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Encyclopedia > Gough Whitlam
The Honourable
 Gough Whitlam
 AC QC


21st Prime Minister of Australia
Elections: 1969, 1972, 1974, 1975, 1977
In office
5 December 1972 – 11 November 1975
Deputy Lance Barnard
Jim Cairns
Frank Crean
Preceded by William McMahon
Succeeded by Malcolm Fraser
Constituency Werriwa (New South Wales)

Born 11 July 1916 (1916-07-11) (age 91)
Kew, Victoria, Australia
Political party Australian Labor Party

Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (pronounced /ˈɡɒf/ goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. A member of the Australian Labor Party (ALP), Whitlam entered Federal Parliament in 1952, winning a by-election for the Division of Werriwa in New South Wales. In 1960 Whitlam was elected deputy leader of the ALP and in 1967, following the resignation of Arthur Calwell after a disastrous election defeat the year before, he assumed the position of Leader of the Opposition. The prefix The Honourable or The Honorable ( or formerly The Honble) is a title of quality attached to the names of certain classes of persons. ... Insignia of a Companion of the Order of Australia. ... For information about The Times satire Queens Counsel, see Queens Counsel (comic strip). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on October 25, 1969. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 2 December 1972. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 18 May 1974. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 13 December 1975. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 10 December 1977. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lance Herbert Barnard (1 May 1919 - 6 August 1997), Australian politician, was Deputy Prime Minister of Australia for most of the Labor government of Gough Whitlam. ... Jim Cairns in 1981 James Ford Cairns (4 October 1914 - 12 October 2003), Australian politician, was prominent in the Labor movement through the 1960s and 1970s, and was briefly Deputy Prime Minister in the Whitlam government. ... Frank Crean in 1961 Frank Crean (born 28 February 1916), Australian politician, was a senior minister in the Australian Labor Party government of Gough Whitlam from 1972 to 1975, and was Deputy Prime Minister for the last six months of the governments term. ... Sir William McMahon, GCMG, CH (23 February 1908 – 31 March 1988), Australian politician and 20th Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Sydney, New South Wales, where his father was a lawyer. ... This article is about the former prime minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ... The Division of Werriwa is a Federal Electoral Division for the Australian House of Representatives. ... NSW redirects here. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Kew is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, in the state of Victoria. ... VIC redirects here. ... ALP redirects here. ... Insignia of a Companion of the Order of Australia. ... Queens Counsel (postnominal QC), during the reign of a male Sovereign known as Kings Counsel (KC), are barristers or, in Scotland, advocates appointed by Letters patent to be one of Her Majestys Counsel learned in the law. They do not constitute a separate order or degree of... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... ALP redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Representatives Senate Speaker of the House of Representatives David Hawker, Liberal Party since 16 November 2004 President of the Senate Alan Ferguson, Liberal Party since 14 August 2007 Members 226 (150 Representatives, 76 Senators) Political groups Liberal Party ALP National Party Country Liberal Party Greens... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... The Division of Werriwa is a Federal Electoral Division for the Australian House of Representatives. ... NSW redirects here. ... Rt Hon Arthur Calwell (with young migrant, 1949) Arthur Augustus Calwell (August 28, 1896 - July 8, 1973) Australian politician, was Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1960 to 1967. ... In the Australian House of Representatives, the Leader of the Opposition sits at the front table to the left of the Speakers Chair (on the right-hand side in this photo). ...


After initially falling short of gaining enough seats to win government at the 1969 election, Whitlam led the Labor Party to victory at the 1972 election after 23 years of Liberal-Country Party government in Australia. After winning the 1974 election, he was dismissed in 1975 by Governor-General Sir John Kerr following a protracted constitutional crisis caused by a refusal of opposition Coalition members to pass Supply Bills in the Australian Senate, and lost the subsequent 1975 election. He is the only Australian Prime Minister to have been dismissed by the Governor-General, using reserve powers. Although his government spent a relatively short time in office, many of the policies and institutions set up under it are still evident today, such as Medicare. His 'presidential' style of politics, the socially progressive policies he pursued, and the dramatic dismissal and subsequent election loss still arouse intense passion and debate. Federal elections were held in Australia on October 25, 1969. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 2 December 1972. ... This article is about the modern Australian political party. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 18 May 1974. ... The secretary of the Governor-General, David Smith, announcing the dissolution of Parliament on November 11th, 1975. ... The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. ... Sir John Robert Kerr, AK, GCMG, GCVO (24 September 1914 – 24 March 1991), 13th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales and 18th Governor-General of Australia, dismissed the Labor government of Gough Whitlam on 11 November 1975, marking the climax of one of the most significant... The Coalition in Australian politics refers to the grouping of two political parties that has existed in the form of a coalition agreement since 1922, with only brief breaks (e. ... In the Westminster system, a money bill or supply bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending (also known as appropriation of money), as opposed to changes in public law. ... Type Upper house President Alan Ferguson, Liberal since 14 August 2007 Members 76 Political groups Coalition (39) ALP (28) Green (4) Democrat (4) FFP (1) Last elections 9 October 2004 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site Senate Entrance to the Senate Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... Federal elections were held in Australia on 13 December 1975. ... A reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state of a country in certain exceptional circumstances. ... Medicare Australia is an agency of the Australian Government that administers health-related programs including Medicare, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), and others. ... Social progressivism is the view that as time progresses, society should disgregard morality in place of political correctness. ...

