 – August 26, 1930), nicknamed The Man of a Thousand Faces, was an American actor during the age of silent films. ... The Penalty is an American crime film, originally released in 1920. ...


In 1943, a United States Liberty ship named the SS Gouverneur Morris was launched. She was scrapped in 1974. The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ... The SS Gouverneur Morris (Hull Number 1627) was a Liberty ship built in the United States during World War II. She was named after Gouverneur Morris, author of large sections of the United States Constitution, including the Preamble. ...


His grandnephew was William M. Meredith, United States Secretary of the Treasury under Zachary Taylor. William Morris Meredith (June 8, 1799–August 17, 1873) was an American lawyer and politician. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ...


References

  1. ^ Gouverneur Morris, accessed November 14, 2006
  2. ^ ANB "Gouverneur Morris"
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Gouverneur Morris: An Independent Life, William Howard Adams, Yale University Press, 2003, ISBN 0300099800
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ [3]

is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ...

Sources

  • Brookhiser, Richard (2003). Gentleman Revolutionary: Gouverneur Morris, the Rake Who Wrote the Constitution. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-2379-9. 
  • Crawford, Alan Pell (2000). Unwise Passions: A True Story of a Remarkable Woman—and the First Great Scandal of Eighteenth-century America. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-83474-X.  (A biography of Morris's wife.)
  • Fresia, Jerry (1988). Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution & Other Illusions. Cambridge: South End Press. 
  • Miller, Melanie Randolph, Envoy to the Terror: Gouverneur Morris and the French Revolution (Potomac Books, 2005)
  • The Diary and Letters of Gouverneur Morris, Minister of the United States to France; Member of the Constitutional Convention, ed. Anne Cary Morris (1888). 2 vols. online version

Richard Brookhiser, a journalist, biographer and historian, is a senior editor at National Review and columnist for the New York Observer. ...

External links

  • U.S. Army Biography
  • Congressional Biography
  • Mintz, Max, Gouverneur Morris, George Washington's War Hawk, Virginia Quarterly Review, Autumn 2003.
Preceded by
William Short
U.S. Minister Plenipotentiary to France
1792–1794
Succeeded by
James Monroe
Preceded by
James Watson
United States Senator (Class 1) from New York
1800–1803
Served alongside: John Armstrong, Jr., De Witt Clinton
Succeeded by
Theodorus Bailey

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gouverneur Morris - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (923 words)
Gouverneur Morris (January 31, 1752–November 8, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States.
Morris is regarded as a visionary of the idea of being "American".
In 1779, at age 28, Morris shattered his leg in a carriage accident, and the leg was amputated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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