Contents

Early life

Photograph of Gough Whitlam and attestation paper from his RAAF officer personnel file dated 1942.
Photograph of Gough Whitlam and attestation paper from his RAAF officer personnel file dated 1942.
Pilot Officer Gough Whitlam in Cooktown, Queensland in 1944
Pilot Officer Gough Whitlam in Cooktown, Queensland in 1944

Gough Whitlam was born in Kew, a suburb of Melbourne. His father, Fred Whitlam, was a federal public servant who served as Commonwealth Crown Solicitor. Whitlam senior's involvement in human rights issues was a powerful influence on his son. Whitlam then studied law at the University of Sydney. During the Second World War he served overseas as a navigator in the Royal Australian Air Force's No. 13 Squadron, reaching the rank of Flight Lieutenant. He completed his studies after the war and was admitted to the New South Wales bar in 1947. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... Image File history File linksMetadata EG_Whitlam_(AWM_P04697-001). ... Image File history File linksMetadata EG_Whitlam_(AWM_P04697-001). ... Cooktown is the northernmost town on the East coast of Australia, located at the mouth of the Endeavour River, on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia. ... Kew is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, in the state of Victoria. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Harry Frederick Ernest Fred Whitlam, (3 April 1884 - 8 December 1961), Australian public servant, was the father of Prime Minister Gough Whitlam, and had a great influence on his sons values and interests. ... Australian Government Solicitor, previously known as Commonwealth Crown Solicitor, is a law firm that provides legal services to the Government of Australia, and occasionally to governments of the states and territories of Australia. ... The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... Two Hudson aircraft from No. ... A Flight Lieutenants sleeve/shoulder insignia Flight Lieutenant (abbreviated as Flt Lt and pronounced as flight lef-tenant, see Lieutenant) is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many Commonwealth countries. ... NSW redirects here. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 22 April 1942 Whitlam married Margaret Dovey, daughter of Judge Bill Dovey, and had three sons and a daughter. Margaret Whitlam is known for having a sardonic wit equal to that of her husband and is a published author as well as a former champion swimmer. On the 60th anniversary of their marriage in 2002, he claimed a record for “matrimonial endurance” amongst politicians.[1] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Margaret Elaine Whitlam, AO, (19 November 1919-) (nee Margaret Dovey) is a prominent Australian personality and the wife of former Prime Minister of Australia Gough Whitlam. ...


One of their sons, Nicholas Whitlam, became a prominent banker and a controversial figure in his own right. Another, Tony Whitlam, was briefly a federal MP and was appointed as a judge in 1993 to the Federal Court of Australia, and later in 1994 a judge of the ACT Supreme Court. A third son, Stephen Whitlam (b. 1950), is a former diplomat.[2] Daughter Catherine Dovey (b. 1954) formerly served on the New South Wales Parole Board.[3] Nicholas Richard Whitlam born 6 December 1945, is an Australian businessman, the son of former Prime Minister Edward Gough Whitlam and Margaret Whitlam. ... Tony Whitlam was a son of Gough Whitlam who had a very short lived stay in federal parliament. ... In Melbourne, the Federal Court is housed with other federal courts such as the High Court and the Federal Magistrates Court in the Federal Court Building on the corner of La Trobe Street and William Street The Federal Court of Australia is the Australian court in which most civil disputes... The Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory is the highest court in the Australian Territory of the Australian Capital Territory. ... NSW redirects here. ... A Parole Board is a panel of people who decide whether a criminal should be allowed to be released from prison following him or her serving the minimum term of their sentence. ...


Early political career

Gough Whitlam in 1955
Gough Whitlam in 1955

Whitlam's impetus to become involved in politics was the Chifley government's post-war referendum to gain increased powers for the federal government. He joined the Australian Labor Party in 1945 and in 1950 was a Labor candidate for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly: a contest he was later grateful to have lost. When Hubert Lazzarini, the sitting member for the safe Federal electorate of Werriwa, died in 1952, Whitlam was elected to the House of Representatives at the by-election on 29 November 1952.[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Joseph Benedict Chifley (22 September 1885 – 13 June 1951), Australian politician and 16th Prime Minister of Australia, was one of Australias most influential Prime Ministers. ... ALP redirects here. ... The Legislative Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of New South Wales in Australia. ... Lang Labor MPs in 1935 including Lazzarini Hubert Peter Lazzarini (8 September 1884 – 1 October 1952) was an Australian politician, holding the division of Werriwa as the Australian Labor Party member for most years from 1919 until his death Lazzarini was born in Young, New South Wales, ninth child of... The Division of Werriwa is a Federal Electoral Division for the Australian House of Representatives. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Noted since his school-days for his erudition, eloquence and incisive wit, Whitlam soon became one of the ALP's star performers. Widely acknowledged as one of the best political speakers and parliamentary debaters of his time, he was also one of the few in the ALP who could hold his own against Robert Menzies on the floor of the House. Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ...


After the electoral success of the Curtin and Chifley years, the 1950s were a grim and divisive time for Labor. The Liberal-Country Party coalition government of Robert Menzies gained power in the election of 1949 and governed for a record 23 years. Chifley died in June 1951. His replacement, Dr H.V. Evatt, lacked Chifley's conciliatory skills. This article is about the Australian Prime Minister. ... Joseph Benedict Chifley (22 September 1885 – 13 June 1951), Australian politician and 16th Prime Minister of Australia, was one of Australias most influential Prime Ministers. ... This article is about the modern Australian political party. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on December 10, 1949. ... Rt Hon Dr H.V. Evatt Dr Herbert Vere Evatt (April 30, 1894 - November 2, 1965), Australian jurist, politician and writer (generally known in his lifetime as Dr H.V. Evatt and popularly known as Doc) was born in Maitland, New South Wales, to a working-class family of Anglo...


Whitlam admired Evatt greatly, and was a loyal supporter of his leadership, through a period dominated by the Labor split of 1955, which resulted in the Catholic right wing of the party breaking off to form the Democratic Labor Party (DLP). In 1960, having lost three elections, Evatt resigned, to be replaced by Arthur Calwell, with Whitlam winning the election for deputy over veteran Labor MP Eddie Ward. Calwell came within a handful of votes of winning the 1961 election, but progressively lost ground from that time onward. The Democratic Labor Party (DLP) is a minor political party in Australia that espouses social conservatism. ... Rt Hon Arthur Calwell (with young migrant, 1949) Arthur Augustus Calwell (August 28, 1896 - July 8, 1973) Australian politician, was Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1960 to 1967. ... Eddie Ward The Right Honourable Edward John Eddie Ward (7 March 1899 – 31 July 1963), Australian politician, was a long serving and controversial Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives for 32 years from 1931 until his death in 1963. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on December 9, 1961. ...


The ALP, having been founded as a party to represent the working classes, still regarded its parliamentary representatives as servants of the party as a whole, and required them to comply with official party policy. This led to the celebrated Faceless Men picture of 1963, which showed Calwell and Whitlam waiting outside a Canberra hotel for the decision of an ALP Federal Conference. Prime Minister Menzies used it to great advantage in the November 1963 election campaign, drawing attention to "the famous outside body, thirty-six 'faceless men' whose qualifications are unknown, who have no electoral responsibility." For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ...


Whitlam was quick to respond, and spent years struggling for party reform—at one stage, dubbing his opponents "the 12 witless men"—and eventually succeeded in having the secretive Labor Party National Conference turned into an open public forum, with state representatives elected in proportion to their membership, and with both state and federal parliamentary leaders being automatic members.


Through the 1960s, Whitlam's relationship with Calwell and the right wing of the party remained uneasy. Whitlam opposed several key Labor policies, including nationalisation of industry, refusal of state aid to religious schools, and Calwell's continued support for the White Australia Policy. His stances brought him into direct conflict with the ALP leadership on several occasions and he was almost expelled from the party in 1966 because of his vocal support for government aid to private schools, which the ALP opposed. Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration...


In January 1966, Menzies finally retired after a record term in office. His successor as Liberal Party leader, Harold Holt, led the coalition to a landslide election victory in November on a pro-American, pro-Vietnam War policy. This crushing defeat prompted Calwell to step down in early 1967. Gough Whitlam then became Leader of the Opposition, narrowly defeating his rival, Jim Cairns. Harold Edward Holt, CH (5 August 1908 â€“ 17 December 1967) was an Australian politician who became the 17th Prime Minister of Australia in 1966. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Jim Cairns in 1981 James Ford Cairns (4 October 1914 - 12 October 2003), Australian politician, was prominent in the Labor movement through the 1960s and 1970s, and was briefly Deputy Prime Minister in the Whitlam government. ...


Opposition leader

Whitlam delivers the Labor Party policy speech, Blacktown, 1972

Whitlam swiftly made his mark on the ALP, bringing his campaign for internal reform to fruition, and overhauling or discarding a series of Labor policies that had been enshrined for decades. Economic rationalism was pioneered,[5] the White Australia policy was dropped, Labor no longer opposed state aid, and the air of grim working-class puritanism that attended the Labor Party of the 1950s gave way to one that was younger, more optimistic, more socially liberal, more intellectual, and decidedly middle-class. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Blacktown is a suburb in the City of Blacktown, in Western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ... Economic rationalism is an Australian term in discussion of microeconomic policy, applicable to the economic policy of many governments around the world, in particular during the 1980s and 1990s. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration...


Meanwhile, after Holt's disappearance in December 1967, the Liberal Party began to succumb to internal dissent. They first elected Senator John Gorton as leader. However, Whitlam quickly gained the upper hand on Gorton, in large part because he was one of the first Australian politicians to realise and fully exploit the power of television as a political tool. Whitlam won two by-elections, then an 18-seat swing in the 1969 election. He actually won a bare majority of the two-party preferred vote, but the Democratic Labor Party's longstanding practice of preferencing against Labor left him four seats short of bringing the Coalition down. In 1971, the Liberals dumped Gorton in favour of William McMahon. However, McMahon was considered well past his political prime, and was never able to get the better of the more charismatic Whitlam. Type Upper house President Alan Ferguson, Liberal since 14 August 2007 Members 76 Political groups Coalition (39) ALP (28) Green (4) Democrat (4) FFP (1) Last elections 9 October 2004 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site Senate Entrance to the Senate Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... Sir John Grey Gorton GCMG AC CH (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002), Australian politician, was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on October 25, 1969. ... B. A. Santamaria This article is about the Democratic Labor Party of 1955-78. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Sir William McMahon, GCMG, CH (23 February 1908 – 31 March 1988), Australian politician and 20th Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Sydney, New South Wales, where his father was a lawyer. ...


Outside parliament, Whitlam concentrated on party reform and new policy development. He advocated the abolition of conscription and Australian withdrawal from the Vietnam War, and in 1971 visited the People's Republic of China (PRC), promising to establish diplomatic relations—much to the chagrin of McMahon, who attacked Whitlam for this policy, only to discover that President Richard Nixon was also working toward recognising the PRC. The 1972 federal election saw Whitlam lead the ALP to its first electoral victory since 1946. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Nixon redirects here. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 2 December 1972. ...


Prime Minister 1972-75

Custom dictated that Whitlam should have waited until the process of vote counting was complete, and then call a Caucus meeting to elect his Ministers ready to be sworn in by the Governor-General. Meanwhile, the outgoing Prime Minister would remain in office as a caretaker.[6] However, unwilling to wait, Whitlam had himself and Deputy Leader Lance Barnard sworn in as a two-man government as soon as the overall result was beyond doubt, on 5 December 1972, the Tuesday after the Saturday election; they held all the portfolios between them (see First Whitlam Ministry). Whitlam later said: "The Caucus I joined in 1972 had as many Boer War veterans as men who had seen active service in World War II, three from each. The Ministry appointed on the fifth of December 1972 was composed entirely of ex-servicemen: Lance Barnard and me." The full ministry was sworn in on 19 December. The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. ... A caretaker is a term mainly used in the United Kingdom, meaning a concierge or janitor. ... Lance Herbert Barnard (1 May 1919 - 6 August 1997), Australian politician, was Deputy Prime Minister of Australia for most of the Labor government of Gough Whitlam. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on December 2, 1972. ... The First Whitlam Ministry was the forty-eighth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 5th December 1972 to 19th December 1972. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Second Whitlam Ministry was the forty-ninth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 19th December 1972 to 12th June 1974. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Whitlam (left) with Premier of South Australia Don Dunstan (right) at The Lodge in 1973

Although Labor had a comfortable working majority in the House, Whitlam faced a hostile Senate voted in at the 1970 half-senate election, making it impossible for him to pass legislation without the support of at least one of the other parties – Liberal, Country, or DLP. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of Premiers of South Australia. ... Donald Allan Dunstan AC QC (21 September 1926 – 6 February 1999) was an Australian politician. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Type Upper house President Alan Ferguson, Liberal since 14 August 2007 Members 76 Political groups Coalition (39) ALP (28) Green (4) Democrat (4) FFP (1) Last elections 9 October 2004 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site Senate Entrance to the Senate Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... Half-senate elections were held in Australia on November 21, 1970. ...


After 23 years of opposition, the Labor party lacked experience in the mechanics of government. Nevertheless, Whitlam embarked on a massive legislative reform program. In the space of a little less than three years, the Whitlam Government established formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China;[7] assumed responsibility for tertiary education from the states and abolished tertiary fees;[8] cut tariffs across the board by 25% and abolished the Tariff Board;[9] established the Schools Commission to distribute federal funds to assist non-government schools on a needs basis; introduced a supporting benefit for single-parent families; abolished the death penalty for federal crimes. It also reduced the voting age to 18 years; abolished the last vestiges of the White Australia Policy; introduced language programs for non-English speaking Australians; mandated equal opportunities for women in Federal Government employment; appointed women to judicial and administrative positions; abolished conscription; set up the National Aboriginal Consultative Committee; amalgamated the five separate defence departments; instituted direct federal grants to local governments, and established the Order of Australia (Australia's own honours system), as well as improved access to justice for Indigenous Australians; introduced the policy of Self-determination for Indigenous Australians; advocated land rights for Indigenous Australians; increased funding for Indigenous Australian's welfare; introduced the Multiculturalism policy for all new migrants; established Legal Aid, and increased funding for the arts. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... Insignia of a Companion of the Order of Australia. ... The concept of self-determination has, since 2003, become a topic of some debate in Australia in relation to Aborigines (indigenous Australians). ... Most liberal democracies consider that it is necessary to provide some level of legal aid to persons otherwise unable to afford legal representation. ...


The Senate resolutely opposed six key bills and twice rejected them (however they were eventually passed at a joint sitting of parliament). The bills were designed to: A joint sitting of the Australian parliament was convened in August 1974, comprising members of both the Senate and House of Representatives. ...

  • Institute a universal health insurance system to be known as Medibank (later under the Hawke Labor government, Medibank was split in to Medibank Private and the publicly accessible Medicare).
  • Provide citizens of the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory with Senate representation for the first time.
  • Regulate the size of House of Representatives electorates to ensure one vote one value (additional measures occurred later, as of the 1984 federal election which also introduced Group ticket voting in the Senate).
  • Institute government overseeing of exploitation of minerals and oil.

The repeated rejection of these bills provided a constitutional trigger for a double dissolution (a dissolution of both houses followed by an election for all members of both houses), but Whitlam did not decide to call such an election until April 1974. Instead, he expected to hold an election for half the Senate. To improve his chances of winning control of the Senate, Whitlam offered the former DLP Leader, Senator Vince Gair, the post of Ambassador to Ireland, thus creating an extra Senate vacancy in Queensland which Whitlam hoped Labor could win. This manoeuvre backfired, however, when the Queensland Premier, Joh Bjelke-Petersen, learnt of the scheme and advised the Governor of Queensland to issue the writs for the Queensland Senate election before Gair's resignation could be obtained. Medicare is Australias publicly-funded, universal health scheme, providing affordable treatment by doctors and in public hospitals for all citizens and permanent residents (as well as visitors from countries which have reciprocal arrangements with Australia). ... Medibank Private is an Australian Government owned private health insurer, established under the Fraser government in 1976 through the Health Insurance Commission. ... Medicare is Australias publicly-funded universal health care system, operated by the government authority Medicare Australia. ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... In Australia, one vote one value is a legislative principle of democracy whereby each electorate has the same population within a specified percentage of tolerance. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 1 December 1984. ... Group voting tickets are a way to simplify the voting in a single transferable vote election. ... This article deals with elections to the Australian Parliament. ... Vincent Clair Gair (25 February 1901 – 11 November 1980) was an Australian politician. ... Sir Johannes Joh Bjelke-Petersen, KCMG (13 January 1911 – 23 April 2005), New Zealand-born Australian politician, was the longest-serving and longest-lived Premier of the state of Queensland. ... List of Governors of Queensland See Governors of the Australian states for a description and history of the office of Governor. ...


This "Gair affair" so outraged opponents of the Whitlam government that the Opposition Leader Billy Snedden threatened to block supply in the Senate, although he took no actual steps to do so. Whitlam, however, believing Snedden was unpopular with the electorate, immediately went to the Governor-General, Sir Paul Hasluck, and obtained a double dissolution of both Houses on 11 April, with the election set down for 18 May. Whitlam went to the polls asking for a mandate to "finish the job", and the ALP campaigned on the slogan "Give Gough a Go". At the election the Whitlam government was re-elected, though with a reduced majority. The DLP lost all its seats, but Labor failed to win a majority in the Senate. The balance of power in the Senate was now held by two independent Senators. In the short term, this led to the historic joint sitting of both houses, at which the six bills were passed. In the longer term, it contained the seeds of Whitlam's downfall. Vincent Clair Gair (25 February 1901 – 11 November 1980) was an Australian politician. ... Sir Billy Mackie Snedden, KCMG, QC (31 December 1926 - 27 June 1987), born in Perth, was an Australian politician and was opposition leader of the coalition at the 1974 federal election failing to defeat incumbent Gough Whitlam. ... Loss of Supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply. ... The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. ... Sir Paul Meernaa Caedwalla Hasluck (1 April 1905 - 9 January 1993), Australian historian, public servant and politician, and 17th Governor-General of Australia, was born in Fremantle, Western Australia, into a family of Salvationists, whose values he retained throughout his career. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on May 18, 1974. ... A joint sitting of the Australian parliament was convened in August 1974, comprising members of both the Senate and House of Representatives. ...


In its second term, the Whitlam Government continued with its legislative reform program, but became embroiled in a series of controversies, including attempts to borrow large amounts of money from Middle Eastern governments (the "Loans Affair"). Whitlam was forced to dismiss Treasurer Jim Cairns and another senior minister, Rex Connor, for misleading Parliament. The Loans Affair (also called the Khemlani Affair) is the name given to the political scandal involving the Whitlam Government of Australia in 1975, in which it was accused of attempting to illegally borrow money from Middle Eastern countries by bypassing standard procedure as dictated by the Australian Treasury. ... Jim Cairns in 1981 James Ford Cairns (4 October 1914 - 12 October 2003), Australian politician, was prominent in the Labor movement through the 1960s and 1970s, and was briefly Deputy Prime Minister in the Whitlam government. ... Hon Rex Connor Reginald Francis Xavier Rex Connor (20 January 1909 - 28 August 1977), Australian politician, was a senior minister in the Whitlam government, until his forced resignation. ...


Emboldened by these events, a weak economy, and a massive swing to them in a mid-1975 by-election for the Tasmanian seat of Bass, the Liberal-Country Opposition, led by Malcolm Fraser, argued that the Government's behaviour in breaching constitutional conventions required that it in turn attempt to breach one of the most fundamental, that the Senate would block Supply (that is, cut off supply of Treasury funds). Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... The Division of Bass is an Australian Electoral Division northern Tasmania, Australia. ... This article is about the former prime minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ... Loss of Supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply. ...


The dismissal

The crisis of 1975 was precipitated by the Senate's refusal to pass the Whitlam government's money (Supply) bill. In October 1975, the Opposition moved to delay consideration of the budget in the Senate. This delay would have resulted in essential public services ceasing to function due to lack of money; that is to say Whitlam attempted to govern without supply and no government had ever attempted such a course of action.[10] Fraser warned that the bill would not be passed unless Whitlam called an early election. Whitlam determined to face the Opposition down, and proposed to borrow money from the banks to keep the government running. He was confident that some of the more moderate Liberal Senators would back down when the situation worsened as appropriations ran out during November and December. Gough Whitlam speaking on the steps of Parliament House, Canberra, following his dismissal. ...

Gough Whitlam and his wife Margaret greet Queen Elizabeth II at Fairbairn airport, Canberra. Queen Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh were in Australia for the opening of the Sydney Opera House in October 1973.

The Governor-General Sir John Kerr was concerned about the legality of Whitlam's proposals for borrowing money, and to govern without Supply, although the Solicitor-General and Attorney-General had scrutinised them for legality.[11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Margaret Elaine Whitlam, AO, (19 November 1919-) (nee Margaret Dovey) is a prominent Australian personality and the wife of former Prime Minister of Australia Gough Whitlam. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Fairbairn was a base of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) located in Australias national capital, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. ... The Duke of Edinburgh is a dukedom associated with Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. ... Sir John Robert Kerr, AK, GCMG, GCVO (24 September 1914 – 24 March 1991), 13th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales and 18th Governor-General of Australia, dismissed the Labor government of Gough Whitlam on 11 November 1975, marking the climax of one of the most significant...


On 11 November 1975, Kerr in accordance with Section 64 exercised his power and revoked Whitlam's commission and installed Fraser as caretaker Prime Minister, with instructions to make no policy changes, no appointments, no dismissals and call an immediate federal election.[10] At 2.45 pm Fraser announced he was caretaker Prime Minister and was advising a double dissolution election.[10] is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On hearing the proclamation dissolving Parliament, which ended with the traditional 'God Save the Queen', Whitlam delivered an impromptu address to the crowd that had gathered in front of the steps of Parliament House. During the speech he labelled Fraser as "Kerr's cur" and told the crowd: "Ladies and gentlemen, well may we say 'God Save the Queen', because nothing will save the Governor-General."[12] Old Parliament House today Opening of Parliament House in May 1927 Old Parliament House, formerly known as the Provisional Parliament House, was the seat of the Parliament of Australia from 1927 to 1988. ...


In the House of Representatives Whitlam moved a motion 'that this House expresses its want of confidence in the Prime Minister and requests Mr Speaker forthwith to advise His Excellency the Governor-General to call on me to form a government'. This vote of confidence in Whitlam was passed on party lines. News of this vote was delivered personally to Kerr by the Speaker of the House Gordon Scholes, but Kerr refused to see the Speaker until after his Official Secretary had read the notice of double dissolution at Parliament House at 4.45 pm.[10] Gordon Glen Denton Scholes AO (born 7 June 1931) was an Australian politician. ...


In the leadup to the resulting election, Whitlam called upon his supporters to "maintain your rage". Despite this, the ALP suffered a 7.4% swing against them and Whitlam was to remain as Opposition Leader until his defeat in the 1977 election. Federal elections were held in Australia on 10 December 1977. ...


Legacy

The Truth of the Matter, written by Gough Whitlam and released in November 2005, containing recollections of his time in office and the dismissal.

During its three years in power, the Whitlam government was responsible for a long list of legislative reforms, some of which still stand today. It replaced Australia's adversarial divorce laws with a new, no-fault system; introduced the Trade Practices Act; slashed tariff barriers; ended conscription; introduced a universal national health insurance scheme Medibank, now known as Medicare; gave independence to Papua New Guinea; made all university education free to its recipients; introduced needs-based federal funding for private schools; established the long-awaited "third tier" in Australian radio by legislating for the establishment of community-based FM radio (commercial FM radio would be established under his successor Fraser); and established diplomatic and trade relations with the People's Republic of China. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gough Whitlam speaking on the steps of Parliament House, Canberra, following his dismissal. ... The Trade Practices Act 1974 is an act of the Parliament of Australia. ... Medicare is Australias publicly-funded universal health care system, operated by the government authority Medicare Australia. ... FM radio is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ...


However, Whitlam's critics point to substantial failings in his administration. The economy declined, with adverse balance-of-payments problems, high unemployment and (by Australian standards) very high inflation and bank interest rates. Some external factors contributed to this, in particular the 1973 oil crisis and resulting higher world oil prices, and falling prices for Australian farm produce. But the Whitlam government's own economic policies — such as the controversial 1973 decision to reduce tariffs across the board by 25% — were partly responsible for the Whitlam demise. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations...


On social matters his reputation has been tarnished by his complicity in refusing to act against the pro-separatist movement on Bougainville on 1 September 1975, just two weeks before Papua New Guinea's independence on 16 September 1975; supporting Suharto government's invasion of East Timor by Indonesia (see Indonesian occupation of East Timor). Whitlam and many government members also refused to allow South Vietnamese refugees into the country following the fall of Saigon in 1975, concerned that they would have anti-communist sympathies hostile to the Australian Labor Party. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... ALP redirects here. ...


The autocratic Whitlam's "crash through or crash" style made many political enemies, and the various scandals afflicting the government cost it electoral support and momentum. His 'crash through or crash' style was also his Achilles heel surrounding the lead-up to the dismissal.[13]


Some Australians regarded his dismissal by the Governor-General as an outrage, but the Australian electorate voted to replace the Whitlam government by a record margin, and the Labor Party would not be a serious candidate for government again until Whitlam was replaced as leader.


The Whitlam government was also greatly damaged by several highly publicised scandals, most notably the disastrous "Loans Affair" masterminded by Rex Connor, the series of controversies over the questionable conduct of Treasurer and deputy party leader Jim Cairns, and the Indonesian invasion of East Timor. However, Whitlam's book The Truth Of The Matter recounts legal steps essayed in the attempt to obtain or bypass parliamentary supply. The Loans Affair (also called the Khemlani Affair) is the name given to the political scandal involving the Whitlam Government of Australia in 1975, in which it was accused of attempting to illegally borrow money from Middle Eastern countries by bypassing standard procedure as dictated by the Australian Treasury. ... Hon Rex Connor Reginald Francis Xavier Rex Connor (20 January 1909 - 28 August 1977), Australian politician, was a senior minister in the Whitlam government, until his forced resignation. ... Jim Cairns in 1981 James Ford Cairns (4 October 1914 - 12 October 2003), Australian politician, was prominent in the Labor movement through the 1960s and 1970s, and was briefly Deputy Prime Minister in the Whitlam government. ...


In September 2000, the Department of Foreign Affairs released previously secret files that showed that the Whitlam Labor government encouraged East Timor's integration into Indonesia by Suharto's "New Order".[14] Two months after the Portuguese military began to withdraw from East Timor, Whitlam suggested to Indonesia that it launch undercover operations to ensure East Timor's incorporation into Indonesia. During September 1974 discussions with Suharto in Central Java, Whitlam described East Timor as "too small to be independent". An Indonesian general is quoted as saying that the September 1974 meeting, "crystallised Suharto's thinking on the matter". An estimated 102,000 East Timorese died during the subsequent 27-year Indonesian occupation of East Timor.[15] Five members of an Australian television crew were killed, whom Whitlam subsequently described as "foolhardy", and "the source of a long running media vendetta against Indonesia."[16] 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December This is a timeline for events in September, 2000. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966. ... Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. ... The Balibo Five were a group of Australian television journalists based in the town of Balibo in the then Portuguese Timor (now East Timor), who were killed on October 16, 1975 by Indonesian troops mounting incursions, prior to the full-scale invasion of the territory on December 7 that year. ...


Out of office

Gough Whitlam (right) at 88, the leader of the Australian Labor Party, Mark Latham, at an election fundraising event in Melbourne, September 2004.
Gough Whitlam (right) at 88, the leader of the Australian Labor Party, Mark Latham, at an election fundraising event in Melbourne, September 2004.

Whitlam stayed on as Opposition Leader. The Whitlams were visiting China at the time of the Tangshan earthquake in July 1976. Although they were staying in Tientsin, 90 miles away from the epicentre, Margaret Whitlam was still slightly injured.[17] Download high resolution version (1289x1039, 209 KB)This photo was taken by Alex Kats who has agreed that I should upload it here and releases it for general use. ... Download high resolution version (1289x1039, 209 KB)This photo was taken by Alex Kats who has agreed that I should upload it here and releases it for general use. ... Mark William Latham (born 28 February 1961), a former Australian politician, was leader of the Federal Parliamentary Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition from December 2003 to January 2005. ... Many buildings were flattened into rubble when the earthquake hit. ... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: tiān jīn; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is a harbour municipality in China on the Hai He River (from Beijing) and Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea (Pacific Ocean). ...


Whitlam fought the 1977 election but Labor was defeated nearly as heavily as it had been in 1975. On election night he announced his immediate retirement as Leader of the Opposition, and he resigned from Parliament in 1978. After a few years as a travelling lecturer, he was appointed Australian Ambassador to UNESCO by the next Labor Prime Minister, Bob Hawke. Federal elections were held in Australia on 10 December 1977. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ...


The sole issue over which he has received sustained criticism from the left is his failure to oppose Indonesia's plans to annex East Timor, then Portuguese Timor.[18] Portuguese Timor is the former name (1596 - 1975) of East Timor when it was under Portuguese control. ...


Whitlam turned 80 in 1996, but still made regular public appearances and continued to comment on some issues, notably republicanism: in the 1999 referendum, he campaigned together on this issue with his old enemy Fraser. He felt the Hawke government had wasted its opportunities to continue the Whitlam reform program, but was more enthusiastic about Paul Keating's government. After 1996, he was scathingly critical of John Howard, but also of Kim Beazley, who was Labor leader from 1996 to 2001 – this feud apparently went back to Whitlam's dislike of Beazley's father (Kim Beazley, senior), who had been a minister in Whitlam's government. Republicanism in Australia is the movement to change Australias status as a constitutional monarchy to a republican form of government. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... For other persons named Paul Keating, see Paul Keating (disambiguation). ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... For Kim Beazleys father, Kim Beazley senior, see Kim Edward Beazley. ... The Hon. ...

Gough Whitlam with wife Margaret at the wedding of current Premier of South Australia Mike Rann and Sasha Carruozzo in July 2006.
Gough Whitlam with wife Margaret at the wedding of current Premier of South Australia Mike Rann and Sasha Carruozzo in July 2006.

Whitlam was delighted when his former research assistant and then-MP representing his old seat of Werriwa, Mark Latham, was elected Labor leader on 2 December 2003, exactly 31 years after Whitlam's own election as Prime Minister. By that time Whitlam, 87, was increasingly frail and usually appeared in public with a walking stick, but his ability and willingness to make outspoken comments had not diminished, and he spoke frequently in praise of Latham. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Margaret Elaine Whitlam, AO, (19 November 1919-) (nee Margaret Dovey) is a prominent Australian personality and the wife of former Prime Minister of Australia Gough Whitlam. ... This is a list of Premiers of South Australia. ... Michael David Rann (born 1953), Australian politician, is the 44th Premier of South Australia. ... Mark William Latham (born 28 February 1961), a former Australian politician, was leader of the Federal Parliamentary Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition from December 2003 to January 2005. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Gough Whitlam with wife Margaret at Parliament House for the national apology to the Stolen Generations in February 2008.
Gough Whitlam with wife Margaret at Parliament House for the national apology to the Stolen Generations in February 2008.

In April 2004, Whitlam spoke at a function marking the centenary of the Watson Labor government. Later in the year he appeared at Labor events during the unsuccessful 2004 federal election campaign, and appeared to be in good health. Margaret Elaine Whitlam, AO, (19 November 1919-) (nee Margaret Dovey) is a prominent Australian personality and the wife of former Prime Minister of Australia Gough Whitlam. ... Parliament House is the building in which a National (or State) Parliament sits. ... The Stolen Generation is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal children, usually of mixed descent, who were removed from their families by Australian government agencies and church missions, under various state acts of parliament, denying the rights of parents and making all Aboriginal cildren wards of the state... For other uses, see Chris Watson (musician). ... Federal elections were held in Australia on 9 October 2004. ...


Latham's diaries, however, were published in September 2005, and included a claim that Whitlam had dismissively remarked to Labor MP Joel Fitzgibbon that he thought Latham—who had by then resigned as leader—should quit politics altogether. When Latham learned of the remark, he cut off all contact with his former mentor and described Whitlam's comment as "the cruellest cut of all". Whitlam subsequently claimed that he simply told Fitzgibbon he thought it was "unsustainable" for Latham to stay on as an MP because of his ill-health. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joel Andrew Fitzgibbon (born 16 January 1962), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Hunter, New South Wales. ...


In November 2005, he donated his letter of dismissal and his copy of the "It's time" campaign speech to the University of Western Sydney. A member of the Australian Fabian Society, Whitlam was its President in 2002. The Australian Fabian Society was established in 1947. ...


Whitlam has been a supporter of fixed parliamentary terms since his membership of a constitutional review committee in the 1950s. A week before his ninetieth birthday he accused the ALP of failing to press for this reform.[19]


In February, 2008, Gough Whitlam joined three other former Prime Ministers, Fraser, Hawke and Keating, by returning to Parliament to witness the historic Federal Government apology to the Stolen Generations.[20] This article is about the former prime minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ... Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ... For other persons named Paul Keating, see Paul Keating (disambiguation). ... The Stolen Generation is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal children, usually of mixed descent, who were removed from their families by Australian government agencies and church missions, under various state acts of parliament, denying the rights of parents and making all Aboriginal cildren wards of the state...


Honours

Bust of Gough Whitlam by sculptor Victor Greenhalgh located in the Prime Minister's Avenue in the Ballarat Botanical Gardens
Bust of Gough Whitlam by sculptor Victor Greenhalgh located in the Prime Minister's Avenue in the Ballarat Botanical Gardens

Whitlam was appointed Queen's Counsel in 1962 and a Companion of the Order of Australia in 1978.[21] In 2005 He was created an honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of Melanesia by the Governor General of Papua New Guinea.[22] For information about The Times satire Queens Counsel, see Queens Counsel (comic strip). ... Insignia of a Companion of the Order of Australia. ...


In 2006 both he and Malcolm Fraser were awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun by the Emperor of Japan, in recognition of their role in improving relations between Japan and Australia.[23] Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu sho(旭日章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ...


Whitlam is an honorary Fellow of the Australian Academy of Humanities.[24]


He has been awarded honorary doctorates by the University of Sydney, the University of Wollongong, La Trobe University and the University of Technology, Sydney.[24] An Honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum) is a degree awarded to someone by an institution that he or she may have never attended, it may be a bachelors, masters or doctorate degree - however, the latter is most common. ... The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. ... The University of Wollongong is a large University with approximately 21,000 students in the city of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. ... La Trobe University is a multi-campus university in Victoria, Australia. ... The UTS tower on Broadway UTS tower The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), is a university in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ...


In April 2007, Gough and Margaret Whitlam were made life members of the Australian Labor Party. This was the first time anyone had become life members at the national level of the Party organisation.[25] April 2007 is the fourth month of the year. ...


See also

The First Whitlam Ministry was the forty-eighth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 5th December 1972 to 19th December 1972. ... The Second Whitlam Ministry was the forty-ninth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 19th December 1972 to 12th June 1974. ... The Third Whitlam Ministry was the fiftieth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 12th June 1974 to 11th November 1975. ... The Whitlams is an Australian band famous for songs such as No Aphrodisiacand Blow up the Pokies. The Whitlams sound can best be described as Piano rock founded in lyrics of charming cynicism. The bands name is a tribute to former Australian Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam. ...

Further reading

  • Barry Cohen, Life With Gough, Allen and Unwin, 1996
  • Hugh Emy and others, Whitlam Revisited, Pluto Press, 1993
  • Gareth Evans and others, Labor and the Constitution 1972-1975, Heinemann, 1977
  • Richard Hall & John Ironmonger, The Makers and the Breakers: The Governor-General and the Senate vs the Constitution, Wellington Lane Press, Sydney, 1976.
  • Paul Kelly, Crash Through or Crash, Angus and Robertson, 1976
  • Paul Kelly, November 1975, Allen and Unwin, 1995
  • John Kerr, Matters for Judgment, Macmillan, 1978
  • Graham Freudenberg, A Certain Grandeur, Macmillan, 1977
  • Jenny Hocking & Colleen Lewis, It's time again: Whitlam and Modern Labor, Circa Publishing, 2003
  • Alan Reid, The Whitlam Venture, Hill of Content, 1976
  • James Walter, The Leader: A Political Biography of Gough Whitlam, University of St. Lucia QLD, 1980.
  • Patrick Weller & R.F.I. Smith, 'The Rise and Fall of Whitlam Labor: The political context of the 1975 elections' in Australia at the Polls: The National Election of 1975, ed. H.R. Penniman, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, Washington, 1977, pp. 49-76.
  • Gough Whitlam, On Australia's Constitution, Widescope, 1977
  • Gough Whitlam, The Truth of the Matter, Penguin, 1979 (Reprint, Melbourne University Press, 2005)
  • Gough Whitlam, The Whitlam Government, Penguin, 1985
  • Gough Whitlam and others, The Whitlam Phenomenon, Penguin, 1986
  • Gough Whitlam, Abiding Interests, University of Queensland Press, 1997

Notes and references

  1. ^ After 50 years' hard Labor, Gough tells it like it was, The Age, 7 November 2002
  2. ^ There is no official or academic biography of Gough Whitlam. Sources on his early life include Laurie Oakes and David Solomon, The Making of an Australian Prime Minister, Cheshire 1973, and Laurie Oakes, Whitlam PM: A biography, Angus and Robertson 1973. Whitlam has not published memoirs, but discusses his father's influence in Gough Whitlam, Abiding Interests, University of Queensland Press, 1997
  3. ^ "Whitlam's daughter quits parole board", The Sun-Herald, 22 February 2004.
  4. ^ 1952 By-election, Werriwa, NSW. Psephos - Adam Carr's Electoral Archive. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  5. ^ John Quiggin - Journal Articles 1997 - Economic rationalism
  6. ^ As a matter of long-standing party policy, ALP Ministers are elected by the entire Parliamentary Party—the 'Caucus'—with the Prime Minister only having the power to assign portfolios. Liberal Prime Ministers, in contrast, have traditionally had the power to nominate their own Ministry.
  7. ^ Whitlam Institute (archived, originally published by the governments of Australia and the People's Republic of China). "Joint communique establishing diplomatic relations between China and Australia". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-07-14.
  8. ^ Whitlam, Gough (2003-11-06). Speech transcript, Launch of Social Justice and Social Change Centre. Whitlam Institute. Retrieved on 2006-07-14.
  9. ^ Tariff reduction. Statement by the Prime Minister, Mr. E.G. Whitlam, Q.C., M.P., and by the Minister for Overseas Trade and Secondary Industry, Dr. J.F. Cairns, M.P.. The Whitlam Institute (originally published by the Government of Australia) (1973-07-18). Retrieved on 2006-07-14.
  10. ^ a b c d Weller, Patrick; R.F.I. Smith (1977). in H.R. Penniman: The Rise and Fall of Whitlam Labor: The political context of the 1975 elections, Australia at the Polls: The National Election of 1975. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, Washington, pp. 49-76. 
  11. ^ Freudenberg, Graham (1977). A Certain Grandeur: Gough Whitlam in Politics. Sun Books, p. 384. ISBN 0333230019. 
  12. ^ Whitlam's speech. ozpolitics.info (Bryan Palmer) (1975-11-11). Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  13. ^ Walter, James (1980). The Leader: A Political Biography of Gough Whitlam. University of St. Lucia QLD. 
  14. ^ Mike Head (2000-09-18). Documents reveal that Australia urged Indonesia to invade East Timor in 1975. World Socialist Web Site.; "Fed: Cables show Australia knew of Indon invasion of Timor", AAP General News (Australia), 2000-09-13. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. 
  15. ^ Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (9 February 2006). The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974-1999. A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG).
  16. ^ ABC Radio AM (2000-09-21). Whitlam lashes out over East Timor crisis.
  17. ^ Reynolds, Jack. "China Earthquake / Whitlams / United States Information", NBC, 1976-07-28. Retrieved on 2008-01-01. ; "China: Shock and Terror in the Night", Time, 1976-08-09. Retrieved on 2008-01-01. ; nolefan (2005-12-19). Tangshan, Hebei. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  18. ^ Scott, David. "Last Flight Out of Dili", New Matilda, 2005-11-09. Retrieved on 2008-01-01. 
  19. ^ Emery, Ryan. "Gough attack's ALP's aim as second best", The Australian, 2006-07-06. Retrieved on 2006-07-11. ; Grattan, Michelle. "Party hails Gough in his 10th decade", The Age, 2006-07-08. Retrieved on 2006-07-11. 
  20. ^ Welch, Dylan. "Kevin Rudd says sorry", The Sydney Morning Herald, 2008-02-13. Retrieved on 2008-02-22. 
  21. ^ It's an Honour Website. Australian Government. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  22. ^ Papua New Guinea Gossip Newsletter. PNGGossip.com. Retrieved on 31 December 2006.
  23. ^ Embassy of Japan in Australia (2006-11-3). Japan honours distinguished Australians.
  24. ^ a b Hon E.G. Whitlam, AC QC. The Whitlam Institute (within the University of Western Sydney). Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  25. ^ "Gough, Margaret Whitlam get ALP life membership", ABC News Online, April 28, 2007.. Retrieved on 2007-04-28. 

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Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michelle Grattan AO (born 1936), Australian journalist, was the first woman to become editor of an Australian metropolitan daily newspaper. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Western Sydney (UWS) is a large, multi-campused and comprehensive metropolitan University with 35,000 students and 2,500 staff members. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Gough Whitlam
  • Gough Whitlam - Australia's Prime Ministers / National Archives of Australia
  • The Whitlam Institute
  • 1974 Cabinet Records / National Archives of Australia
  • The Whitlam Dismissal - November 11, 1975
  • Gough Whitlam - Exclusive to Saxton Speakers Bureau
  • Dismissal letter - Copy of dismissal letter
  • Gough Whitlam at the National Film and Sound Archive
  • Video of Norman Gunston, Gough Whitlam, Bill Hayden and Bob Hawke at 'The Dismissal'
  • Video of Gough Whitlam and Malcolm Fraser in their pro-republic commercial
Political offices
Preceded by
Billy Snedden
Treasurer
1972
Succeeded by
Frank Crean
Preceded by
William McMahon
Prime Minister
1972 – 1975
Succeeded by
Malcolm Fraser
Preceded by
Nigel Bowen
Minister for Foreign Affairs
1972–1973
Succeeded by
Don Willesee
Preceded by
Jim Cairns
Minister for the Environment
1975
Succeeded by
Joe Berinson
Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
Hubert Lazzarini
Member for Werriwa
1952 – 1978
Succeeded by
John Kerin
Party political offices
Preceded by
Arthur Calwell
Deputy Leader of the Australian Labor Party
1960 – 1967
Succeeded by
Lance Barnard
Leader of the Labor Party
1967 – 1977
Succeeded by
Bill Hayden

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gough Whitlam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3672 words)
Gough Whitlam was born in Kew, a Melbourne suburb.
Margaret Whitlam is known for having a sardonic wit equal to that of her husband and is a published author as well as a former champion swimmer.
Whitlam admired Evatt greatly, and was a loyal supporter of his leadership, through a period dominated by the Labor split of 1955, which resulted in the Catholic right wing of the party breaking off to form the Democratic Labor Party (DLP).
Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2840 words)
The Whitlam government, which was elected in 1972 after decades of conservative rule, had pioneered several social reforms immediately after gaining office, including the creation of the Medibank universal health care system, the introduction of no-fault divorce legislation, and the abolition of fees for tertiary education.
Whitlam emphasised the long-established principle of the Westminster system that as long as a government has a majority in the lower house it is entitled to stay in office and serve its full term.
Fraser and Whitlam have not kept up any enmity and are reconciled to the point where they have, on occasion, spoken jointly on political issues such as the referendum of 1999 as to whether Australia should become a republic.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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